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Information Processing Technology



DevelopmentHistory

Ifthereisinformation,thereisinformationprocessing.Therecording,storageandtransmissionofinformationhaveappearedinmankindalongtimeago.The"knottednotes"inprimitivesocietyreferstotheuseofhempropeandchipsasinformationcarrierstorecordandstoreinformation.Thecreationofwords,theinventionofpapermakingandprintingisthefirsthugeleapininformationprocessing,andtheemergenceandwidespreaduseofcomputersisthesecondhugeleapininformationprocessing.Foralongtime,peoplehavebeenpursuingtheimprovementandenhancementofinformationprocessingtechnology,whichcanberoughlydividedintothreeperiods.

1.Manualprocessingperiod

Manualprocessingperiodistousemanualmethodstocollectinformation,writerecordstostoreinformation,useexperienceandsimplemanualcalculationstoprocessinformation,anduseportablestoragemediatotransmitinformation.Informationpersonnelareengagedinsimpleandtediousrepetitivetasks.Informationcannotbedeliveredtousersinatimelyandeffectivemanner,andmanyveryimportantinformationistoolatetobeprocessed,andevendelaysthewar.

2.Mechanicalinformationprocessingperiod

Withthedevelopmentofscienceandtechnologyandpeople’spursuitofimprovinginformationprocessingmethods,mechanicalandelectricprocessingtools,suchasabacus,tellermachines,andhand-crankedcomputers,havegraduallyappeared,Toacertainextent,lightentheburdenofthecalculator.Later,somemorecomplicatedelectromechanicaldevicesappeared,whichcanpunchdataonthecardandperformbatchprocessingandautomaticallyprinttheresults.Atthesametime,duetothewideapplicationoftelegraphandtelephone,themeansofinformationtransmissionhasalsobeengreatlyimproved.Mechanicalprocessinghasimprovedefficiencycomparedwithmanualprocessing,butthereisnoessentialimprovement.

3.Computerprocessingperiod

Withtheimprovementofcomputersystemsintermsofprocessingcapacity,storagecapacity,printingcapacityandcommunicationcapacity,especiallythedevelopmentofcomputersoftwaretechnology,itismoreandmoreconvenienttousecomputers,plusmicroelectronicsTechnologicalbreakthroughshavemademicrocomputersincreasinglycommercialized,thuscreatingexcellentmaterialconditionsfortheapplicationofcomputersinmanagement.Thisinformationprocessingperiodhasgonethroughtwostagesofsingleprocessingandcomprehensiveprocessing,andhasdevelopedtothestageofsystemprocessing.Inthisway,notonlytheprocessingofvariousaffairsisautomated,alargenumberofpeopleareliberatedfromtedioustransactionalwork,efficiencyisimproved,andadministrativecostsaresaved,butalsoduetothehigh-speedcomputingpowerofthecomputer,thevalueofinformationisgreatlyimproved,andthevalueofinformationcanbegreatlyimproved.Provideareliablebasisforforecastinganddecision-makinginmanagementactivitiesinatimelymanner.

Revolutionarychanges

Thefirstrevolutionininformationprocessingtechnologywastheemergenceanduseoflanguage.Intheprehistoricstage,humanbeingsusedgestures,eyes,movementsorsomekindofsignal(suchaslightingabeacon,knockinghardobjects,etc.)totransmitinformation,andusesenseorganstoreceivevariousnaturalinformationandadapttoit.Butthebrain,theorganforinformationprocessing,wasstillunderdeveloped.Sincehumanbeingshaverealizedthesystematicinformationoftheroleoffire,theyhavechangedfrompurelyadaptingtotheobjectiveworldtousinginformationtotransformtheworld,whichhasexpandedthescopeofhumanactivitiesandcommunication.Inproductionactivitiesandsocialactivities,peopleneedtoconstantlyexchangeinformation,solanguageisproduced.Languagehasthereforebecomethefirstcarrierofhumaninformationexchange.Languageisanimportantfeaturethatdistinguisheshumansfromothercreatures,andithasalwayshadanimportantinfluenceonthedevelopmentofhumansocietyandtheevolutionofhumanculture.Becausepeople’slogicalthinkingisinseparablefromlanguage,languageisatoolofthinking:atthesametime,languageisatoolforhumanstocommunicateconsciousnessandspreadinformation.Throughlanguagecommunication,humanbeingsnotonlyobtainalargeamountofinformation,butalsopromotethefurtherdevelopmentofthehumaninformationprocessingorgan-thebrain.Inthishistoricalperiod,humansrelyonthebraintostoreinformationandcommunicateanddisseminateinformationthroughlanguage.

