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Marxist Philosophy



Foundingbackground

Socialandhistoricalpremises

Inthe1830sand1940s,thecapitalistmodeofproductionhasoccupiedadominantpositioninBritain,France,andGermany.InBritainandFrance,afterseveralbourgeoisrevolutions,thebourgeoisieestablishedandconsolidateditsownpoliticalpower.Atthistime,theshortcomingsofthecapitalistmodeofproductionhavebecomeincreasinglyapparent.Theoppositionbetweenthebourgeoisieandtheproletariathasbeenverysharp,andthemainthemeofthespiritofthetimeshasbeguntochangefromthedemocraticrevolutionarymovementofthebourgeoisiestrivingforpoliticalequalitytothesocialistrevolutionarymovementoftheproletariatstrivingforhumanliberation.Onlybyrealizingafundamentalchangeinphilosophycanwecreateascientificworldviewthatmeetstheneedsoftheproletarianrevolutionarystruggleandprovidetheproletariatwithatheoreticalweapontocriticizetheoldworldandcreateanewworld.

Thedevelopmentofnaturalsciencesinthe19thcenturyalsoprovidednecessaryconditionsforthecreationofanewworldview.Afterenteringthe19thcentury,naturalscienceshaveevolvedfrombeingmainly"thescienceofcollectingmaterials"to"thescienceofsortingmaterials."Somesciencesthatrevealtheconnectionsanddevelopmentofvariousmaterialformsinnaturehavebeenestablishedanddeveloped.Amongthem,thethreemajordiscoveriesofcelltheory,theprincipleofenergyconservationandtransformation,andDarwin'stheoryofbiologicalevolution,havemadeitpossibleforthedialecticalmaterialistviewofnaturetobeproduced.

Inthe19thcentury,importantprogresswasalsomadeinthesocialsciences.AdamSmithandDavidRicardofoundedthelabortheoryofvalue.Saint-Simon,Quizo,Migneandothershaveintroducedtheconceptofclassstrugglewhendescribinghistoricaleventsandtriedtofurtherexploretheeconomicrootsofclassstruggle.Theseimportantachievementshaveprovidedreferencematerialsforthematerialisticinterpretationofhistory.

Theoreticalpremise

IntheprocessofestablishingMarxistphilosophy,MarxandEngelscriticallyinheritedthepositiveresultsofGermanclassicalphilosophy,mainlyabsorbingthe"reasonableness"ofHegelianphilosophy.The"core"isthedialecticthinkingandthe"basiccore"ofFeuerbach'sphilosophyisthematerialisticthinking.

Basictheory

Dialecticalmaterialism

Dialecticalmaterialismistostudytheessenceoftheworldfromtheperspectiveofdialectics,thatis,tostudythequestionof"what"theessenceoftheworldis.ItisthetheoreticalbasisandlogicalstartingpointoftheMarxistphilosophysystem.Ittakestherelationshipbetweenmatterandconsciousnessorthinkingandexistenceasthemainline,andsystematicallydiscussesthematerialview,practiceviewandconsciousnessviewofdialecticalmaterialism.Therearefourcorrespondingprinciples:

(1)Theprincipleoftheexistenceofmatter(movementistheexistenceofmatter,andspace-timeistheexistenceofmovingmatter).

(2)Theessentialprincipleofpractice(practicehasthecharacteristicsofdirectrealityandsubjectiveinitiative).

(3)Theessenceofconsciousnessandtheprincipleofinitiative.

(4)Theprincipleofthematerialunityoftheworld,whichistheprincipleoftheessenceoftheworldinMarxistphilosophy,ismaterialism,andisthephilosophicalfoundationoftheparty'sideologicalline.

Finally,thislectureexpoundstheepistemologicalandmethodologicalsignificanceofthecorrectunderstandingofthedialecticalrelationshipbetweenmatterandconsciousness.

MaterialistDialectics

Thispartanswersthequestionof"howistheworld".Itexpoundsthetwoviewpointsoftheconnectionanddevelopmentofmaterialistdialectics,andthenexplainsthebasiclawsandcategoriesofmaterialistdialectics,revealingtheoppositionbetweenmaterialistdialecticsandmetaphysicsfromdifferentaspects.Itscontentcanbesummarizedas"twoviewpoints,threemajorlaws,andfivepairsofcategories".

