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Multimedia design


Multimedia design emphasizes that the computer is the center, because multimedia design is based on computer technology; the organic combination of various media means that media and media are With internal logical connection, interactivity is one of the characteristics of multimedia art design. Without interactivity, there is no "multimedia" design.

Its biggest feature is interactivity. Interactivity is actually the participation of users to a certain extent. From another perspective, multimedia is a high-tech work of art that is jointly realized through the participation of hardware, software, designers, and users.

Design features

Form features

Visual communication in multimedia designForm features

Multimedia is the communication of information content through eye-catching visual elements. In order to maximize the visual communication function of information transmission and make it a truly readable and novel medium, multimedia design must adapt to people's visual flow. The psychological and physical characteristics of the visual system determine the relationship and order between various visual components. Any multimedia design must seek change in unity, seek unity in change, break the usual rules of visual communication, and use visual changes to guide the transmission of information. At the same time, it should also meet the needs of visual aesthetics, so that the elements are relatively stable and balanced visually.


Characteristics of visual communication

1. Guidance of visual communication

The visual process Formation is determined by human natural physiological characteristics. Under normal circumstances, due to physiological reasons, people always follow a certain rule when they understand visual language. When people read a certain kind of information, there is always a natural flow habit of vision, such as the order of visual browsing. The visual process often reflects a more obvious sense of direction, so that the movement trend of the entire picture has a main theme. In "Point·Line·Surface", Kandinsky believes that the difference between a point and a line is "the point itself has only tension and cannot be directional, so the line must have both tension and direction" [1] (P150). Here, what we need to understand is: as the visual process itself is guided by certain elements. For example, the directional nature of the line itself can convey a certain directionality to the visual information. Therefore, the visual influence of the plane in the "best horizon" in the conventional vision will also be guided by the visual communication symbols, and the situation will change.

In the design of multimedia, designers should flexibly and rationally use visual processes and optimal horizons while catering to the public, and organize smooth visual guidance, which directly affects the communication of information by communicators Accuracy and effectiveness. Attention should be paid to some important information, such as themes and the latest information. At the same time, it should be based on the public's psychology to locate the position that conforms to people's visual habits, and visually guide people to understand the information.

2. Interactivity in visual communication

The purpose of visual communication design is to convey information, but it cannot be separated from the media. "The relationship between media and visual communication design is interactive. The media not only embodies the design, but also brings limitations to the design; design is not only restricted by the media, but also one of the driving forces generated by the new media." In view of the extensiveness of information exchange, the past newspapers, radio and television have shown a single limitation in visual communication. Therefore, in the design of multimedia, we must not only follow the rules of the beauty of form, but also grasp the user's five senses, making multimedia design a new medium that is more suitable for humans to collect information.

The interactive design of visual communication provides a cohesive force of cultural innovation. Many different users are condensed through the form of multimedia, which is more expressive, more personalized, more interactive and more effective. Sense of responsibility. The interactivity in visual communication in multimedia design will help meet the growing demand for more personalized information, such as making beautiful interface design into the form that users expect, satisfying user participation, or fulfilling a certain desire , Needs, goals and capabilities.

3. The essential characteristics of "humanity"

In the process of design, the design purpose of "people-oriented" is always emphasized. Since the users and designers of multimedia design are both human beings, in multimedia design, visual communication design must not only meet the physical and psychological needs of people, but also meet the material and spiritual needs. We know that today people face the rapid development of technology and economy, and they are under psychological and spiritual pressure, so when they face the screen, they must "communicate" with them in novel ways of communication. For example, in terms of visual communication on the multimedia interface, it is necessary to establish a mode of human-computer interaction. A high-quality interface will make people walk happily, which will help promote the disappearance of the difference between the two worlds and change at the same time. The type of connection between these two worlds. Perhaps computers will never achieve true interaction, but the novel visual design will make the communication between people and the media more compatible, complete, easy to operate, dynamic and interesting. The essential characteristics of "humanized" visual communication design just synthesize the guiding and interactive nature of visual communication.

