●IPX (Internet work Packet Exchange): The third layer protocol is used to route and forward data packets passing through the Internet. It Specify a connectionless datagram, which is equivalent to the IP protocol in the TCP/IP protocol suite;
●SPX (Sequenced Packet Exchange, Sequential Packet Exchange Protocol): The fourth layer of the protocol is the IPX protocol suite The connection-oriented protocol is equivalent to the TCP protocol in the TCP/IP protocol suite;
●NCP (NetWare Core Protocol, NetWare Core Protocol): Provides connections and applications from the client to the server;>
●SAP (Service Advertising Protocol): used to advertise network services on the IPX network;
●IPX RIP (Routing Information Protocol, Novell routing information protocol): complete the router The exchange of routing information between and the formation of a routing table.
The IPX protocol supports the following 4 encapsulation formats on Ethernet, also called frame format, they are:
●Ethernet 802.3: also called Original Ethernet, called "novell-ether" in Cisco equipment, it is the default frame format in NetWare version 2 to version 3.1;
●Ethernet 802.2, also known as sap, is a standard IEEE Frame format, it is the standard frame format in NetWare version 3.12 to 4.x;
●Ethernet II, also known as arpa, adopts the header format of standard Ethernet version II;
●Ethernet SNAP (Subnet Access Protocol), or snap, extends the IEEE 802.2 header format by adding a SNAP.
Communications cannot be carried out between devices using different IPX encapsulation formats.
The length of the IPX network address is 80 bits (bit, composed of two parts, the first part is a 32-bit network number, and the second part is a 48-bit node number. The IPX address is usually represented by a hexadecimal number.
The IPX network number is assigned by the network administrator, and the network number can be defined according to the needs.
The IPX node number is usually the network The MAC address of the interface itself.
SAP is the IPX service announcement protocol, which can advertise the addresses and services provided by network resource devices such as network servers and print servers.
Routers It can monitor SAP update messages and establish a corresponding table of known services and corresponding network addresses. Clients can use the SAP table on the router to obtain information about online services and addresses, and then directly access the corresponding services.
Windows NT provides two protocols compatible with IPX/SPX: "NWLink IPX/SPX compatible transmission protocol" and "NWLink NetBIOS", the two are collectively referred to as "NWLink communication protocol". NWLink protocol is the IPX/SPX protocol in the Microsoft network On the one hand, it has the advantages of the IPX/SPX protocol, and on the other hand, it can adapt to Microsoft’s operating system and network environment. Windows NT network and Windows 9X users can use the NWLink protocol to obtain the NetWare server service. When the network is from the Novell platform The NWLink communication protocol is the best choice when switching to the Microsoft platform or when the two platforms coexist. However, in NWLink, the "NWLink IPX/SPX compatible protocol" is similar to the "IPX/SPX compatible protocol" in Windows 9X. As a client protocol to achieve access to the NetWare server, without the NetWare server, this compatible protocol will be useless; and the "NWLink NetBIOS" protocol can not only transfer information between the NetWare server and Windows NT, but also can be used for Windows NT computers. Communication between computers, Windows 95/98 computers, and between Windows NT computers and Windows 9X computers.
The full name is Internetwork Packet Exchange (Internetwork Packet Exchange). The IPX protocol is the lowest level network protocol that Novell NetWare comes with. It is mainly used to control the addressing and routing of data packets within or between LANs, and is only responsible for data packets Transmission in the local area network does not guarantee the integrity of the message, nor does it provide error correction services.
Application: When transmitting data packets in the local area network, if the receiving node is in the same In a network segment, the data is transmitted to it directly according to the ID of the node through the IPX protocol; if the receiving node is not in the same network segment, the data packet can be delivered to the NetWare server through the IPX protocol, and then continue to be transmitted. During use, the network administrator can use the corresponding IPX routing commands, such as "routing ipx add/set staticroute" means adding or configuring static IPX routing in the IPX routing table, and "routing ipx set global" means configuring global IPX routing Set up.
Full name Sequences Packet Exchange (Sequence Packet Exchange), SPX protocol is based on Xerox SPP (Sequences Packet Protocol) The protocol is also a network protocol for local area networks developed by Novell. In the local area network, the SPX protocol is mainly responsible for error-free processing of the entire transmitted data, that is, error correction.
Application: The SPX protocol is generally combined with the IPX protocol introduced above to form the IPX/SPX protocol for use, and it is mostly used in the Netware network environment and online games.