Theimportantprinciplesare:

1.Theunderstandingandapplicationabilityofthesystemanditsintegrity,therelationshipbetweenthewholeanditspartsintheviewofuniversalconnection;theviewofuniversalconnectionanditsmethodologysignificance.

2.Themeaningofdegreeanditscognitivesignificance.

3.Theconnotationofthelawofqualitymutualchangeanditsmethodologicalsignificance.

4.Dialecticalnegationanditsmethodologicalsignificance.

5.Theprincipleofthedialecticalrelationshipbetweentheidentityandstruggleofcontradictionsanditsmethodologicalsignificance.

6.Theprincipleoftheroleoftheidentityandstruggleofcontradictionsinthedevelopmentofthings,thatis,thesourceandpowerprincipleofthedevelopmentofthings.Itcontainsthefollowingcontents:(1)Usingtheprincipleofidentityofcontradictionstoanalyzepracticalproblemsinsociallife;(2)Theprincipleoftransformationofcontradictionsandtheintegrationbetweenthetwo.

7.Thedialecticalrelationshipbetweentheuniversalityandparticularityofcontradictionanditsmethodologicalsignificance.

8.Theunbalancedprincipleofcontradictorydevelopmentanditsmethodologicalsignificance.

Epistemology

Thispartfocusesonthethreecoresofpractice,knowledge,andtruth,aswellastheprincipleofthedialecticalrelationshipbetweenpracticeandknowledgeintheprocessofknowledgedevelopment,thelawofknowledgedevelopment,andthelawoftruthdevelopment.Laws,emphasizingthatknowledgeistheactivereflectionofthesubjecttotheobjectonthebasisofpractice,systematicallyexpoundedthedialecticalmaterialistepistemologicaltheoryofMarxistphilosophy,andachievedahighdegreeofunitybetweenmaterialismanddialecticsonthebasisofpractice,dialecticalmaterialistepistemologyandhistoricalmaterialismTheorganiccombinationoftheoriescorrectlyanswersthequestionof"howtounderstandtheworld".

Theimportantprinciplesareasfollows:

1.Thedifferenceprinciplebetweenknowabilityandagnosticism

2.Thesubjectofknowledgeanditsformationanddevelopment

3.Theprincipleofthedialecticalrelationshipbetweenpracticeandknowledge(theviewofpracticeistheprimaryandbasicpointofviewofMaZhe)

4.Theprincipleofthedialecticalprocessofknowledgedevelopment

5.Theprincipleofcontinuousrepetitionandinfinitedevelopmentofmovement

6.Theroleofrationalandirrationalfactorsintheprocessofcognition

7.Theconcreteprincipleoftruth

8.Principlesofdialecticalrelationshipbetweentruthandfallacy

9.Principlesofmaterialismanddialecticstestingthecriterionoftruth

10.Principlesofdialecticalrelationshipbetweentruthandvalue

HistoricalMaterialism

Thispartfocusesonthetwothemesofsocietyandpeople,andsystematicallyexpoundsthemaincontentofhistoricalmaterialisminMarxistphilosophy.Itisbelievedthatthedrivingforcebehindsocialdevelopmenthaschangedthewaypeopleorganizetheirlivescollectively.Allthebasiccomponents(superstructure)(socialclass,politicalorganization,ideology)oftheorganizationsocietyareanexternalizedmanifestationofeconomicactivities.Therelationshipscontainedinthesuperstructurearecloselyrelatedtotherelationshipsbetweenthedifferentdivisionsoflaborineconomicactivities.Marxbelievesthattheanalysisofeconomicactivitiesisthecornerstoneoftheanalysisofthevariousrelationshipsandmechanismsthatmakeupsociety.

Firstofall,itisageneraldescriptionoftheemergenceofhumansociety,thenatureandcharacteristicsofsociallaws,aswellasthesocialorganismanditsstructure.Thisistheprerequisiteforlearningandmasteringtheprinciplesofhistoricalmaterialism.Itmainlyincludestwoaspects:first,thematerialfoundationandessenceofhumansociety;second,theeconomic,political,andconceptualstructureofhumansociety.