Ecological combination

The ecological combination of visual form beauty and content communication

In multimedia design, visual communication follows the process of formal beauty In this process, the use of visual language to guide the delivery of content is a coordinated process, but often visual abundance does not necessarily promote the delivery of information better. First of all, in terms of form, the law of formal beauty is used to coordinate and process the relationship between various visual elements; secondly, in visual communication, the perfection and harmony of form also need the guidance of visual information transmission; secondly, it combines the characteristics of visual communication , So that multimedia design can better reflect the "humanized" design of human-computer interaction. Highlight the purpose of multimedia design, so that visual communication in multimedia design will give users more care and services in terms of form and content.

As a new discipline, multimedia design is still very young in time, but it has integrated the characteristics of various designs and has its own unique field. Moreover, in modern life, it gives people Communication and information acquisition provide more considerate services. Although the application of visual communication design in multimedia design is extremely prominent, designers still need to absorb new things in new fields, understand new media, and achieve the perfect combination of visual language and new technology in design, and better Serve for information dissemination.

Design Essentials

Artistic level

The best multimedia design is transparent to the user. Its design goal is to create an environment for the user to forget that what he is facing is a machine, and is anxious to explore an unknown world. Therefore, even though publishers are rushing to market multimedia products, they still remember to use the advantages of technology to provide powerful interactive features and convert existing materials into CD-ROMs, because they know that no one wants to read one on a computer screen. Pile of text.

1. Functionalgraphic design

Functional design allows people to focus on the details, not just to see. Functional design is changeable, such as changing according to festivals. Usually when designing screens and images, adding dramatic lighting effects will harmonize the colors and present unique materials. A movement throughout the whole process will make users feel very smooth, and learn the content of multimedia products easily.

2. Storytelling and plot presentation

The key to designing multimedia products is to have a story first. Before you decide how to tell a story, you must first know what levels to overcome, such as information, emotions, and feelings. Multimedia is a very visual way of communication. Therefore, in multimedia production companies, young programmers should be involved in the production of images and movies as apprentices. Think about your favorite movie, whether the protagonist’s face still appears in front of you. An experienced film director or photographer knows how to combine art and technology to tell a story, not to mention the same as a multimedia designer.

Technical level

Technical design essentials

Multimedia designers usually overestimate the importance of programming in multimedia projects Sex, because frankly speaking, programming is just a tireless, unnatural and unartistic job. However, if the performance of the program design is too poor, no matter how good the graphic design is, it will lose its due effect. A video clip that is extremely beautifying, if it crashes during execution, will definitely destroy the user's overall viewing impression. From another point of view, even if the program design is simple and clear, it is worthwhile for an unpretentious graphic to be presented smoothly because of the perfect combination of the program and the sound.

1. Good programming

Good programming represents smooth operation and quick response, and it is also the inevitable result of economic programming coding. Concise and powerful is still the best strategy for program design.

2. High-quality audio

The sound should be clear, continuous and not jittery. To achieve this goal, the sound clips should be optimally processed according to the highest frequency allowed by the product's target platform and media development software. Most multimedia production tools and target computer platforms support audio tracks of 22 kHz or higher, and you should consider this as the minimum. [22 kHz is only equal to the frequency of AM broadcast signals; as for CD-quality sound, it is 44 kHz. 〕

The audio quality of multimedia products is often degraded at the source. So when you are recording, you need to pay attention to the collected sound quality. In other words, use the best equipment available to you.

High-quality video

The video should be of clear quality and play smoothly. On today's computers, movies are usually designed to be played in a window smaller than the full screen. The larger the window, the greater the computer's power, speed, and smooth and correct synchronization of movies with audio tracks, and the more disk space it needs.

Playing a smooth movie in a small window is much better than a large window that squeezes the CPU and causes a crash. In addition, low-load [for CPU] movies and animations are most suitable for playing on a variety of computer platforms. Full-screen (resolution 640X480 pixels), fully dynamic (30 frames per second) movies will soon become popular as more people have more powerful computers. Currently the most commonly used movie window sizes are 160X120 and 320X240 pixels.

