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Géographie militaire



Militarygeographycanbedividedintotheoreticalmilitarygeographyandappliedmilitarygeographyaccordingtodifferentresearchobjectsandscopes.Theoreticalmilitarygeographyisadisciplinethatstudiesthegenerallawsoftherelationshipbetweenmilitaryandgeography, alsoknownasgeneralmilitarygeography.Mainlystudythehistoricaldevelopmentofmilitarygeography, researchobjects, tâches, methodsanddisciplinesystem, researchandexplorethegenerallawsoftheinfluenceofthegeographicalenvironmentonnationaldefenseconstructionandmilitaryoperations, researchandrevealthegeneralprinciplesandprinciplesofmilitarygeographicsupportandmilitarygeographicdatacompilationMethodsetc.Itspurposeistoreveal, COMPRENDRE utilizeandtransformthelawsofthegeographicalenvironment, andprovidetheoreticalbasisforguidingmilitaryoperationsandmilitarygeographicalresearch.Appliedmilitarygeographyreferstoadisciplinethatstudiestherelationshipbetweenmilitaryapplicationsandgeographyaroundspecificmilitarypurposes.Includingthematicmilitarygeographyandregionalmilitaryge ography.Adisciplinethatstudiestherelationshipbetweenspecificmilitaryoperationsandthegeographicalenvironmentaccordingtotheneedsofacertainservice, bras, ormilitaryfunctionaldepartment.Themainsub-disciplinesare: ①StrategicGeography.Study, planandguidetherelationshipbetweentheoverallsituationofthewarandthegeographicalenvironment, andprovideageographicalbasisforanalyzingthesituationandcharacteristicsofthewar, drawingupstrategicpoliciesandplans, preparingforwarandconductingoperations.②Battlegeography.Adisciplinethatstudiestherelationshipbetweencampaignactivitiesandthegeographicalenvironment.Itstaskistorevealtheinfluenceofregionalgeographicenvironmentoncampaignactivities, aswellasthelawsofrecognizing, en utilisant, andtransforminggeographicconditionsincampaignactivities, soastoprovideageographicbasisforthecombatcorpstoprepareforthecampaignandguidetheimplementationofthecampaign.③Tacticalgeography.Thedisciplinethatstudiestherelationshipbetweencombatoperationsandthegeographicenvironmentofthebattlefield.Itsmission istoexplorethelawoftheuseofgeographicalconditionsincombatoperations, andtoprovideageographicalbasisforformulatingtacticsandorganizingandcommandingbattles.④Armygeography.Thestudyoftherelationshipbetweenland-basedcombatoperationsofthearmyandvariousarmsandthegeographicalenvironmentalsoinvolvesthegeographicalstudyofpartofthemarineandairoperations.⑤NavalGeography.Itstudiestherelationshipbetweennavalconstructionandmilitaryoperationsandgeography, andmainlystudiesthelawofinfluenceofthegeographicenvironmentoftheoceananditsadjacentlandonnavalconstructionandmilitaryoperations.⑥AirForceGeography.Tostudytherelationshipbetweenairforceconstructionandmilitaryoperationsandgeography, andmainlystudymilitarygeographyissuesinair-air, air-sol, andground à airoperationswithaviationasthemainbody.⑦Geographyofstrategicmissileforces.Adisciplinethatstudiestherelationshipbetweentheconstructionanduseofstrategicmissileforcesandthegeographicalenvironment.⑧Thegeographyofthearmedpoliceforce.Adisciplinethatstudiest herelationshipbetweentheconstructionofthearmedpoliceforceandmilitaryoperationsandthegeographicalenvironment, aswellasthelawofdevelopmentandchange.⑨Militarylogisticsgeography.Researchontherelationshipbetweenmilitaryrearservicesandgeography, focusingongeographicissuesinmilitaryrearcommand, materialsupport, transport, assistancetechnique, medicalandhealth, andrearbaseconstruction.