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Inducement



Introduction

Incentivesarestimuliorsituationsthatcancauseanimalsandpeopletoperformactivities.Usuallytheinternalcausethatdirectlypromotesthebehavioriscalledthemotivation,andtheexternalcausethatarousesthebehavioriscalledtheinducement.Thestimulusorsituationthatcanmeettheneedsandcausetheorganism'stropismiscalledpositiveinducement,andthestimulusorsituationthathindersthesatisfactionofneedsandcausestheorganism'savoidanceactivityiscalledthenegativeinducement.

Inpsychology,inducementanddrivearebothindispensableforcesthatdeterminethemotivationofactivities.Itinducestheproductionofactivities,andspecifiesthespecificobjectsoftheactivitiesandcausestheactualactivities.Duetothedevelopmentandcomplexityofhumanneeds,theincentivesthatcantriggerhumanactivitiesarealsoveryrichandcomplex.Somearerelatedtothesatisfactionofhumanmaterialneeds,andsomearerelatedtothesatisfactionofhumanspiritualneeds.Theformercanbecalledamaterialinducement,andthelattercanbecalledaspiritualinducement.Thescores,commendations,andawardsinschoolsareallimportantincentivesineducation.

Origin

Theconceptofinducementoriginatedfromthestudyofmotivationbypsychologistsinthe1950s.Atthebeginning,psychologistsemphasizedmoretheroleofinternaldriveintheactivitiesoforganisms.Later,peoplegraduallydiscoveredthatexternalinducementsarealsoveryimportantinarousal.Theincentivetheoryholdsthatorganismsalwaysseekadvantagesandavoiddisadvantages,pursuepositiveincentives,andavoidnegativeincentives.Forthirstyanimals,waterisapositiveinducement;forsexuallyimpulsiveanimals,theoppositesexisapositiveinducement.Objectsorsituationsthatcausepainarenegativetriggers.

Function

Inductionhasadualfunction:

①Itcanawakentheorganismandtransformtheinternaldriveinthesubconsciousstateintotheinternaldriveintheconsciousstate;

②Itguidesthebehavioroftheorganismtowardorawayfromtheinducement.

Incentivetheoryisusuallyusedtoexplainwhysomepeoplegoonthepathofcrime.Forexample,whenaworkergoestoworkinthefinanceroom,ithappensthatthefinancepersonisnotthere,andthedrawerwherethemoneyisstoredisnotlocked.Thesetwoincentiveswillarousesomeunreasonablethoughtsoftheworker,thinkingthathemaynotbediscoveredbyothers,andhehasgainedmoney.Theobjectiveconditionsdrovethisworkertotakeawaythewagesofalltheemployeesinthefactory.Therearealsosomecasesthatshowthatinducementsplayanimportantroleinthegenerationofcriminalmotives.

Incentivesandmotivations,needs

Inmotivation,needsandincentivesarecloselyrelated.Needsarerelativelyinternalandconcealed,whicharetheinternalreasonsthatgoverntheactionsoftheorganism;theinducementistheexternalstimulusassociatedwiththeneeds,whichattractstheactivitiesoftheorganismandmakesitpossibletosatisfytheneeds.Whenthebodyreachesacertaingoalandmeetsthecorrespondingneeds,itwillreducethecorrespondingmotivationandmakethebodyinarelativelyinactivestate.Therefore,withouttheneed,therewillbenobehavioralgoal;onthecontrary,withoutthebehavioralgoalorinducement,therewillbenospecificneed.Inreallife,humanbehavioroftendependsontheinteractionofneedsandincentives.

Motivationiscomposedofneedsandincentives.Therefore,thestrengthorpowerofmotivationdependsonboththenatureoftheneedandthesizeoftheinducingpower.Experimentsshowthatthestrengthofmotivationcausedbyincentivesdependsonthedistancetheindividualreachesthegoal.Ifthedistanceistoolarge,themotivationaleffectontheactivitywillbeverysmall.Peoplehaveidealsandambitions,andtheirmotivesnotonlygoverntheirbehaviortowardsshort-termgoals,butcanalsopointtolong-termgoals.Therefore,spatiallyadjacenttargetsmaynothavethegreateststimulatingeffect.Thesocialsignificanceofmotivationisalsodirectlyrelatedtothepowerofmotivation.Achievementtheorytellsusthatinadditiontothevalueofthegoal,theindividual'sestimationorexpectationoftheprobabilityofachievingthegoalisalsoofgreatsignificance.

IncentiveTheory

Sincethe1950s,manypsychologistsbelievethatthemotivationaltheoryofreduceddrivecannotbeusedtoexplainallbehaviors.Externalstimuli(inductions)arearousingbehavior.Timealsoplaysanimportantrole,andtheinteractionbetweenstimuliandthespecificphysiologicalstateoftheorganismshouldbeusedtoillustratemotivation.Forexample,whenafullanimalseesanotheranimaleating,itwillre-eatingfood.Atthistime,themotivationiscausedbystimulation.Humansoftenpursuestimulationinsteadoftryingtoeliminatetensionandrestorebalancetothebody.

TheincentivetheorywasputforwardbyHull.Hepointedoutthatinducementisastimulusthatcanmeettheneedsofanindividual,whichinspiresorinducesanindividualtomovetowardagoal.Emphasizestheimportantroleofexternalstimuliininducingmotivation,andbelievesthatincentivescanevokebehaviorandguidebehavior.Incentivetheoryemphasizestheexternalreasonsofmotivation,whichisobviouslydifferentfromthedrivetheoryemphasizestheinternalreasonsofmotivation.Thetheoryemphasizestheeffectofexternalenvironmentontriggeringbehavior.Theattractivestimulithatpeoplewantcanbecalledincentives,andtherearepositiveandnegativepoints.

Formula:P(behavioralpotential)=D(drive)×H(intensityofhabit)×K(incentive).

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