Design process

The multimedia design process includes three steps: information design, interactive design and visual performance design.

In the process of information design, it is necessary to define the scope of the product and the nature of the audience, plan the main items of the product production plan, and express the content of the product with a flowchart.

In the process of interactive design, it is necessary to use a storyboard to show the navigation mode, interactive form, and user control method of browsing content.

In the process of visual performance design, the style and graphic layout design of various media elements in the storyboard must be presented in the form of product prototypes.

The above three design steps will be explained in detail in each subsequent lecture.

Design combination

Picture composition

Since most multimedia courseware are displayed on the computer screen or large screen projector, the aspect ratio of the courseware is basically Consistent with the ratio of 3:4. There are also requirements for the size of the subtitles, especially for designing presentation-type courseware. The text should not be too small and the strokes should not be too thin, otherwise it is not clear from a distance.

General composition is to put the theme of the picture in the center, but this is not the only choice. Divide the screen into three rows and three columns equally, that is, divide the screen into nine blocks. Generally, the upper horizontal line is the position of the eyes of the character, the lower horizontal line is the position of the horizon, and the two intersections of the upper horizontal line and the vertical line can be regarded as the vanishing point of perspective. This kind of composition will appear to be relatively stable in the production of courseware, and it is also of reference value for the position of the text title.

The diagonal line and other lines can produce a three-dimensional effect. The change of lines can also produce other effects: vertical lines give people a clear, sure, strong feeling; curved lines are used to express soft and elegant; horizontal lines give people a sense of stability.

From the perspective of content elements (title, text, slogan, etc.), the location or area of ​​these elements should be adapted to the style and habits of the entire courseware, while the styling elements (logos, text icons, illustrations, etc.) , Animation, video images, selection buttons, etc.) should be considered to highlight themes, secondary factors obey the main factors. The design of the button is diversified, for example, the design for children can be cartoonized, but it must always be matched with the theme.

Treatment of light

General text or graphic images do not have too many requirements for light, just express it clearly. However, in some occasions, images, especially video images, have very high requirements for this. Today, when video images are increasingly used, it is extremely necessary to raise this issue for research. From the perspective of styling needs, the main light, auxiliary light, ambient light, effect light, modification light, light source effect light, and mood effect light can be used respectively. According to different objects in the work, front light, side light, back light, top light and foot light are used respectively. Different environments use direct light, scattered light, high color temperature light or low color temperature light.

Characters are expressed in full-body movements in the distant view and panorama. As long as the whole body movements of the characters are clearly expressed in the light processing, it is enough. The middle shot focuses on the performance of the characters' movements, and part of the environment can be seen. In light processing, the focus is to show the characters' upper body movements, postures and spatial relationships, and use tones and tones to highlight the characters in the picture. Close-up close-ups mainly show the part of the character, that is, the character's face and body parts. The environment has lost its characteristics and only serves as a background to the subject in the picture. Therefore, light processing is mainly to portray portraits of people, and work hard to shape the appearance, highlighting those that conform to the characteristics of the characters, and correcting, reforming or covering up certain defects as much as possible.

The color of multimedia

As multimedia, the color adjustment technology mainly adjusts the brightness to obtain the corresponding color brightness; adjusts the hue to obtain the largest feature of the color, that is, the different appearance of the color; Adjust the saturation to obtain vivid or dim colors.

With regard to color, whether as the subject or background of multimedia, it can express emotions. When expressing a certain theme, consider which color is more able to set off, modify, support the theme and cause resonance.

1. Red: Red is the most eye-catching color and has a strong penetrating power. Red is the color of celebration, love, struggle, positiveness, and the most powerful. In 1804, Napoleon himself and Empress Josephine wore red clothes at the coronation ceremony of the emperor and empress in Notre Dame de Paris in 1804. Another example is when a lover presents a red rose. Different reds have different meanings. For example, red (vermillion) with a yellow flavor gives people a feeling of physical warmth and love. This is not only a color of sex, but also a color of maternal love. Red with blue flavor (cold red) often shows a kind of spiritual love and a sense of worship.