⑩Militaryequipmentgeography.Adisciplinethatstudiestherelationshipbetweenthepracticalactivitiesofmilitaryequipmentandthegeographicalenvironment._Nuclear, chemicalandbiologicalweaponsprotectivegeography.Adisciplinethatstudiestherelationshipbetweennuclear, chimique, andbiologicalweaponsprotectionactivitiesandthegeographicalenvironment._MilitaryHydrogeography.Adisciplinethatstudiestherelationshipbetweenmilitaryoperationsandhydrogeography.Itsmissionistostudytheinfluenceofrivers, lacs, iceandsnow, shallowgroundwaterandoceansonmilitaryoperations, aswellasthelawoftheuseofhydrogeographicconditionsinthemilitary, soastoprovidescientifi cbasisfortheconstructionofnationaldefenseandmilitaryoperationsintermsofhydrologyandgeography._Militaryclimatology.Thestudyoftherelationshipbetweenmilitaryoperationsandclimate, andtheapplicationofclimatologytomilitaryservices.Itsmissionistostudyandsolvevariousclimateissuesraisedinmilitaryoperationsandnationaldefenseconstruction, andtoservethearmybuildingandimprovingthecombateffectivenessofthearmy._Historyandmilitarygeography.Thepurposeofstudyingtherelationshipbetweenmilitaryactivitiesandgeographyineachhistoricalperiodandthelawofdevelopmentandchangeistosummarizeexperienceandlessonsandprovidehistoricalreference._MilitaryEconomicGeography.Adisciplinethatstudiestherelationshipbetweenmilitaryeconomicactivitiesandthegeographicalenvironment.Itstaskistoexploretheinfluenceofgeographicenvironmentonmilitaryeconomicactivitiesandthelawsofusinggeographicconditionsinmilitaryeconomicactivities, soastoprovidescientificgeographicalbasisformilitaryeconomicactivitiesandmaterialguaranteeforwarsandmilitaryopera tions.Thestudyoftherelationshipbetweentheconstructionofarmedforcesandmilitaryoperationsinacertainareaof theearth'ssurfaceandthegeographicalenvironment.Focusonthestudyofthelawofinfluenceofthegeographicenvironmentofthecountry, theaterandothermilitaryzonesonmilitaryactivities.Thepurposeoftheresearchistoprovideageographicalbasisforthedivisionofmilitaryregions, regionalmilitarygeographicenvironmentanalysis, warpreparationsandtheimplementationofcombatoperations.Mainlyinclude: nationalmilitarygeographythatstudiestherelationshipbetweennationaldefenseconstructionandmilitarystrugglesandthecountry'sgeographicenvironment; theatermilitarygeographythatstudiestherelationshipbetweenmilitaryoperationsandgeographicenvironmentsinapredeterminedorpresetcombatarea; frontiermilitarythatstudiestherelationshipbetweenbordermilitaryoperationsandgeographicenvironmentsGeographyetc.Thecontentofmilitarygeographyresearchinaregionusuallyincludes: ①Geographicalsituation.Includingregionalcomposition, EMPLACEMENTGEOGR, la portée, un REA, landandseaboundariesandtheirrelationshipwithsurroundingareas, geographicfeaturesandtheirstatusinpoliticalandmilitarystruggles.②Naturalgeographicalconditions.Itmainlyincludesthedistributionandcharacteristicsofnaturalgeographicelementssuchasgeomorphology, hydrologie, le climat, la géologie, le sol, la végétation, andtheirimpactonmilitaryoperations.③Socialconditions.Includingsocialsystem, classrelations, domesticandforeignpolicies, ethnique, religiousanddemographicstatus, endemicdisease, etc.andtheirimpactonmilitaryactivities.④Economicconditions.Includingindustrialandagriculturalproductionstatusandlayout, nationaleconomicstructure, grossoutputvalueandpercapitaoutputvalue, strategicresources, etc.etleurcapacitéàgarantiretsoutenirlaguerre.