Thesecondrevolutionininformationprocessingtechnologyistheinventionanduseofwords.Thelongevolutionaryprocessofthehumanbrainandtheuseoflanguagearetheearlystagesofhumandevelopmentandutilizationofinformationresources.Writingappearedaround3500BC.Theinventionofwritingsetanimportantmilestoneforthedevelopmentandutilizationofhumaninformationresources.Inthisperiod,inadditiontousinglanguagetospreadinformation,writingbecamethesecondcarrierofhumaninformationexchange.Thehumanbrainnotonlyreliesonthesensoryorganstodirectlymaintaincontactwiththeoutsideworld,butcanalsorelyonlanguageandwritingtomaintaincontactwiththeoutsideworldindirectly.Theappearanceofwordshasmadeamajorbreakthroughinthestorageanddisseminationofhumaninformation.Thetextrecordsthehumanwisdomandthinkingresults,canbestoredforalongtime,andcanbepassedontoothersorfuturegenerations.Writinggreatlybreaksthroughthelimitationsoftimeandregiononmankind,andplaysaveryimportantroleintheaccumulationofhumanknowledgeandthedevelopmentofcivilization.Butatthisstage,theinformationishand-carvedorcopiedonobjectssuchasbamboo,stone,fabric,paperandsoon.Themanualmethodnotonlyconsumeshugelaborandmakestheaccumulationandtransmissionofinformationcostly,butalsotheamountofaccumulationissmallandthespeedisslow.

Thethirdrevolutionininformationprocessingtechnologyistheinventionofprinting.DuringtheNorthernSongDynasty(aboutthe11thcentury),BiShenginventedmovabletypeprintingtechnology:inthemiddleofthe15thcentury,theGermanJ.Gutenberginventedmodernprintingtechnology.Theinventionofwritingpromotedtheaccumulationofalargeamountofinformation,andtheinventionofprintingtechnologypushedthedisseminationofwritinginformationtoanewheight.Collecttheaccumulatedinformationasneededandorganizeitsystematicallytoformknowledge.Theuseofprintingtechnologyisconducivetomassproductionandreproductionoftextualinformationandknowledge,promotesthewidespreaddisseminationofknowledge,andgivesfullplaytotheroleofknowledge.Sincethen,newspapersandbookshavebecomeimportantinformationstorageanddisseminationmediaformankind,greatlypromotingandpromotingthedisseminationofideasandtheprogressofhumancivilization.

Thefourthrevolutionininformationprocessingtechnologyistheuseoftelegraph,telephone,radioandtelevision.Theworld'sfirsttelegraphservicewasopenedbetweenWashingtonandBaltimoreintheUnitedStatesin1844;Bellinventedthetelephonein1876;Marconiinventedtheradioin1895;andtheBritishBroadcastingCorporation(BBC)officiallybroadcastedthecountryin1925:1925ItwasshownonBritishtelevisionforthefirsttimein1988...Inthestudyofelectromagneticwaves,peoplediscoveredthatelectromagneticwaves(includinglightwavebands)cancarryinformation,sotheystartedanattempttouseelectromagneticwavesforinformationtransmission.Thedevelopmentofscienceandtechnologysuchastelegraph,telephone,radio,andtelevisionhasbroughthumanbeingsintotheeraofusingelectromagneticwavestospreadinformation.Theuseofelectromagneticwavesasthecarriertotransmitinformationallowspeopletosurpassthelimitationsofspace.Notonlycantheylistentolanguageandaudioinformationatthemomenttheinformationissent,butalsocanviewimagesandtexts,soelectromagneticwaveshavebecomethethirdcarrierofhumaninformationexchange.Atthesametime,knowledgeandinformationcontinuetobewidelydisseminatedintheformofnewspapers,magazines,books,etc.,sothatthetransmissionofinformationhasspreadtotheentiresociety.

