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Military geography



Militarygeographycanbedividedintotheoreticalmilitarygeographyandappliedmilitarygeographyaccordingtodifferentresearchobjectsandscopes.Theoreticalmilitarygeographyisadisciplinethatstudiesthegenerallawsoftherelationshipbetweenmilitaryandgeography,alsoknownasgeneralmilitarygeography.Mainlystudythehistoricaldevelopmentofmilitarygeography,researchobjects,tasks,methodsanddisciplinesystem;researchandexplorethegenerallawsoftheinfluenceofthegeographicalenvironmentonnationaldefenseconstructionandmilitaryoperations;researchandrevealthegeneralprinciplesandprinciplesofmilitarygeographicsupportandmilitarygeographicdatacompilationMethodsetc.Itspurposeistoreveal,understand,utilizeandtransformthelawsofthegeographicalenvironment,andprovidetheoreticalbasisforguidingmilitaryoperationsandmilitarygeographicalresearch.Appliedmilitarygeographyreferstoadisciplinethatstudiestherelationshipbetweenmilitaryapplicationsandgeographyaroundspecificmilitarypurposes.Includingthematicmilitarygeographyandregionalmilitarygeography.Adisciplinethatstudiestherelationshipbetweenspecificmilitaryoperationsandthegeographicalenvironmentaccordingtotheneedsofacertainservice,arms,ormilitaryfunctionaldepartment.Themainsub-disciplinesare:①StrategicGeography.Study,planandguidetherelationshipbetweentheoverallsituationofthewarandthegeographicalenvironment,andprovideageographicalbasisforanalyzingthesituationandcharacteristicsofthewar,drawingupstrategicpoliciesandplans,preparingforwarandconductingoperations.②Battlegeography.Adisciplinethatstudiestherelationshipbetweencampaignactivitiesandthegeographicalenvironment.Itstaskistorevealtheinfluenceofregionalgeographicenvironmentoncampaignactivities,aswellasthelawsofrecognizing,using,andtransforminggeographicconditionsincampaignactivities,soastoprovideageographicbasisforthecombatcorpstoprepareforthecampaignandguidetheimplementationofthecampaign.③Tacticalgeography.Thedisciplinethatstudiestherelationshipbetweencombatoperationsandthegeographicenvironmentofthebattlefield.Itsmissionistoexplorethelawoftheuseofgeographicalconditionsincombatoperations,andtoprovideageographicalbasisforformulatingtacticsandorganizingandcommandingbattles.④Armygeography.Thestudyoftherelationshipbetweenland-basedcombatoperationsofthearmyandvariousarmsandthegeographicalenvironmentalsoinvolvesthegeographicalstudyofpartofthemarineandairoperations.⑤NavalGeography.Itstudiestherelationshipbetweennavalconstructionandmilitaryoperationsandgeography,andmainlystudiesthelawofinfluenceofthegeographicenvironmentoftheoceananditsadjacentlandonnavalconstructionandmilitaryoperations.⑥AirForceGeography.Tostudytherelationshipbetweenairforceconstructionandmilitaryoperationsandgeography,andmainlystudymilitarygeographyissuesinair-to-air,air-to-ground,andground-to-airoperationswithaviationasthemainbody.⑦Geographyofstrategicmissileforces.Adisciplinethatstudiestherelationshipbetweentheconstructionanduseofstrategicmissileforcesandthegeographicalenvironment.⑧Thegeographyofthearmedpoliceforce.Adisciplinethatstudiestherelationshipbetweentheconstructionofthearmedpoliceforceandmilitaryoperationsandthegeographicalenvironment,aswellasthelawofdevelopmentandchange.⑨Militarylogisticsgeography.Researchontherelationshipbetweenmilitaryrearservicesandgeography,focusingongeographicissuesinmilitaryrearcommand,materialsupport,transportation,technicalsupport,medicalandhealth,andrearbaseconstruction.