⑤Transport.Ycomprisladistributionetcapacitédetransportdesvoiesferroviaires,autoroutes,voies navigables,aviationlinesandpipelines,ladistributionetinstallationsdeshubsdetransport,ports,aéroports,etc.,etladistributionetsupportcapacitésdesinstallationsdecommunication. stributionandgeographicalfeaturesofimportanttowns, militarybases, forteresses, îles, passe, andmilitaryfacilities.⑦Militarypower.Thecomposition, equipmentandquantityofthearmedforces, aswellasthestrengthandweaponconfiguration, etc.⑧Historicalbattleexamples.Thehistoricalsituationofmilitarystrugglesintheregionandtheuseofgeographicalconditionsforreference.⑨Evaluation.Itmainlyconcernstheprosandconsoftheregion'sgeographicenvironmentonmilitaryoperationsandthemeasurestobetaken.Militarygeographydrawsonthelawsandmethodsofwarguidanceandarmybuildingfromdisciplinessuchasstrategy, combatscience, tactique, militarysystems, militarycommand, andmilitarylogistics, asoneofthetheoreticalfoundationsformilitarygeographyresearch, Militarysurveyingandmapping, militarymeteorology, L'hydrologie militaire, l'ingénierie militaire, la géologie et d'autres disciplines absorbent les résultats de recherche pertinents et fournissent des matériaux, des données et des méthodes de recherche pour la recherche en géographie militaire. theabove-mentioneddisciplines, andenrichesandperfectsitsresearchcontent.Militarygeographyoriginatedfromthepracticeofwarfare.Itisatheoreticalsummaryofunderstandingandusinggeographicconditionsinthemilitary.Ithasexperiencedthreedevelopmentperiodsinthelonghistoricalprocess.Fromancienttimestothemid-19ème siècle, itwasaperiodofaccumulationofmilitarygeographyknowledge.Duetothelimitationofthelevelofweaponsandequipmentandthescopeofwar, theresearchcontentismainlyabouttheinfluenceandutilizationoflocalsurfacemorphologyoncombatoperations.ThemilitarygeographyresearchinearlyancientChinawasinaleadingpositionintheworldinmanyaspects.Accordingtotheliterature, themilitaryhistoryofthe7thcenturyBC, theMilitaryHistory, statedthat "thebenefitsoflosingtheland, thesoldiersbewildered, andthethreearmiesaredefeated.Hungryandfullofworkandrest, thelandisthetreasure" (Tang "Tongdian · Bingdian") .Au printemps et à l'automne, « SunTzu » a expliqué la position et le rôle des conditions géographiques dans les luttes militaires dans plusieurs chapitres, et a discuté de la pri nciplesofmilitaryuseunderdifferentgeographicalconditions, whichwasregardedasthebeginningofmilitarygeography.SomemilitarybooksoftheWarringStatesandsubsequentperiodshaverecordedthetacticsofwaterwarfare, valleywarfare, andforestwarfareinwaters, vallées, andforestsinvarioushistoricalperiods, aswellastheuseofdifferentarmssuchaschariots, cavalerie, andinfantryinwartime.Theprincipleofgeographicalconditions.ItsproutedintheSpringandAutumnPeriodandprevailedinthelocalchroniclesoftheTang, Song, Ming, andQingDynastiesandsomemilitarysecretbooks.Geographicalworksdescribingthecountryoracertainregionrelatedtomilitaryactivitieshavealsoemerged.Forexample, "PicturesofYuanhePrefecturesandCounties" intheTangDynasty, "SoutheastDefenseandFacilitation" byLuZhiintheSouthernSongDynasty, "NineSidesofMaps" byHuoJiintheMingDynasty de LiJifu, Les « Images de la mer » de ZhengRuozeng et « WuBei » par ShiYongtu dans la situation géographique de la dynastie Qing, la « Collection de peintures grises », etc. de LiPei. troopsinvariousregions, theseworksalsoexploredthelawofusinggeographicalconditionsinwartime.EspeciallyintheearlyQingdynastygeographerGuZuyu de "ReadingHistoryandFangyuMinutes" recordsmilitarygeographycontentsuchasthehistoricalevolutionofvariousplacesintheMingDynasty, thedangersofmountainsandrivers, andthegainsandlossesofmilitaryuseinpastdynasties.ItisthelargestandmostsystematicChinesehistoricalandmilitarygeographymasterpiece.Inthewarhistoryandmilitarytreatisesofothercountriesintheancientworld, therearealsomanyrecordsanddiscoursesontherelationshipbetweenwarandgeography.Forexample, "WarofGaul" de GJCaesar les byG.J.CaesarinancientRomedescribesthesituationofmountainsandrivers, les douanes, andtheuseofgeographicalconditionsduringthewarthatCaesarencounteredduringhisbattlesinGaulfrom58BCto52BC.Inthe "OntheMilitary" writtenbyVegetiusattheendofthe4thcenturyandthebeginningofthe5thcentury, heproposedtheprinciplesoftheuseofcavalrytodefendtheplains, thenavytodefendtheseaandrivers, andtheinfantrytodefendhills, villes, plainesan dsteepterrain.Inthe18thcentury, withthedevelopmentofscienceandtechnology, militaryorganizationandequipment, andtheuseoftacticssuchasguns, artillerie, lineandcolumnincombat, theinfluenceofterrainconditionsoncombatoperationshasreceivedincreasingattentionfrommilitarystrategists.Forexample, PrussianJ.ARvonGravelt, BritishH.HELloydandothershaveputforwardtheviewthatcombathasagreatdependenceonterrain, andevenbelievethatfamiliaritywithterraincanaccuratelycalculatecombatoperationsjustlikelearninggeometry.Inthe1830s, withthedeepeningofwartheoryresearch, geographicsituationanalysisbecameanimportantcontentofstrategicresearch.C.vonClausewitzofPrussialistedgeographicelementsasoneofthestrategicelementsin "OnWar"; A.-H.JominiofSwitzerlandlistedmilitarygeographicelementsin "IntroductiontotheArtofWar" L'un des facteurs de la politique militaire, une section spéciale " Statistiques et géographie militaires " est destinée à résumer les objets de recherche de la géographie militaire, son statut et son développement en temps de guerre. Du milieu du XIXe siècle à la première moitié du XIXe e20thcentury, militarygeographydevelopedintoanindependentdisciplineandgraduallyimproveditsdisciplinesystem.Fromthemiddleofthe19thcenturytothebeginningofthe20thcentury, inordertomeettheneedsofmilitarytechnologyprogressandcombat, Russie, Italie, France, Allemagne, Britainandothercountrieshavesuccessivelyappearedmilitarygeographymonographs.Somemilitaryacademiessetmilitarygeographyasanimportantcourse.Itmarkedtheformalformationofmilitarygeographyasanindependentdiscipline.BeforeandafterWorldWarI, theseapowerschoolrepresentedbyA.T.MahanoftheUnitedStates, thelandpowerschoolrepresentedbyH.J.MackinderoftheUnitedKingdom, andtheairpowerschoolrepresentedbyG.DuheiofItalyemerged.Thesethreeschoolsofthoughtformedbasedontheideathatglobalstrategyisrestrictedtoacertaingeographicalenvironmentreflectthestrategicthinkingofaggressionandexpansionandcontendingforworldhegemony, andbecomethetheoreticalbasisofWesterngeopoliticsandstrategicresearchfromtheperspectiveofgeography.Thedevelopmentoflearninghadacertaininfluence.Atthesa metime, K. Marx, F.EngelsandV.I.Leninalsostudiedanddiscussedtherelationshipbetweenpoliticalstruggle, militarystruggleandgeography.Forexample, inworkssuchas "PoandRhine" (1859), "Savoie, NiceandRhine" (1860), Engelsexplainedthe "militarygeographicsystem" et "militarygeographicsituation" inthepoliticalandmilitarystrugglesbetweencountries.ThestatusandroleofMarxandEngels'expositionsontherelationshipbetweenwarandproductivity, weaponsandequipment , combatoperationsandgeographicalconditionsexpandedthescopeofmilitarygeographyresearch.Inthefirsthalfofthe20thcentury, inthetwoworldwars, therewereworksonwargeographythatstudiedtherelationshipbetweenwarandgeography, nationaldefensegeographythatstudiedtherelationshipbetweennationaldefenseandgeography, andarmamentgeographythatstudiedtherelationshipbetweenarmamentsandgeography.Formedatheoreticalsystemthatdividesmilitarygeographyintogeneraltheoryandspecialtheory, orintogeneralmilitarygeography, specialmilitarygeography, andregionalmilitarygeography.Atthesametime, inordertomeett heoperationalneedsoftheland, mer, andtheairandunderwaterofvariousservicesandarmsinthevastspaceofland, mer, andunderwater, inthefieldofmilitarygeography, landwarfaregeography, navalwarfaregeography, Aircombatgeography.Withthechangesincombatstyles, theexpansionofthescaleofwars, thedevelopmentofweaponsandequipment, andthedeepeningofmilitarygeographyresearch, branchdisciplinessuchasstrategicgeography, militarylogisticsgeography, andmilitarymedicalgeographyhaveemergedoneafteranother, reflectingtheimportanceofmilitarygeography.Thedisciplinesystemhasbecomemoreperfect.ModernChinesemilitarygeographywasgraduallydevelopedintheplanningofcoastaldefenseandfrontierdefensebeforeandaftertheOpiumWarinordertoadapttothedevelopmentofmilitaryscienceandresisttheaggressionofWesternpowers.Avarietyofmilitarygeographyworksoncoastaldefenseandborderdefensehaveappearedsuccessively.Forexample, "TheFirstCollectionoftheSea" de GuanTianpei (1836), "ABriefIntroductiontoForeign Defence" de XuJiagan (1887), etc., tous ont un contenu géographique militairesuc hascoastalgeographicsituationandplanningforcoastaldefenseconstructionandtherelationshipbetweennavalforces; "NortheastFrontierDefense" Yao (1884), HeQiutao'sShuoFangBeicheng (1858), HuangPeiqiao'sTibetMaps (1886), etc., allhavetheresearchcontentofthefrontiergeographicalsituationandtheconstructionofborderdefenseanddefendingtheenemybydanger.InJiangnan, HubeiandotherWubeischools, therearealsotopographycoursestoteachthebasictheoriesandknowledgeofmilitarytopography.DuringtheAnti-JapaneseWar, inordertoresisttheJapanesearmy'saggression, manybooksonmilitarygeographywerepublishedsuccessively, "ScienceoftheArmy" de suchasYouFengchi de CaoTingjie ,La "Géographie de la Défense Nationale" de HuHuanyong (1938) et bientôt. stheBattleofLiaoshen, theBattleofHuaihai, theBattleofPing-Tianjin, andtheBattleofCrossingtheRiverInthisarticle, hehasmadeextremelyincisiveexpositionsontheconstructionofrevolutionarybaseareas, armedstruggle, andtherelationshipbetweenwars, campagnes, andgeography.Afterthemiddleofthe20thcentury, itisanewstageofmutualpenetrationandcommondevelopmentofmilitarygeographyandmodernscienceandtechnology, militaryacademia, andgeographicscience.Itsmaincharacteristicsandsignsare: inordertoadapttothechangesintheworld'sstrategicpatternandtheneedsofpoliticalandmilitarystruggles, militarygeographyresearchontheglobal, large-regionornationalscalehasemergedmoderngeopoliticsandstrategicgeographicresearchofsuperpowersandmilitarygroups.Works, withthedevelopmentofnuclearweaponsandlong-rangeweaponsandtheexplorationofouterspace, theresearchfieldofmilitarygeographyhasexpandedfromtheentireearthtoouterspace, andtherehasbeenaspecializationfocusingonthestudyofnuclearwarandgeographicalrelationsandspacemilitarygeography. Discussion:Avec