Theimportantprinciplesare:

1.Principlesofharmoniousdevelopmentbetweenhumansocietyandnature

2.Themodeofproductionofmaterialmaterialsisthedecisiveforceprincipleforthedevelopmentofhumansociety

3.Principlesofthepracticalnatureofsociety

4.Societyistheorganicprincipleofcontinuousself-renewal

5.Theprincipleofrelativeindependenceofsocialideology

Secondly,itfocusesonthebasiclawsanddynamicsofsocialdevelopmentandthemainbodyofsocialhistory,andelaboratesitfromtwoaspects:first,thelawsanddynamicsofsocialdevelopment;Second,thecreatorofhistory.

Theimportantprinciplesareasfollows:

1.Thebasicsocialcontradictionsmovementlaw

2.Thebasisandsignificanceofthe"productivitystandard"

3.Theprincipleofthedialecticalrelationshipbetweenthelawofsocialdevelopmentandpeople'sconsciousactivities

4.Reformisthedrivingforceprincipleofthedevelopmentofsocialistsociety

5.Communicationtheory

6.Thedualeffectofscienceandtechnology

7.Theunityoftheviewofhistoryandtheparty’sviewofthemasses

Basicview

TheviewofpracticeistheprimaryandbasicpointofMaZheViewsandprinciplesofpracticeareMaZhe'sprinciplesofconstruction.

MaZhestartsfrompracticetoreflect,seethroughandunderstandtheexistingworld,andunderstandsobjects,reality,andsensibilityaspractice.

Marxdefinedhisphilosophicalobjectashumanpracticalactivitiesasthebasisoftheexistingworld,anddefinedthephilosophicaltaskasansweringtherelationshipbetweenmanandtheworld,subjectandobject,subjectiveandobjectiveinpracticalactivities,thusProvidemethodologyforchangingtheworld.

Forthefirsttime,Marxpromotedpracticeasafundamentalprincipleofphilosophyandtransformeditintoaphilosophicalwayofthinking,thuscreatinganewformofmodernmaterialismwithpracticeasthecoreandfoundation.

ThescientificviewofpracticeistheideologicalmechanismbywhichMarxestablisheddialecticalmaterialismandhistoricalmaterialism.PracticalviewpointisnotonlyasharpweaponforMarxistphilosophytocriticizeidealism,butalsoadividinglinewitholdmaterialism,andthusputanendtotraditionalphilosophy.

Dialecticalandhistoricalunity

Dialecticalmaterialism,historicalmaterialism

materialistdialectics

materialismNaturalViewMaterialismHistoricalView

Existencedeterminesthinking,materialdeterminesconsciousness,andnatureexistsbeforehumanbeings.Thisisthefundamentalprinciplethatallmaterialismmustadhereto.

Thematerialpracticeofhumanbeingsismaterialisticanddialectical,aswellassocialandhistorical.MaZherevealedtheunityoftheviewofnatureandtheviewofhistoryonthebasisofpractice,thuscorrectlyandthoroughlysolvedthebasicproblemsofphilosophyandcarriedoutmaterialismtotheend.

Theevolvingtheory

DialecticsisthebasicspiritofMaZhe.Dialectically,itistheinherentrequirementofpracticetobreaktheoldandcreatethenew,andtoreplacetheoldwithnewsubstances.

Practice,asthebasicwayofhumanexistence,isanegativerelationshipbetweenhumanbeingsandexternalnature.

MaZhekeptclosecontactwithhiscontemporaries,withastrongsenseofhistoryandresponsibility,strictlybasedonthedevelopmentofpracticeandscientificprogress,creativelyenrichedanddevelopedhisowntheories,andcorrectedcertainproblemsintime.Practicehasprovedoutdatedindividualviewpointsandconclusionsinordertomaintainanddevelopthescientificandtruthfulnessoftheirdoctrines;atthesametime,adheretoascientificworldviewandmethodology,adheretotheprincipleofclearpartyspirit,andprovideastrongresponsetoanti-Marxistandotherdialecticsfromallaspects.Viewsandtheories,toconductunambiguouscriticismandstruggle,guiderealityinthecorrectdirectionandpath,andenrichanddeveloponeselfinthecriticismandstruggleagainstallkindsoferrors.

MaZheisanopentheoreticalsystem.MaZhe'stheoreticalvitalitycomesfrompractice.Itisacriticalinheritanceofthepastachievementsofnaturalsciences,socialsciencesandthinkingsciences.Withdevelopment,itwillcontinuetosumupnewexperiencestoenrichanddevelopitsowntheoreticalcontentandcorrespondingtheoreticalforms.