2. Orange: Orange is the most brilliant, vibrant, and vibrant color. When orange has a red taste, it has higher heat and energy, and is the color that expresses the sun's rays. Orange is as positive as red. It gives people a warm, cordial, cheerful and lively feeling, and is an indispensable color for wedding events. The other side of the same orange is a hypocritical color, because orange is second only to red, prone to jealousy.

3. Yellow: Yellow is the brightest color, representing a bright, bright-emitting substance, and yellow is the most noble color. Yellow has a kind of inspiration, enthusiasm, full of energy, it makes people feel happy, kind, lively, development, wisdom, and hope. Yellow has a strong sense of movement, as if it rushes towards the head and spreads in all directions. Looking at yellow for a long time can make people feel upset. Yellow is eye-catching, but too dazzling, with a warning and a sense of danger, such as warning signs for road traffic signs, and referees showing yellow cards to warn. Yellow is a sacred, religious and superstitious color. In China's feudal society, yellow was the emperor's exclusive color. Yellow is the color of sex, with a shameless personality. The faded yellow color expresses suspicion, betrayal, suspicion, distrust and lack of reason, and is the color of traitors. Whoever has unsaturated yellow on the oil painting "The Last Supper" is a traitor.

4. Green: Green has a calm, serene, and fulfilling character. Green represents life and growth and is the color of the plant kingdom. Since green is in the middle of the visible spectrum, green is the most acceptable to vision. Watching green makes the vision most comfortable. Green does not represent happiness or sadness. There is no passion, and it will produce a sense of boredom over time. Green represents hope, peace, wisdom and loyalty. In modern times, green also represents tourism. When the purity of the green is reduced and contains a certain amount of gray, the green shows a feeling of sad decline. When green contains a certain amount of yellow, it has a youthful color. Green against an orange background can gain strength, but it is easy to transform into a crude and vulgar performance. Green often represents the middle class in art, not enterprising and narrow-minded.

5. Blue: Blue is always the opposite of red. Blue is negative; blue feels cold; blue is a shrinking color. When blue is saturated and brighter, blue becomes the most active color. In the spiritual world, blue is the cleanest and cleanest color. Blue has infinite associations. Blue is a typical sky color, giving people the feeling of vastness, tranquility, vastness and profoundness. Blue always has a feeling of shadow, tends to dark forces, is the color of death, and has an unpredictable nature.

6. Cyan: Cyan is a kind of blue, and most of the characteristics of blue are cyan. Cyan tends to be brighter, and blue tends to be dark. In the spiritual world, cyan is more active and noble than blue. Cyan represents honesty, uprightness, nobility, and integrity.

7. Purple: Purple is a mysterious color and is often used to express the mysterious relationship between men and women. Purple has a beautiful, noble, magnificent, and extraordinary sense of nobility. Purple is the extreme of fiery red. As the saying goes, "red and purple", it shows the nature of purple. Purple is a dull, miserable, and unlucky color. Purple is a threatening and terrifying color. Purple is a lonely color, with a dedication spirit, and can express divine love.

8. White: White is the brightest and purest color. White cannot tolerate other colors. Any bit of color will be clearly exposed on white. White is pure, pure, fair, terrifying, dead and timid. White has an infinite sense of stillness. The color in the hospital is white, giving the patient a feeling of quiet and peacefulness, but also a feeling of depression.

9. Black: Black represents dignity, solemnity, power, decency, and non-frivolity. Black is the color of silence, just like the silence in the night. Black is the color of sadness, despair, horror, and death. Funerals cannot be done without black. Black is also a manifestation of evil. The underworld, the evil forces, and the bad guys are all expressed in black, so black is the expression of the dark forces, and it is also the color of ghosts.

10. Gray: Gray is the color between black and white. It can coexist peacefully with various colors and form a harmonious tone, so it exhibits an ordinary and gentle characteristic. Among all colors, gray has neither brilliance or dazzling light nor cold aura. It is a neutral, sincere, and gentle attitude. When the gray moves closer to the white, it starts to be bright, showing the brilliance of silver, with a certain sense of nobility, subtle and elegant. When it moved closer to the black, its nature disappeared, showing a messy, fuzzy ignorance and darkness.