Thefifthrevolutionininformationprocessingtechnologyreferstoinformationtechnology.Thecoreofinformationtechnologyisthefusionofmoderncomputertechnologyandcommunicationtechnology.TheUnitedStatesinventedthefirstelectroniccomputerin1946:In1957,theformerSovietUnionlaunchedthefirstartificialsatellite.Theinventionofthecomputerandtheuseofmoderncommunicationtechnologyhavebroughtthedevelopmentandadvancementofthetechnologyofhumandevelopmentandutilizationofinformationresourcestoanewstageofcomputercommunication.Thecombinationofcomputerandcommunicationtechnologyisnotasimpleaddition,butproducesan"amazing"amplificationeffect.Asaninformationprocessingtool,thecomputer'sinformationstorage,processing,andtransmissioncapabilitiesareunmatchedbyanyothertechnologytoday.Informationtechnologywithcomputersasthecoreinvolvesalmostallaspectsofhumansociety,fromeconomytopolitics,fromproductiontoconsumption,fromscientificresearchtoeducation,fromsocialstructuretopersonallifestyle...Informationtechnologyhasawideimpactandagreateffect.Amazing.Informationtechnologypromotestheprogressofsocialcivilizationfromthetwoaspectsofsocialproductivityandhumanintelligencedevelopment,andwillhaveaprofoundandlong-lastingimpactonhumansociety.

Typesoftechnology

1.Informationsystemtechnology

Humanmanagementandutilizationofinformationarealldonethroughthetoolofinformationsystem,andvarioussystemscanonlybefullyintegratedintoacomprehensivesystem.Informationsystemtechnologyisacomputer-centrictechnologythatreliesondatabaseandcommunicationnetworktechnologytorealizeinformationprocessing.

2.Databasetechnology

Weliveinaseaof​​information,butinformationischaoticanddisordered.Onlybyturningchaoticanddisorderedinformationintoordercanwefindanduseit.Sortinginformationisthecorecontentofdatabasetechnology.Itcangatherrelatedinformationtorealizetheorderlystorageandeffectiveuseofinformation.

3.Retrievaltechnology

Statusandrole

(1)Informationprocessingtechnologyisanimportantpillarofinformationoperations

Inthefieldofinformationoperations,themainbodyofinformationprocessingtechnology——Computertechnologyandelectroniccomputersasinformationprocessingtoolsarethe"outerbrain"ofinformationwarfarecommandersandcommandandcontrolorganizations,andarethecoreoftheinformationwarfaresystem.Thecomputernetworkformedbyitconnectsvariousinformationsystems,informationweaponsystems,anddigitalforces,andrealizesautomationofinformationacquisition,transmission,processing,decision-makingassistance,commandandcontrol,displayandconfrontation.ItcanbeusedforinformationoperationscommandersandItscommandandcontrolorganizationprovidesprocessednecessary,timely,accurateandrelevantintelligenceinformation,sothatitcancommandtroopsandcontrolweaponsystemsina"transparent"informationizedbattlefieldtoperforminformationoperationstasks,andcoordinatejointoperationsofvariousservicesandarmstocaptureinformationVictoryinbattle.Thisshowsthatinformationprocessingtechnologyhasbecomeanimportantpillarofinformationoperations.Thelevelofapplicationofinformationprocessingtechnologyhasbecomeanimportantindicatorofthelevelofhigh-techapplicationsininformationoperations.

(2)Informationprocessingtechnologyisthekeyelementtorealizetheinformatizationofinformationwarfareweapons

Useinformationweaponsystemstoaccuratelystrikeandphysicallydestroytheenemy’scommandandcontrolagencies,informationsystems,Digitalforcesarethemaincontentofinformationoperations.Theinformatizationofweaponsandequipmentisinseparablefrominformationprocessingtechnology.Thedevelopmentofinformationprocessingtechnologyhasgreatlypromotedtheinformatizationofweaponsandequipment,makingtraditionalweaponsandequipmentmoreprecise,intelligent,remote,invisible,andunmanned.Thecomputer-basedinformationweaponsystemintegratessensordevices,computers,controlsystems,andcombatforces,andcombinesthemwithautomatedcommand,control,communication,intelligencesystems,andthebattlefieldenvironmenttoenableweaponsystemstolaunchandtargetTargetjudgment,recognition,precisepositioningandtrackinghavebeenautomated,greatlyimprovingitspenetration,lethalityandsurvivability.Precision-guidedweaponssuchascruisemissilescanbelaunchedoutsidetheenemy'sdefensezoneandaccuratelyhitthetargetwiththehelpofinformationprocessingtechnologytoachievelong-rangeprecisionstrikes.Infact,anyweaponandequipmentsystem,evenweaponsandequipmentusedbyindividualsoldiers,canbeembeddedinanelectroniccomputer,sothatitscombateffectivenesscanbeincreasedtenorhundredsoftimestomeettheneedsofinformationwarfare.