MaZheisconstantlydeveloping.HeregardsMaZheasalivingtheoryofdevelopment,makingitalwaysconsistentwiththedevelopmentofpracticeandscience,andopposesthedogmatization,absolutismandrigidityofMarxismtendency.

Importantconcepts

Socialclass

Theclassificationstandardofsocialclassisitsrelationshipwiththemeansofproduction.UndertheinfluenceofEngels,Marxbelievedthatsocialclassactivelyshapedsocialrealityandintheprocessalsoshapeditsclassconsciousness.Classconsciousnessandsocialclasscanrationallymaximizeclassinterests.

Dialectics

AppearedinMarx's"DasKapital",MarxinheritedHegel's"dialectical"concept.Marxrejectedthestaticandpassiveviewofhistoryandbelievedthatpeoplewereconstantlyshapingthecourseofhistory.Dialecticsisamethodologythatstudiessocialprocessesfromtherelationshipbetweenvarioussocialfactors,socialdevelopmentandchangeswithempiricalcoreasthecore.Thismethodologyhasastrongoveralltendency.Itbelievesthatsocialphenomenashouldnotbeseparatedfromeachotherforresearch,butshouldbeconsideredasawhole,eachpartisconsidered,andtherelationshipbetweeneachpartisdynamicallyinterpreted.Marxusesthismethodtoanalyzethehistoricalprocessofmankindfromtheperspectiveofsystematicprocess.

NaturalPhilosophyView

Everythingthatexistscontainscontradictions,andcontainselementsofdualism(contradiction).Thetheoryofgrowth,andthetotalamountofthingskeepsgrowing.Quantitativechangesleadtoqualitativechanges,thatis,theincreaseinthenumberofthingswillleadtochangesinthenatureofthings.ThisviewisinspiredbyDarwin'stheoryofevolutionandappliedtothestudyofclass.Marxsupportsthetheoryofevolutionandbelievesthatlifeisgovernedbythesethreelaws.

Classconflict

Marxbelievesthatclassisthebasicunitthatconstitutesthesocialstructure,andthechangeofsocialstructureistheresultoftheconflictofclassinterests.ThewayMarxdefinesclassisthroughownership.Socialclassisdefinedbyassets,ratherthanincomeorotherfactorsconsideredrelevantbymoderntheories.Marxbelievesthatclassdirectlyreflectsitspositioninthelaborproductionprocess.InMarx’stime,classconflictswereoftendefinedbylandownershipandownershipofthemeansofproductionduringthefirstindustrialrevolution.

Significance

Marxistphilosophysolvesthebasicphilosophicalproblemsfrompractice,thatis,therelationshipbetweenthinkingandexistenceisthehighestabstractionoftherelationshipbetweenmanandtheworld.Marxistphilosophyprofoundlypointsoutthattherelationshipbetweenmanandtheworldisessentiallytherelationshipbetweenpeople'sunderstandingandtransformationoftheworldthroughpractice.

StartingfrompracticetosolvetheproblemoftherelationshipbetweenmanandtheworldistheessenceandkeytothegreatphilosophicalrevolutionofMarxistphilosophy.Itispracticethatprovidespeoplewithcognitiveobjects.Therefore,inpractice,peoplenotonlyunderstandtheworld,butalsotransformtheworld,creatingahumanworldofmankindonthebasisofanaturalandnaturalworldoffreedom.Therefore,practicenotonlyhasepistemologicalsignificance,butalsohasworldviewsignificance.

ThefundamentaldifferencebetweenMarxistphilosophyandallotherphilosophiesliesinitsuniquewayofsolvingthebasicproblemsofphilosophy.Theoldmaterialismandidealismdonotunderstandhumanpracticeactivitiesandtheirmeanings,whichleadstomajordefectsintheirunderstandingoftheworldandtheirperspectiveonobservingtheworld.Marxistphilosophystartsfrompracticetounderstandtherealworld,andthusobtainsnewexplanationsinworldoutlook,naturaloutlook,historicaloutlookandepistemology,andbuildsaunified,thoroughandscientificphilosophysystem.