Shooting of images and video images

The shooting position and shooting direction of images and video images are very important. Frontal shooting refers to the shooting of the subject completely frontally. It is conducive to express the front features of the subject, and fully display the horizontal lines of the subject on the screen. The picture appears solemn and majestic, solemn and solemn, suitable for expressing a solemn and majestic atmosphere. The disadvantage is that the perspective is poor and the picture is dull, which is not conducive to the expression of three-dimensional and spatial feeling.

Side shooting refers to shooting in a direction at a 90° angle to the front of the subject. Shooting in the front side direction is conducive to the performance of the side features of the subject, and the contour lines of the subject can be displayed very clearly. Front and side shooting is prone to produce horizontal lines parallel to the edge of the screen, so it is not conducive to expressing three-dimensional space. Oblique side shooting refers to shooting in various directions from slightly side of the subject to close to the front side. Its composition is more vivid and lively. There are many shooting points for oblique side shooting, and the composition of the picture can also be changed in various ways, which can make the horizontal line of the subject change into an oblique line on the screen, and the object has obvious perspective changes in form, which is conducive to expressing a deep sense of space and three-dimensionality. Sense.

Backside shooting refers to shooting from the back of the subject. The things in the background are the things that the subject pays attention to, which is convenient to inspire the audience's associations and show the inner activities of the characters.

Generally, when designers want to express scenes above the horizon line, they usually use the low shooting point's elevation height, on the contrary, the high shooting point's overhead angle; When viewing a consistent scene, a horizontal shooting angle at the same height as the eye level is often used.

Flat shooting refers to shooting at the same horizontal line as the subject. The subject in the picture is not easily deformed when shooting in flat mode, and the picture is flat and boring. Upward shooting refers to shooting below the horizontal line of the subject and upwards below the subject. Top-down shooting refers to shooting downwards above the horizontal line of the subject and higher than the subject. "Overhead shot" and "upside down shot", one focuses on realism and the other focuses on freehand brushwork.

The control of shooting distance can also express the effect: the distant view is the effect of shooting from the distance of the subject. The vision is generally based on nature as the object of expression. When conceiving the vision of the vision, it is necessary to focus on the big picture, mainly introducing the environment and expressing the momentum. The panorama is used for the purpose of expressing the whole picture of a certain subject and the environment in which it is located. Panorama has a relatively clear content center, which can express a certain momentum and scale. The middle shot is the result of shooting at a relatively close distance. Middle shots often win with action plots. Close shots are taken at a closer distance than the mid shots. The main content of the close shots is the rich expressions of the faces of the characters and the detailed structure of the shapes of the objects. Close-ups are used to reveal the internal features of the subject from the subtleties. Close-up is to fill a certain part of the subject into the picture, focusing on revealing the inner dynamics, and understanding the essence through details. Close-up pictures are often full of meaning and lyricism, and the effect is more subtle.

Montage and Shot Editing

Montage is the art of editing video footage, that is, the art of combining pictures. Each shot has its own performance content, which can explain a certain meaning . The combination of two lenses will produce one effect, and the combination of different lenses will produce different effects. Montage is to find the most suitable lens assembly method by studying various effects, so that it conforms to the audience's habits, and stimulates the audience's resonance and association.

In terms of video lens assembly skills, the principle of lens assembly should be followed, that is, the principle of conforming to the law of life, the principle of conforming to the law of thinking, the principle of similarity, and the principle of dynamic and static. Principle.

For the determination of lens length, the length of the lens should be determined by different scenes, the length of the lens should be determined by the "narrative standard", and the length of the lens should be determined by the speed of the rhythm.

There are many techniques for segmentation and intermittent screens. Scene transition techniques include two-dimensional special techniques, such as transforming, swiping, and switching. Three-dimensional special effects, such as water ripples. A better non-linear editing system can quickly generate or replay two-dimensional or three-dimensional special effects without generating them. "Transformation" means "fade in and fade out". "Transformation" is usually used to mean the passage of time, shortening time, and the process of events. "Hua" is also used to connect back narrative passages such as memories and imaginations, and to connect different times and spaces.

Multimedia sound and music

Sound and background music are organic components of multimedia, and their essence is to create scenes with music or sound. Only by integrating background music with multimedia themes can the work be perfectly expressed. Under normal circumstances, the background music of the multimedia is matched by selection, of course, you can also compose your own music. How to choose or make a suitable background music? First of all, we must study the characteristics of the music image that the content expressed by the multimedia will shape. For example, is the work written for children or for college students? Or does the work express joy or sorrow? Both should have different musical expressions.

The choice of instrument helps express different themes. For example, the piano has a wide range, loud pronunciation, beautiful timbre, rich harmony, and easy control of strength; violin has perfect timbre and rich expressiveness; different instruments have different expressions.

Music, like painting, sculpture, and architecture, creates images that can be felt. It uses sound to shape in time. The reason why music affects people's mood more quickly and more strongly than other arts is that people do not rely on reading paper symbols to understand the composer's intentions, but mainly rely on listening to the music displayed by the performance to understand and feel.

Dubbing into the picture can strengthen the sense of reality and make the visual image on the picture closer to the reality of life: the sound can explain the plot, and can use the sound to express the action and represent the action. For example, although there is no train in the picture, according to the voice-over, it can be seen that the train is coming fast. Another example is an irritating scene that is not suitable for direct presentation of the picture. It can also be expressed with the help of sound. Sound can play a structural function and act as a bridge to make the picture smoothly connected. By rendering the sound and portraying the psychological state of the characters, It helps to set off the atmosphere of the environment and make the still picture alive.

Realistic sound includes effects, language lines and music. The effect can make people immersive and enhance the expressive power of the picture; language lines are used to express thoughts and exchange feelings, and music is mainly used to exaggerate the atmosphere and express feelings.

Some other sounds are not completely faithful reproduction of the sounds in life, but have undergone various degrees of artistic exaggeration, used to portray the inner activities of the characters, enrich the image of the picture, or the thought content contained in the picture Make artistic interpretations. This kind of subjectively processed sounds beyond the scope of realistic sounds are "subjective sounds". Narrations that express the inner thoughts, memories, hallucinations, and dreams of the characters, the commentaries in the multimedia, and the background music purely used to describe the artistic conception are all typical subjective sounds.

The combination of sound and picture means that the visual image and the auditory image are exactly the same. Whatever sound source is on the screen, whatever sound is made. If the screen is a fierce football match, there will be a sound effect of cheering and shouting. The combination of sound and picture should be based on the picture, supplemented by the sound, and use the sound to increase the expressiveness of the picture and supplement the incompleteness of the picture. Therefore, there is a question of whether the sound is properly assisted. Avoid blindly stacking sounds. When the picture itself has been fully explained, if the sound is added superfluously, or the effect of the sound is overwhelming, it will not only not increase the expressive power of the picture, but it will dilute the appeal due to mutual restraint.

Multimedia display time

For multimedia designed for teaching, the display time will directly affect the teaching effect. If the time is too long, the students will have no patience and the excitement of learning will decrease; if the time is too short, the students will not remember it. Therefore, the length of the playback time is determined by calculation. The best time choice would be such a process: the student has accepted the current information, a few seconds before the impatient will appear, the playback of this page ends, and the next episode of information appears on the screen. This can continue to maintain the inertia of learning. In addition to the acceptance time of ordinary people, the measurement and calculation also need to look at the level and structure of the object.

The expected value of interactivity

Different from multiple media, multimedia has the characteristics of interaction. Once the user’s human-computer dialogue causes text (including scores), animation, color, sound and music to appear on the screen, the reward that is obtained, that is, the expected value, will directly affect the user’s own excitement, curiosity, desire to conquer, and The persistence of learning determines the continued interest in the course to a certain extent. Properly designing the corresponding expectations will effectively arouse the enthusiasm of the learners and obtain better teaching results.

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