hedevelopmentofaerospace, remotesensing, andelectroniccomputertechnology, amultidisciplinaryintegratedmilitarygeographicinformationsystemhasemerged, whichhasbroughtthetheoreticalresearchandpracticalapplicationofmilitarygeographyintoanewstageofdevelopment.ThestudyofmodernChinesemilitarygeographyismainlyguidedbythestrategicpolicyofactivedefense, focusingonexploringtherelationshipbetweenmodernwarfareandgeography.SincethefoundingofthePeople'sRepublicofChina, undertheleadershipoftheCentralMilitaryCommission, theGeneralStaffHeadquarters, variousmilitaryregions, services, armes, andsomemilitaryscientificresearchunitsandmilitaryacademieshaveeffectivelycarriedoutmilitarygeographyresearch, enseignement, andcompilationofmilitarygeographicdata..Sincethe1980s, theresearchworkofmilitarygeographyhasenteredaperiodofvigorousdevelopment.InApril1989, theMilitaryGeographySocietyoftheChinesePeople'sLiberationArmywasestablished.The "EncyclopediaofChinaMilitary" publishedin1989includedmilitarygeographyasadiscipline ,avec98articlesund ERIT, andinitiallyestablishedthedisciplinesystemofmilitarygeography.Duringthesameperiod, theGeneralStaffSurveyingandMappingBureauorganizedthecompilationof "MilitaryGeography", absorbingtheachievementsandmaterialsofancientandmodernChineseandforeignmilitarygeographyresearch, linkingChinaanditssurroundingareaswiththeworldmilitarygeographysituation, expoundingthetheoryandpracticalproblemsofmilitarygeography, anddrivingResearchonmilitarygeographycontinuestodeepen.The "ChineseMilitaryEncyclopedia" publishedin1997includedmilitarygeography, Chinesemilitarygeography, andworldmilitarygeographyasseparatedisciplines.Therewere956itemsintotal, whichfurtherimprovedthemilitarygeographydisciplinesystemandpromotedtheresearchofmilitarygeography.Anddevelopment.Atthesametime, alargenumberofmilitarygeographyworks, textbooksandessayshavebeenpublished, andthemilitarygeographydisciplinesystemhasbeenfurtherimprovedanddividedintotwoparts: theoreticalmilitarygeographyandappliedmilitarygeography.Militarygeographyresearchhasentere danewPeriodofdevelopment.Afterenteringthe21stcentury, therehavebeennewbreakthroughsinmilitarygeographyresearch.TheCentralMilitaryCommissiondecidedtocompilethesecondeditionofthe "EncyclopediaofChineseMilitaryAffairs" .TheresearchofmilitarygeographyhasreceivedgreatattentionfromtheBureauofSurveyingandMappingoftheGeneralStaff, andorganizedmostexpertsinthefieldofmilitarygeographytosystematicallysummarizethenewachievementsofmilitarygeographyresearchinrecentyears.Afterthehardworkofexperts, abatchofmilitarygeographyworkssuchasthe "MilitaryGeographyTutorial" havebeenpublished, whichhasplayedanimportantroleinpromotingthedevelopmentofChina'smilitarygeographyandsupportingoperations, formation, andnationaldefense.Withtheextensivemilitaryapplicationofmodernscienceandtechnology, aswellastheevolutionoftheworld'sstrategicpatternandtheimprovementofthestrategicpositionofoceansandouterspace, theresearchscopeofmilitarygeographyhascontinuedtoexpand.Theexpansionofthespacemilitaryenvironmentwillfurtherexpandtheresearchcon tentofhumangeography, atmosphericphysics, andgeophysics, andfocusonthedevelopmentofjointcombatsupportrelatedcontent.Themilitarygeographytheoriesofvariousservicesandarmsandtheresearchresultsofmilitarygeographyatdifferentlevelswillcontinuetoenrichanddevelopthemilitarygeographydisciplinesystemtomakeitmoreperfect.Militarygeographicresearchmethodsandmeanswillfurthermodernizetheacquisition, le stockage, la gestion, andapplicationmethodsofmilitarygeographicinformationandrealizeintegratedsupportduetothewidespreadapplicationofaerospace, remotesensing, andelectroniccomputertechnology.

Editeur : ChinaMilitaryEncyclopediaEditingOffice

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