PracticalpointofviewisthebasisofMarxistphilosophyandrunsthroughalldialecticalmaterialismandhistoricalmaterialism.

ThemainmanifestationsoftherevolutionarychangesinMarxistphilosophy:

Thecreationofthematerialistviewofhistory,whichendedthedominanceoftheidealisticviewofhistoryinthefieldofsocialhistory.Thisputsanendtothelackofactiveprinciplesofoldmaterialism.Understandingthematerialworldonthebasisofpracticalactivitiesmakesmaterialismavibrantscientifictheoreticalsystem.Itprovidesanideologicalweaponfortheproletariatandtheemancipationofmankind.

Theconceptofpractice

IncorporatingpracticeintophilosophyandmakingitacoreconceptisnotthecreationofMarx.BeforeMarx,Kant,Fichte,andeventheyoungHegelianCheshkowskiandHesshaddonethis.However,aseveryoneknows,thepracticetheytalkaboutisnotthesameaswhatMarxtalksabout.Inthefinalanalysis,theyallconstructpracticewithinthespiritualscope,andattributepracticetotheactivityofwill.Thisidealisticviewofpracticeisalreadywellknowntoeveryone.However,thereisanotherviewofpractice,whichisnotMarxist,butitseemsdifficulttobeclassifiedasanidealisticviewofpractice.TakeFeuerbach,forexample.Heunderstoodpracticeaspurelyutilitarianbehavior,triviallifeandself-interestedactivities,anditstypicalformis"theearningactivityofthedespicableJews."Feuerbach'sviewofpracticeisactuallyanintuitiveviewofpractice.Heregardsthecurrentformofpractice,thatis,thespecificpracticeundercertainhistoricalconditions,asthetotalityofpractice.Therefore,hebelievesthatpracticeessentiallyexcludestheory.Inordertomaintaintheauthorityofthetheoryandfurtheritshumanitarianideals,Feuerbachcategoricallyexcludedpracticefromthevisionofphilosophy.Thiskindoftheoreticalerrorofhis,peopleusuallyonlyattributeittotheprejudicetopractice,thatis,tomakeanegativejudgmentonthevalueofpractice;andhedoesnotpayattentiontohisintuitiveviewofpracticeitself.Inthisway,whenthiskindofpracticeviewchangesitsappearance,itmayevenbecomepopular.Mostliberaleconomistsareempiricalinmethodology,andtheirviewsonpracticemustbeintuitiveandnarrow.Alltheireconomicanalysisispremisedonactualpractice,thatis,industry,market,andcommodityexchange.Therefore,theyseemtohavetherighttoblameMarx'spracticeforbeingtooabstract,becausethelatterregardstranscendingthispremiseasthefootholdofhisphilosophy,thatis,"socializedhumanityorhumansociety."Inthisway,Marxseemstobecaughtinacrack:fortheabstractviewofpractice,heistheconcreteviewofreality;fortheintuitiveandpositiveviewofpractice,heseemstohavebecomean"abstract"viewofpractice.Iftheaboveanalysisisonlyofacademicsignificance,thenwhenpeoplecompletelyforgetthedifferencebetweenMarx’sviewofpracticeandtheintuitiveviewofpractice,andthereforeusetheintuitiveviewofpracticetoguidecurrentpractice,reiteratingthedifferencebetweenthetwoisofgreatsignificance.Realisticmeaning.Inanutshell,Marx’sviewofpracticecontainsadesirefortheory,soitisconsciousandorientedtowardsacertainsocialgoal;itcontainsthevalueorientationofrealuniversalinterests,thatis,theinterestsofthepeople,soitisrevolutionaryandcritical.;Containsthelifeorientationthatmeltsthelimitedlifeofapersonintothegreatcauseofhumanliberationandobtainsthemeaningoflifefromit,soitispositiveandupward.Onthecontrary,theintuitiveempiricalviewofpractice,becauseitregardspracticeasspontaneous,self-interested,andindividual,itspracticefundamentallyexcludestheoryandisthedomainofpersonalinterestsandpureself.Thishasledtotwofundamentallyopposedviewsonsocialdevelopment.Startingfromanintuitiveviewofpractice,socialactivitiesareessentiallypersonalspontaneousactivities.Everyonestartsfromhimselfandentersthesocietyinordertorealizepersonalinterests.Itispreciselyinthesharpconflictofspontaneouspersonalintereststhatpeoplegraduallyfindoutincreasinglyperfectsocialnormssuchasadministration,law,andethics.Theirfunctionistoprotectpeople'sfreecompetitionandthepurposeistorealizepersonalinterests.Therefore,theso-called"society"isjustasynonymfor"abstractrulesofthegame."ThisisthebasicanalysisofWesternliberalismaboutthestate,law,historicalprogress,andsocialjustice.InHayek’swords,thisisa“spontaneouslyexpandinghumanorder”inwhichthehumanrationalityembodiedinitisnottheso-called“constitutiverationalism”characterizedbytheconstructionofaspecificsocialgoal,butspontaneousTheso-called"evolutionaryrationalism"thatconstantlycorrectserrorsintheactivity.Itshouldbesaidthatthisisatrueportrayalofthedevelopmentpathofcapitalismforhundredsofyears.Thequestioniswhetherthisistheonlypossibleoption.AllMarxistefforts,includingthetheoryofbuildingsocialismwithChinesecharacteristics,areactuallyaimedatbreakingthissuperstition.Canwehavesuchachoice,thatis,basedonthe"realisticgeneralinterests"(theoverallinterestsofsociety),throughmoreconsciousinterestcoordination,reducesocialconflictsandacceleratesocialdevelopment,sothatnotonlycanbackwardnationsobtainequaldevelopmentRights,andavoidallthesocialevilscausedbythedevelopmentofWesterncapitalism?Theanswershouldbeyes.ThegreatpracticeofcontemporaryChina’ssocialismwithitsowncharacteristicshasinitiallyturnedthischoiceintoreality,andourinsistenceonDengXiaoping’stheoryofbuildingsocialismwithChinesecharacteristicsisalsotocontinuealongthispaththathasbeenopenedup.