⑩Militaryequipmentgeography.Adisciplinethatstudiestherelationshipbetweenthepracticalactivitiesofmilitaryequipmentandthegeographicalenvironment._Nuclear,chemicalandbiologicalweaponsprotectivegeography.Adisciplinethatstudiestherelationshipbetweennuclear,chemical,andbiologicalweaponsprotectionactivitiesandthegeographicalenvironment._MilitaryHydrogeography.Adisciplinethatstudiestherelationshipbetweenmilitaryoperationsandhydrogeography.Itsmissionistostudytheinfluenceofrivers,lakes,iceandsnow,shallowgroundwaterandoceansonmilitaryoperations,aswellasthelawoftheuseofhydrogeographicconditionsinthemilitary,soastoprovidescientificbasisfortheconstructionofnationaldefenseandmilitaryoperationsintermsofhydrologyandgeography._Militaryclimatology.Thestudyoftherelationshipbetweenmilitaryoperationsandclimate,andtheapplicationofclimatologytomilitaryservices.Itsmissionistostudyandsolvevariousclimateissuesraisedinmilitaryoperationsandnationaldefenseconstruction,andtoservethearmybuildingandimprovingthecombateffectivenessofthearmy._Historyandmilitarygeography.Thepurposeofstudyingtherelationshipbetweenmilitaryactivitiesandgeographyineachhistoricalperiodandthelawofdevelopmentandchangeistosummarizeexperienceandlessonsandprovidehistoricalreference._MilitaryEconomicGeography.Adisciplinethatstudiestherelationshipbetweenmilitaryeconomicactivitiesandthegeographicalenvironment.Itstaskistoexploretheinfluenceofgeographicenvironmentonmilitaryeconomicactivitiesandthelawsofusinggeographicconditionsinmilitaryeconomicactivities,soastoprovidescientificgeographicalbasisformilitaryeconomicactivitiesandmaterialguaranteeforwarsandmilitaryoperations.Thestudyoftherelationshipbetweentheconstructionofarmedforcesandmilitaryoperationsinacertainareaof​​theearth'ssurfaceandthegeographicalenvironment.Focusonthestudyofthelawofinfluenceofthegeographicenvironmentofthecountry,theaterandothermilitaryzonesonmilitaryactivities.Thepurposeoftheresearchistoprovideageographicalbasisforthedivisionofmilitaryregions,regionalmilitarygeographicenvironmentanalysis,warpreparationsandtheimplementationofcombatoperations.Mainlyinclude:nationalmilitarygeographythatstudiestherelationshipbetweennationaldefenseconstructionandmilitarystrugglesandthecountry'sgeographicenvironment;theatermilitarygeographythatstudiestherelationshipbetweenmilitaryoperationsandgeographicenvironmentsinapredeterminedorpresetcombatarea;frontiermilitarythatstudiestherelationshipbetweenbordermilitaryoperationsandgeographicenvironmentsGeographyetc.Thecontentofmilitarygeographyresearchinaregionusuallyincludes:①Geographicalsituation.Includingregionalcomposition,geographiclocation,scope,area,landandseaboundariesandtheirrelationshipwithsurroundingareas,geographicfeaturesandtheirstatusinpoliticalandmilitarystruggles.②Naturalgeographicalconditions.Itmainlyincludesthedistributionandcharacteristicsofnaturalgeographicelementssuchasgeomorphology,hydrology,climate,geology,soil,vegetation,andtheirimpactonmilitaryoperations.③Socialconditions.Includingsocialsystem,classrelations,domesticandforeignpolicies,ethnic,religiousanddemographicstatus,endemicdisease,etc.andtheirimpactonmilitaryactivities.④Economicconditions.Includingindustrialandagriculturalproductionstatusandlayout,nationaleconomicstructure,grossoutputvalueandpercapitaoutputvalue,strategicresources,etc.andtheirabilitytoguaranteeandsupportwar.