(3)Informationprocessingtechnologyisthematerialbasisforopeningupnewinformationwarfarebattlefields.

Computernetworkwarfareisthekeyoperationalactionofinformationwarfare."Informationoperationsthatusecomputeroffensiveanddefensivemeanstocontrolinformation,weakenordestroytheenemy'scomputernetwork,andenableone'scomputernetworktobetightlyprotected.Withtherapiddevelopmentandintegrationofinformationprocessingtechnologiessuchasmultimediatechnology,computingtechnology,reasoningtechnology,storagetechnology,softwaretechnology,databasetechnology,datawarehousetechnology,andsimulationtechnology,theunprecedenteddevelopmentofcomputernetworksusedininformationoperations,suchasinternationalTheInternet,variouscommandandcontrolsystems,globalandbattlefieldinformationinfrastructure,globalpersonalcommunicationnetworks,etc.Informationprocessingtechnologyhascontinuouslyexpandedthe"computercontrolspace",whichhasnotonlyopenedupanewbattlefieldforinformationwarfare—computercyberspace,butalsointensifiedcomputernetworkwarfare,includingcomputerprogramattacks,computerchipattacks,and"hacker"attacks.Avarietyofnewcombatoperationssuchasprotectionhaveemergedasthetimesrequire.Thewinnerofinformationoperationsinthefuturewillbelongtothesidethatseizesthenewinformationoperationsbattlefield-computernetworkspace.

(4)Informationprocessingtechnologyisthemainsupportforthereformofinformationcombatcommandandcontrolandtrainingmethods

Informationprocessingtechnology,suchasdatabasetechnologyanddatawarehousetechnology,simulationtechnology,virtualrealityTechnology,computingtechnology,displaytechnology,databasetechnology,datawarehousetechnologyandsoftwaretechnology,etc.,promotethetransformationandupdateofinformationwarfarecommandandcontrolmethodsandtrainingmethods,increasinglyshowingthattraditionalcommandandcontrol,trainingmethodsandmethodsareincomparableTheadvancednature.Informationprocessingtechnologyiswidelyusedinbattlefieldintelligencereconnaissance,informationtransmission,andcommandandcontrolsystems.Theinformationizedbattlefield,informationweaponsystem,anddigitalforceareintegratedintoawholethroughacomputernetwork,sothatthecommandandcontrolofinformationoperationscanbeinthenetworkstate.Real-timecommandandcontrolwithoutcommandlevelisimplementedforallcombatunits,andsomenewcommandandcontrolmethods,suchasnetworked,distributed,andmutualvisitcommandandcontrolmethods,standout.Informationprocessingtechnologyhasmadeaqualitativeleapintheenvironment,conditionsandmethodsofinformationwarfaretraining.Simulatedimmersiontrainingusingsimulationtechnologyputsasingletraineeinathree-dimensionalspiritualenvironmentthatsimulatesinformationwarfare,andonecanhelphimlearn.Thespecificenvironmentspeciallydesignedforpracticingtacticsandtechniquesallowsthemtodevotethemselvestotraining;virtualrealityanddistributedinteractivetrainingusingvirtualrealitytechnologyandcomputerinteractiontechnologyenablethetraineestoperformmoreunderrealisticconditionssimilartoactualcombat.Thelevelofsynthetictrainingandconfrontationtrainingchangesthetraditionaltrainingmodeof"apicture,afewpens,andasimplesandtable",whichgreatlyenhancesthescientific,confrontational,andeconomicalnatureoftraining.Itprovidesamodern"informationoperationslaboratory"forsimulationexercisesofinformationoperationsandtrainingoftroops.

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