Practicalform

Thehighestformofhumanpracticeisthepracticeoftheproletariat.Itisbasedonthe"generalinterestsofreality",whichisbynomeansaspeculativefiction.EveryoneknowsthatMarxfollowedFeuerbach,denyingthecruelrealityofcapitalismwiththeabstract"quasiessence",andcriticizingthepracticalformdefendedbybourgeoiseconomists,callingit"alienatedactivities."However,whenMarxbecamemoreandmoreawareoftheweaknessofthiscriticism,heturnedtoapracticalpointofview.HeabandonedtheprejudiceimposedbyFeuerbachonactualpracticalactivities,andnolongerregardedindustryandtheworldmarketas"inhumanactivities",butasaformofhumanpracticewithhistoricalinevitability;healsoovercomesThehalosetbybourgeoiseconomistsonthemarketeconomydoesnotregarditastheonlyformofhumanpractice,butonlyasoneofthespecificformsofhistoricalpractice.

ThekeytoMarx'sabilitytoadoptthisuniqueandscientificattitudeliesinhisdiscoveryofabrand-newformofpractice,"proletarianpractice".Asweallknow,inMarx'stime,bothmaterialismandidealismattributedthepowertotranscendindividualnarrownesstorationality.It'sjustthatinordertoavoidmakingrationalityapurelyspiritualphenomenon,theformeroftencallsitthetitleof"universalinterest".However,ifthegeneralinterestdoesnotobtainitsownwayofexistencefrom"civilsociety,"itwillalwaysbejustakindofideologicalprincipleandbelief.

