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Blu-ray (disc storage technology)

Development History

The Blu-ray Disc format was developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA), which is an organization composed of consumer electronics companies, computer companies and media distributor giants , Was established on May 22, 2004. It has more than 170 member companies from all over the world.

On behalf of the company

The Blu-ray Disc Founders group consists of 13 members: led by Sony, including Dell, Hewlett-Packard, Hitachi, LG Electronics, Panasonic Electronics , Mitsubishi, Pioneer, Philips, Samsung Electronics, Sharp Electronics, Sony, TDK and Thomson.

Format dispute

In 1998, Philips and Sony took the lead in publishing a technical paper on the next generation of optical discs, and started to develop a single-sided, single-layer technical solution to achieve 23GB~25GB. The industry brought a surprise.

On February 19, 2002, with Sony, Philips, and Panasonic as the core, Hitachi, Pioneer, Samsung, LG, Sharp and Thomson jointly released version 0.9 of the Blu-ray Disc (BD for short) technology Standard. Blu-ray means BlueRay (Blu-ray), so on February 19th it also officially indicated the birth of the next-generation DVD candidate-Blu-ray Disc.

The BD Group then officially released the BD specification version 1.0 on June 14, 2002, with a total of 3 volumes for a total of 5,000 US dollars. This indicates that the BD design has been fully established.

Although BD and HD-DVD will be the next generation of Blu-ray storage standards, the dispute has always existed, but this has also prompted the two companies to continue to innovate and carry out technological reforms. In 2003, the blue laser head reached the level of production, but blue light products suitable for market launch only began to appear in 2006.

In 2006, Sony, Pioneer, Samsung, etc. all released their Blu-ray technology and Blu-ray products, and all put forward their own Blu-ray plans. In the Chinese market, on July 19, 2006, BenQ was the first to launch its molded Blu-ray products. It can be said that 2006 is the true "first year of Blu-ray".

In August 2008, China Hualu became the first domestic member to join the International Blu-ray Alliance and the only contribution-level member, and officially submitted the DRA audio coding standard and AVS video coding standard.

On February 16, 2008, the headline news reported by NHK Television in Japan reported a shocking news: Toshiba announced its abandonment of the HD-DVD format. According to the news program, Toshiba has declared a complete failure in this "Next-Generation DVD Standard War", with losses of up to tens of billions of yen. At the same time, the Tokyo branch of Reuters also published the news that "Toshiba gave up HD-DVD and ended the format war."

From the announcement that Microsoft, which only supports HD-DVD, supports both formats at the same time, to some time ago, Warner’s defection in the HD-DVD camp. The HD-DVD camp led by Toshiba can be said to be getting more and more difficult. Today Even Toshiba has announced the abandonment of the HD-DVD format. This battle over specifications that has lasted for several years finally ended in the victory of Blu-ray.

Physical format

A single-layer Blu-ray disc has a capacity of 25 or 27GB, which is enough to burn a 4-hour high-resolution video. According to the Sony Group, it only takes about 50 minutes to burn a single-layer 25GB Blu-ray disc at 6x speed. The double-layer Blu-ray disc has a capacity of 46 or 54GB, which is enough to burn a high-resolution video up to 8 hours. And the capacity is 100 or 200GB and 400GB, it is 4 layer, 8 layer and 16 layer respectively.

Blu-ray discs use a blue-violet laser with a wavelength of 405nm for reading and writing. The large storage capacity is mainly due to these three writing modes: 1. Reduce the laser spot to shorten the track pitch (0.32μm) Increasing the capacity, the pits (0.15μm) that make up the 0 and 1 digital data of Blu-ray discs are much smaller than that of traditional DVD and CD discs. The reason is that the wavelength of the blue-violet laser is shorter and the focal point diameter is smaller after focusing. 2. Use different reflectivity to achieve multi-layer writing effect. 3. The way of parallel writing of grooves and tracks increases the recording space. The high storage capacity of blue light comes from improving the wavelength of the laser light source and the numerical aperture (0.85) of the objective lens (405nm).

Software format

Java software support

In 2005, the Blu-ray Disc Alliance announced that Blu-ray Discs will be added to the Java technology by Sun Microsystems, Blu-ray Disc players and Blu-ray discs can make linkage functions.

Region Code

* The first region (A/1): North America, Central America, South America (excluding French Guiana), Japan, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Korean Peninsula and Southeast Asia

* The second zone (B/2): Europe, Greenland, French colonies, the Middle East, Africa, Australia and New Zealand

* The third zone (C/ 3): India, Russia, China, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan and Central Asia, South Asia

Digital Rights Management

Blu-ray discs mainly use three methods for digital rights management (DRM) ), including:


AACS is written as Advanced Access Content System, which is formulated by AACS LA (AACS Licensing Administrator). Jointly developed companies include Disney, Intel, Microsoft, Mitsubishi, Matsushita Electric Industrial, Warner Bros., International Business Machines, Toshiba and Sony. AACS is responsible for protecting the content of the disc, which is an important part of digital copyright protection.


BD+ is a miniature virtual machine stored on Blu-ray Discs, which allows authorized Blu-ray Disc players to play Blu-ray Discs.

ROM Mark

ROM Mark is a password-blocking data, attached to the content of the Blu-ray disc, responsible for monitoring and preventing the content of the Blu-ray disc from being decoded by unauthorized playback programs Content



The Blu-ray Disc Alliance explains that all authorized Blu-ray Disc players can correspond downwards, including DVD-ROM, VCD and CD, but some CDs cannot be played in some Blu-ray Disc players.