⑤Transportation.Includingthedistributionandtransportationcapacityofrailways,highways,waterways,aviationlinesandpipelines,thedistributionandfacilitiesoftransportationhubs,ports,airports,etc.,andthedistributionandsupportcapabilitiesofcommunicationfacilities.⑥Importantmilitarysites.Thedistributionandgeographicalfeaturesofimportanttowns,militarybases,fortresses,islands,passes,andmilitaryfacilities.⑦Militarypower.Thecomposition,equipmentandquantityofthearmedforces,aswellasthestrengthandweaponconfiguration,etc.⑧Historicalbattleexamples.Thehistoricalsituationofmilitarystrugglesintheregionandtheuseofgeographicalconditionsforreference.⑨Evaluation.Itmainlyconcernstheprosandconsoftheregion’sgeographicenvironmentonmilitaryoperationsandthemeasurestobetaken.Militarygeographydrawsonthelawsandmethodsofwarguidanceandarmybuildingfromdisciplinessuchasstrategy,combatscience,tactics,militarysystems,militarycommand,andmilitarylogistics,asoneofthetheoreticalfoundationsformilitarygeographyresearch;Militarysurveyingandmapping,militarymeteorology,militaryhydrology,militaryengineeringgeologyandotherdisciplinesabsorbrelevantresearchresultstoprovidematerials,dataandresearchmethodsformilitarygeographyresearch.Atthesametime,militarygeographyalsoprovidesmilitarygeographytheoryandbasicknowledgefortheabove-mentioneddisciplines,andenrichesandperfectsitsresearchcontent.Militarygeographyoriginatedfromthepracticeofwarfare.Itisatheoreticalsummaryofunderstandingandusinggeographicconditionsinthemilitary.Ithasexperiencedthreedevelopmentperiodsinthelonghistoricalprocess.Fromancienttimestothemid-19thcentury,itwasaperiodofaccumulationofmilitarygeographyknowledge.Duetothelimitationofthelevelofweaponsandequipmentandthescopeofwar,theresearchcontentismainlyabouttheinfluenceandutilizationoflocalsurfacemorphologyoncombatoperations.ThemilitarygeographyresearchinearlyancientChinawasinaleadingpositionintheworldinmanyaspects.Accordingtotheliterature,themilitaryhistoryofthe7thcenturyBC,theMilitaryHistory,statedthat"thebenefitsoflosingtheland,thesoldiersbewildered,andthethreearmiesaredefeated.Hungryandfullofworkandrest,thelandisthetreasure"(Tang"TongDian·BingDian").IntheSpringandAutumnPeriod,"SunTzu"explainedthepositionandroleofgeographicalconditionsinmilitarystrugglesinmorechapters,anddiscussedtheprinciplesofmilitaryuseunderdifferentgeographicalconditions,whichwasregardedasthebeginningofmilitarygeography.SomemilitarybooksoftheWarringStatesandsubsequentperiodshaverecordedthetacticsofwaterwarfare,valleywarfare,andforestwarfareinwaters,valleys,andforestsinvarioushistoricalperiods,aswellastheuseofdifferentarmssuchaschariots,cavalry,andinfantryinwartime.Theprincipleofgeographicalconditions.ItsproutedintheSpringandAutumnPeriodandprevailedinthelocalchroniclesoftheTang,Song,Ming,andQingDynastiesandsomemilitarysecretbooks.Geographicalworksdescribingthecountryoracertainregionrelatedtomilitaryactivitieshavealsoemerged.Forexample,LiJifu's"PicturesofYuanhePrefecturesandCounties"intheTangDynasty,"SoutheastDefenseandFacilitation"byLuZhiintheSouthernSongDynasty,"NineSidesofMaps"byHuoJiintheMingDynasty,ZhengRuozeng's"PicturesoftheSea",and"WuBei"byShiYongtuintheQingDynastyGeographicalLocation,LiPei's"GrayPaintingCollection",etc.Inadditiontomainlydiscussingtherelationshipbetweentheterrainandtheuseoftroopsinvariousregions,theseworksalsoexploredthelawofusinggeographicalconditionsinwartime.EspeciallyintheearlyQingdynastygeographerGuZuyu's"ReadingHistoryandFangyuMinutes"recordsmilitarygeographycontentsuchasthehistoricalevolutionofvariousplacesintheMingDynasty,thedangersofmountainsandrivers,andthegainsandlossesofmilitaryuseinpastdynasties.ItisthelargestandmostsystematicChinesehistoricalandmilitarygeographymasterpiece.Inthewarhistoryandmilitarytreatisesofothercountriesintheancientworld,therearealsomanyrecordsanddiscoursesontherelationshipbetweenwarandgeography.Forexample,G.J.Caesar's"WarofGaul"byG.J.CaesarinancientRomedescribesthesituationofmountainsandrivers,customs,andtheuseofgeographicalconditionsduringthewarthatCaesarencounteredduringhisbattlesinGaulfrom58BCto52BC.Inthe"OntheMilitary"writtenbyVegetiusattheendofthe4thcenturyandthebeginningofthe5thcentury,heproposedtheprinciplesoftheuseofcavalrytodefendtheplains,thenavytodefendtheseaandrivers,andtheinfantrytodefendhills,cities,plainsandsteepterrain.Inthe18thcentury,withthedevelopmentofscienceandtechnology,militaryorganizationandequipment,andtheuseoftacticssuchasguns,artillery,lineandcolumnincombat,theinfluenceofterrainconditionsoncombatoperationshasreceivedincreasingattentionfrommilitarystrategists.Forexample,PrussianJ.A.R.vonGravelt,BritishH.H.E.Lloydandothershaveputforwardtheviewthatcombathasagreatdependenceonterrain,andevenbelievethatfamiliaritywithterraincanaccuratelycalculatecombatoperationsjustlikelearninggeometry.Inthe1830s,withthedeepeningofwartheoryresearch,geographicsituationanalysisbecameanimportantcontentofstrategicresearch.C.vonClausewitzofPrussialistedgeographicelementsasoneofthestrategicelementsin"OnWar";A.-H.JominiofSwitzerlandlistedmilitarygeographicelementsin"IntroductiontotheArtofWar"Asoneofthemilitarypolicyfactors,aspecialsection"MilitaryStatisticsandMilitaryGeography"issetuptosummarizetheresearchobjectsofmilitarygeographyanditsstatusanddevelopmentinwar.Fromthemiddleofthe19thcenturytothefirsthalfofthe20thcentury,militarygeographydevelopedintoanindependentdisciplineandgraduallyimproveditsdisciplinesystem.Fromthemiddleofthe19thcenturytothebeginningofthe20thcentury,inordertomeettheneedsofmilitarytechnologyprogressandcombat,Russia,Italy,France,Germany,Britainandothercountrieshavesuccessivelyappearedmilitarygeographymonographs.Somemilitaryacademiessetmilitarygeographyasanimportantcourse.Itmarkedtheformalformationofmilitarygeographyasanindependentdiscipline.BeforeandafterWorldWarI,theseapowerschoolrepresentedbyA.T.MahanoftheUnitedStates,thelandpowerschoolrepresentedbyH.J.MackinderoftheUnitedKingdom,andtheairpowerschoolrepresentedbyG.DuheiofItalyemerged.Thesethreeschoolsofthoughtformedbasedontheideathatglobalstrategyisrestrictedtoacertaingeographicalenvironmentreflectthestrategicthinkingofaggressionandexpansionandcontendingforworldhegemony,andbecomethetheoreticalbasisofWesterngeopoliticsandstrategicresearchfromtheperspectiveofgeography.Thedevelopmentoflearninghadacertaininfluence.Atthesametime,K.Marx,F.EngelsandV.I.Leninalsostudiedanddiscussedtherelationshipbetweenpoliticalstruggle,militarystruggleandgeography.Forexample,inworkssuchas"PoandRhine"(1859),"Savoie,NiceandRhine"(1860),Engelsexplainedthe"militarygeographicsystem"and"militarygeographicsituation"inthepoliticalandmilitarystrugglesbetweencountries.ThestatusandroleofMarxandEngels'expositionsontherelationshipbetweenwarandproductivity,weaponsandequipment,combatoperationsandgeographicalconditionsexpandedthescopeofmilitarygeographyresearch.Inthefirsthalfofthe20thcentury,inthetwoworldwars,therewereworksonwargeographythatstudiedtherelationshipbetweenwarandgeography,nationaldefensegeographythatstudiedtherelationshipbetweennationaldefenseandgeography