However,ifitisbasedonlyonexperienceorintuition,itisreallydifficulttodiscovertheuniversalbenefitsofreality.Marxreliedonthefollowingdiscoveriestoestablisharealisticbasisforuniversalinterests:First,history,especiallythehistoryoftheFrenchRevolution,showsthatforanyclassthattriestoleadtherevolution,itsclassinterestsinevitablycoincidewiththeuniversalinterestsofmankindinonewayoranother..Marxwrotethat“thisclass,whoactsasaliberator,isascloseasbrothersandsisterstothewholesociety,regardlessofeachother.Itisregardedandregardedastheuniversalrepresentativeofsociety;atthismoment,therequirementsandrightsofthisclassaretrulyIthasbecometherightanddemandofsocietyitself.Itistrulytheheartofsocialreasonandsociety.”(TheCompleteWorksofMarxandEngels,Volume1,p.464)Second,theproletariatcanpermanentlyrepresenttheuniversalinterestsofmankind,andthereforeitisTheonlysocialforcethatcanbreakthroughthenarrowpersonalrelationshipsofcapitalism.AllMarx'sargumentsonthispointboildowntoonepoint,whichisthattheproletariatisa"civilsocietyclassthatisnotacivilsociety."Itiscalleda"civilsocietyclass"becauseitisarealsocialforcewiththesameeconomicstatusthatisconstantlygrowing;itiscalleda"non-civilsocietyclass"becauseitisnotinthetraditionalsense(constrainedbythepossessionofspecificmeansofproduction)Rather,itsformationitselfmeansthedemiseoftheclassandthedisintegrationoftheexistingsociety.Marxalsoparticularlyemphasizedthattheproletariatisthefirstexploitedclasswith"self-awareness"inhumanhistory.Thisisnotonlybecauseitisthefirstworkingclassthathasmasteredtheculturalandeducationalmethods(whichareforcedbythebourgeoisie),butalsobecauseitisarevolutionaryclassthathastrulymasteredtheweaponsofself-criticism,soitcanfinallygetridoftheemployment-laborrelationship.Fettersstandonthehistoricalheightof"humanliberation".

Itcanbeseenthatitispreciselybecausetheproletariatconsciouslyregardsitselfasahumanbeing,itcanavoidthefateofbeing"deified".Marxdidnotdeifytheproletariat.IfitissaidthatclassstruggleisnotMarx’sdiscovery,hisuniquecontributionisonlytodemonstratethehistoricalrootsofclassstruggle,historicaltemporality,andtherealisticpathofclasselimination,andtopointoutthatclassstrugglewillinevitablyleadtothedictatorshipoftheproletariat,thenitcanalsobenothing.ItisnotanexaggerationtosaythattheintroductionofpracticeintophilosophyandmakingitacoreconceptwasnotMarx’soriginalcreation.Hisuniquecontributionliesinthediscoveryoftheproletarianpracticeasanewformofsocialpractice,thusrevealingthedirectrealityanduniversalityofpractice.Theinternalmechanismoftheunityofcharacter.Thereisnodoubtthattheformsofpracticearediverse.Therearespontaneous,blind,conscious,andhighlyorganized;thereareproductive,economic,dailylife,political,military,andevenscientificeducation;thereareindividuals,smallgroups,andregional,Therearealsoclass,national,andevenglobal.However,fromtheperspectiveoftrendsandfromtheperspectiveofthedevelopmentofthecurrentera,consciouspracticalactivitieswithabroadmassbaseplayaleadingroleinthis.InMarx'swords,"Withthedeepeningofhistoricalactivities,theranksofthemasseswillinevitablyexpand."Withthedevelopmentofhistorytothisday,wecannolongerallowtheblindstruggleofpersonalintereststospontaneouslyformsomenormsandrulesto"treatheadachesandfootpains",butcanrelyontheconsciouspowerofsocietytocoordinatevariousinterests.,Andstrivetosafeguardtheinterestsofthemajorityofpeople,sothatthepeoplearemoresatisfied.Thegreatpowerofproletarianpracticeliesinitsabilitytocreatemoreandmorevisionary,sacrificialandindividualizednewcomers,thuslayingthefoundationforthehealthydevelopmentofsociety.

Inthisway,therearetwobasicpointsingraspingMarx'sviewofpractice:Oneisdirectreality.Whatcanbecalledpracticemustbeanactivitythateffectivelytransformsanindependentobjectexistence,andisthereforedifferentfromallidealisticviewsofpractice.Therefore,althoughthescopeofpracticeisextremelybroad,everyformofpracticehasitsbasisforexistence,andwhatfundamentallyrestrictsthemisnotvolitionalactivity,butobjectivematerialactivityconditions.Thesecondisuniversality.Practiceisbynomeansasmessyandnarrowaspeopleintuitivelythink.Infact,itisasolidfoundationforthetrendofhumanprogressandhasauniversalandunifiedcharacter.Theprogressofproduction,theprogressofscienceandtechnology,andtheexpansionofhumancommunicationhavecontinuouslyshownthistrend.Althoughthistrendhasbeenconcealedinblindness,spontaneityandcontingencyforalongperiodoftime,theuniversalcharacterofpracticehasbecomeincreasinglystubborn.Effortstorevealthegeneraltrendofhumanpractice,consciouslyelevateindividualpracticestotheheightofhumanpractice,andseekahealthierdevelopmentforpeoplethemselvesarethedeepconnotationsofMarx'sviewofpracticeandthebeginningofMarxistviewofhistory,values,andlife..TheorganicunityofthetwobasicpointsmakesMarx'sviewofpracticetrulyunitescienceandvalue,realityandthefuture.TheseparationofthesetwobasicpointswillinevitablymakeMarx'sviewofpracticeeitherspeculativeorempirical.Historycontinuestoprovideexamplesofthesetwoextremes,amongwhichBernsteinandthe"WesternMarxist"trendofthoughtarethemosttypicalinthehistoryofMarxism.Bernstein’sviewofpracticeis,inthefinalanalysis,anempiricalviewofpractice,soheattributedpracticetopersonalaccumulationofexperience,andattributedtheprocessofpracticetoaprocessofpersonalexplorationbasedonempiricalfacts.Inthisway,thedirectrealityofpracticehasbecometheonlyrealityoftheindividualforhim,andthushasbecomethetrumpcardfornegatingtheformsofmasspracticeincludingclasspractice;practice'stestoftheoryhasalsobecomeafundamentaltestoftheory.Theexcusetorejecttheoryandworshipspontaneity;thedecisiveroleofpracticeinsocialdevelopmenthasbecomethebasisfordenyingtherevolutionaryleapandbeautifyingevolutionaryimprovement.FromworshipingspontaneityandindividualpracticetofundamentalrejectionandbetrayalofMarxism,thisisthewake-upcallthatBernsteingaveus.Itshouldbenotedthatdialecticsandpracticearefundamentallyconsistent.Torejectdialecticsandtheoreticalthinkingistorejectthespiritofpractice.

Theso-calledviewofproblemsfromapoliticalpointofview,asmanifestedinaviewofpractice,istobegoodatgraspingthetotalityofpractice.Peoplewhoworshipspontaneouspracticecannotbecomestrategists.The"WesternMarxism"thatoriginatedinthethinkingoftheyoungLukácsandGramsciwenttotheotherextreme.Fromtheperspectiveofpractice,itsbiggestmistakeistheseparationoftherevolutionarycriticalnatureanddirectrealityofpractice.Itregardsthe"objectivity"ofindividualexperienceasabourgeoisideologicalprincipleandthesourceoftheworkingclass'slackofrevolutionaryenthusiasm.Itcorrectlyseesthatpeople(includingworkers)whoarestuckindailyexperiencecannotescapetheideologicalcontrolofthebourgeoisie,butatthesametimeithaseliminateddailylife,thelargestandmostcommonpractice,frompractice.Inthisway,itisboundtoexaggeratetheconscious,transformative,andoriginalaspectsofpractice,andfurtherexaggeratethehistoricalroleoftheoryandevenintellectuals.Thereturnfromemphasizing"proletarianpractice"totheory-centrismandspeculativephilosophythrough"classconsciousness"isthehistoricaltragedyof"WesternMarxism".EvenLukácshimselfadmittedinhislateryearsthathisearlypractice(in"HistoryandClassConsciousness")wasactuallyakindofutopianism.Itshouldbenotedthatpracticeisaperceptualactivitybasedonexperience,anddirectrealityisitsbasiccharacter.Toexcludeexperienceanddailyproductionandlifemeanstoseparatefromthemasses,andofcoursethereisnopracticalspirittotalkabout.Relyingonthemasses,respectingtheiractualexperienceandgettingnourishmentfromitarethebasicrequirementsofthespiritofpractice.

Inshort,onlybasedonthepracticeofproletarianrevolutioncanwemaintainarevolutionarycriticalattitudetowardsreality,caninjectcohesionintothescatteredandtrivialdailypractice,andhavethepeople'sgreatcauseofmakinghistory.However,thisdoesnotmeantreatingthispracticeastheonlyformofpractice,nordoesitmeantreatingpracticeasapan-politicizedinterpretation.Infact,productionandlifearealwaysthedeepestfoundationofvariousformsofpractice,andthiscannotbeturnedthecartbeforethehorseatanytime.

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