,andarmamentgeographythatstudiedtherelationshipbetweenarmamentsandgeography.Formedatheoreticalsystemthatdividesmilitarygeographyintogeneraltheoryandspecialtheory,orintogeneralmilitarygeography,specialmilitarygeography,andregionalmilitarygeography.Atthesametime,inordertomeettheoperationalneedsoftheland,sea,andtheairandunderwaterofvariousservicesandarmsinthevastspaceofland,sea,andunderwater,inthefieldofmilitarygeography,landwarfaregeography,navalwarfaregeography,Aircombatgeography.Withthechangesincombatstyles,theexpansionofthescaleofwars,thedevelopmentofweaponsandequipment,andthedeepeningofmilitarygeographyresearch,branchdisciplinessuchasstrategicgeography,militarylogisticsgeography,andmilitarymedicalgeographyhaveemergedoneafteranother,reflectingtheimportanceofmilitarygeography.Thedisciplinesystemhasbecomemoreperfect.ModernChinesemilitarygeographywasgraduallydevelopedintheplanningofcoastaldefenseandfrontierdefensebeforeandaftertheOpiumWarinordertoadapttothedevelopmentofmilitaryscienceandresisttheaggressionofWesternpowers.Avarietyofmilitarygeographyworksoncoastaldefenseandborderdefensehaveappearedsuccessively.Forexample,GuanTianpei's"TheFirstCollectionoftheSea"(1836),XuJiagan's"ABriefIntroductiontoForeignDefense"(1887),etc.,allhavemilitarygeographycontentsuchascoastalgeographicsituationandplanningforcoastaldefenseconstructionandtherelationshipbetweennavalforces;CaoTingjie's"NortheastFrontierDefense"Yao(1884),HeQiutao'sShuoFangBeicheng(1858),HuangPeiqiao'sTibetMaps(1886),etc.,allhavetheresearchcontentofthefrontiergeographicalsituationandtheconstructionofborderdefenseanddefendingtheenemybydanger.InJiangnan,HubeiandotherWubeischools,therearealsotopographycoursestoteachthebasictheoriesandknowledgeofmilitarytopography.DuringtheAnti-JapaneseWar,inordertoresisttheJapanesearmy'saggression,manybooksonmilitarygeographywerepublishedsuccessively,suchasYouFengchi's"ScienceoftheArmy",HuHuanyong's"NationalDefenseGeography"(1938)andsoon.TheChinesePeople'sLiberationArmycarriedoutmilitarygeographyresearchandmilitarytopographicalsurveyworkintheearlydaysofitsestablishment.MaoZedong's"WhyCanChina'sRedRegimeExist?""(1928),"StrategicIssuesoftheChineseRevolutionaryWar"(1936),"OnProtractedWar"(1938)andotherworks,aswellastextsandtelegramsonoperationalpoliciessuchastheBattleofLiaoshen,theBattleofHuaihai,theBattleofPing-Tianjin,andtheBattleofCrossingtheRiverInthisarticle,hehasmadeextremelyincisiveexpositionsontheconstructionofrevolutionarybaseareas,armedstruggle,andtherelationshipbetweenwars,campaigns,andgeography.Afterthemiddleofthe20thcentury,itisanewstageofmutualpenetrationandcommondevelopmentofmilitarygeographyandmodernscienceandtechnology,militaryacademia,andgeographicscience.Itsmaincharacteristicsandsignsare:inordertoadapttothechangesintheworld'sstrategicpatternandtheneedsofpoliticalandmilitarystruggles,militarygeographyresearchontheglobal,large-regionornationalscalehasemergedmoderngeopoliticsandstrategicgeographicresearchofsuperpowersandmilitarygroups.Works;withthedevelopmentofnuclearweaponsandlong-rangeweaponsandtheexplorationofouterspace,theresearchfieldofmilitarygeographyhasexpandedfromtheentireearthtoouterspace,andtherehasbeenaspecializationfocusingonthestudyofnuclearwarandgeographicalrelationsandspacemilitarygeography.Discussion:Withthedevelopmentofaerospace,remotesensing,andelectroniccomputertechnology,amultidisciplinaryintegratedmilitarygeographicinformationsystemhasemerged,whichhasbroughtthetheoreticalresearchandpracticalapplicationofmilitarygeographyintoanewstageofdevelopment.ThestudyofmodernChinesemilitarygeographyismainlyguidedbythestrategicpolicyofactivedefense,focusingonexploringtherelationshipbetweenmodernwarfareandgeography.SincethefoundingofthePeople’sRepublicofChina,undertheleadershipoftheCentralMilitaryCommission,theGeneralStaffHeadquarters,variousmilitaryregions,services,arms,andsomemilitaryscientificresearchunitsandmilitaryacademieshaveeffectivelycarriedoutmilitarygeographyresearch,teaching,andcompilationofmilitarygeographicdata..Sincethe1980s,theresearchworkofmilitarygeographyhasenteredaperiodofvigorousdevelopment.InApril1989,theMilitaryGeographySocietyoftheChinesePeople'sLiberationArmywasestablished.The"EncyclopediaofChinaMilitary"publishedin1989includedmilitarygeographyasadiscipline,with98itemsunderit,andinitiallyestablishedthedisciplinesystemofmilitarygeography.Duringthesameperiod,theGeneralStaffSurveyingandMappingBureauorganizedthecompilationof"MilitaryGeography",absorbingtheachievementsandmaterialsofancientandmodernChineseandforeignmilitarygeographyresearch,linkingChinaanditssurroundingareaswiththeworldmilitarygeographysituation,expoundingthetheoryandpracticalproblemsofmilitarygeography,anddrivingResearchonmilitarygeographycontinuestodeepen.The"ChineseMilitaryEncyclopedia"publishedin1997includedmilitarygeography,Chinesemilitarygeography,andworldmilitarygeographyasseparatedisciplines.Therewere956itemsintotal,whichfurtherimprovedthemilitarygeographydisciplinesystemandpromotedtheresearchofmilitarygeography.Anddevelopment.Atthesametime,alargenumberofmilitarygeographyworks,textbooksandessayshavebeenpublished,andthemilitarygeographydisciplinesystemhasbeenfurtherimprovedanddividedintotwoparts:theoreticalmilitarygeographyandappliedmilitarygeography.MilitarygeographyresearchhasenteredanewPeriodofdevelopment.Afterenteringthe21stcentury,therehavebeennewbreakthroughsinmilitarygeographyresearch.TheCentralMilitaryCommissiondecidedtocompilethesecondeditionofthe"EncyclopediaofChineseMilitaryAffairs".TheresearchofmilitarygeographyhasreceivedgreatattentionfromtheBureauofSurveyingandMappingoftheGeneralStaff,andorganizedmostexpertsinthefieldofmilitarygeographytosystematicallysummarizethenewachievementsofmilitarygeographyresearchinrecentyears.Afterthehardworkofexperts,abatchofmilitarygeographyworkssuchasthe"MilitaryGeographyTutorial"havebeenpublished,whichhasplayedanimportantroleinpromotingthedevelopmentofChina'smilitarygeographyandsupportingoperations,training,andnationaldefense.Withtheextensivemilitaryapplicationofmodernscienceandtechnology,aswellastheevolutionoftheworld’sstrategicpatternandtheimprovementofthestrategicpositionofoceansandouterspace,theresearchscopeofmilitarygeographyhascontinuedtoexpand.Theexpansionofthespacemilitaryenvironmentwillfurtherexpandtheresearchcontentofhumangeography,atmosphericphysics,andgeophysics,andfocusonthedevelopmentofjointcombatsupportrelatedcontent.Themilitarygeographytheoriesofvariousservicesandarmsandtheresearchresultsofmilitarygeographyatdifferentlevelswillcontinuetoenrichanddevelopthemilitarygeographydisciplinesystemtomakeitmoreperfect.Militarygeographicresearchmethodsandmeanswillfurthermodernizetheacquisition,storage,management,andapplicationmethodsofmilitarygeographicinformationandrealizeintegratedsupportduetothewidespreadapplicationofaerospace,remotesensing,andelectroniccomputertechnology.

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