Computer file storage

Blu-ray discs use the CDFS format. You can use the Blu-ray burner to write data, divided into BD-R (single burn) and BD-RE (multiple Sub-burning) format.


Due to the great disagreement between the Blu-ray Disc Alliance and the DVD Forum, the international organization that established the DVD standard, the Blu-ray Disc format was not submitted to the DVD Forum . On the contrary, HD-DVD jointly developed by Toshiba and NEC was approved and officially named by the DVD Forum in November 2003, and HD-DVD was supported by Microsoft and Intel. Therefore, the two camps of Blu-ray Disc and HD-DVD have officially launched a format competition, striving to become the next-generation standard disc format.

Can Blu-ray discs completely replace the old DVD discs? Blu-ray manufacturers are so expecting. JVC recently produced a Blu-ray disc that can store 33.5G of data for the distribution of high-definition movie discs. However, there are several other products that are ambitiously planning to replace traditional DVD discs:

The biggest competitor is naturally HD-DVD, also known as AOD, produced by electronics giants Toshiba and NEC. In fact, HD-DVD's technology was mature before DVD occupied the optical media market, but it was not until 2003 that HD-DVD began mass production to seize market share.

The biggest advantage of HD-DVD is that its manufacturing process is the same as that of traditional DVD. Manufacturers can use the original DVD production equipment to manufacture, without the need to invest in rebuilding the production line. In terms of storage capacity, HD-DVD and Blu-ray are comparable. A writable single-layer HD-DVD can store 15G of data, double-layer can store 30G, and three-layer can store 45G; while the storage capacity of a single-layer Blu-ray disc is 27G and double-layer storage is 50G. The storage capacity difference between the two media in the read-only format is also very small. Moreover, HD-DVD also provides an interactive mode.

In addition to the two major optical storage giants, Blu-ray and HD-DVD, there are other products on the market. For example, HD-DVD-9, a self-made product of Warner Bros., has a higher compression ratio and larger storage data. The FVD made in Taiwan is a large-capacity upgraded version of the traditional DVD. There is EVD in mainland China, which is also a large-capacity storage medium.

For different customers, Blu-ray disc products have different classifications. Sony has developed two types of Blu-ray Discs, XDCAM and Prodata. The former is mainly used to store radio and TV programs, and the latter provides commercial data storage solutions (for example, server data backup).

Technology comparison

Blue light (abbreviated as BD) uses a blue laser with a shorter wavelength (405nm) to read and write data, hence the name. The traditional DVD requires a red laser (wavelength of 650nm) from the light head to read or write data. Generally speaking, the shorter the wavelength of the laser, the more information can be recorded or read per unit area. Therefore, Blu-ray has greatly increased the storage capacity of optical discs. For optical storage products, Blu-ray provides an opportunity for leap-forward development.

On the surface, the materials of the three discs are similar, but the thickness is somewhat different, but their capacities are quite different. The capacity of a DVD disc is basically 7 times that of a CD disc, and a Blu-ray disc is about 5 times that of a DVD. For a disc, the capacity is already very large.

The minimum pit length of the CD is 0.834 microns, the track pitch is 1.6 microns, and the infrared laser with a wavelength of 780-790nm is used to read the data. The minimum pit length of the DVD is only 0.4 micrometers, the track pitch is 0.74 micrometers, and an infrared laser with a wavelength of 635 to 650 nm is used to read data. The minimum pit length of the Blu-ray Disc is only 0.14 microns, the track pitch is 0.32 microns, and the blue laser with a wavelength of 405nm is used to read and write data, hence the name. From the above figures, it is not difficult to see that the recording points of optical discs are getting smaller and smaller, and the optical breaks used are getting shorter and shorter, so the information that can be recorded is even greater.

The design of Blu-ray discs helps to save manufacturing costs. The traditional DVD production method is: injection molding two 0.6 mm discs, the recording layer is located between the two discs. To prevent birefringence, the production process must be very careful.

  • Mould these two discs first.

  • Add the recording layer to one of the discs.

  • Then glue the two discs together.

Blu-ray discs only need to perform an injection molding process on a 1.1 mm disc, thereby reducing costs. The cost saved can be offset by the cost of adding a protective layer, so the final price is not higher than that of ordinary DVDs.

Currently, the transmission rate of DVD is 10Mbps (megabits per second), and the data transmission rate of Blu-ray Disc is even higher at 36Mbps. Blu-ray discs can record 25GB of content in less than two hours.

Comparison of formats:

In the beginning, DVDs and CDs were only read-only formats, and gradually, recordable and rewritable formats were introduced. Blu-ray discs are designed in several different formats at the beginning:

·BD-ROM (read only), suitable for pre-recorded content

·BD-R (recordable) , Suitable for PC data storage

·BD-RW (rewritable), suitable for PC data storage

·BD-RE (rewritable), suitable for HD TV recording

Identify true and false

Just look at the box. DVD only prints "Blu ray" on the envelope, while Blu-ray comes with a box, regardless of whether it is true or false.

True and fake Blu-ray:

Look at the price: the real Blu-ray, the production line is in Hong Kong, the production cost of a disc is about 60 yuan, 38 yuan Is definitely fake. There are also many confiscated Blu-ray movies below this price.

Look at the packaging box: mainly look at the "Blue ray" logo, the fake silver print is very rough.

Look at the printing: the cover may not be very different. Look at the words on the back cover. The fake color registration is very poor, and there will be ghosting. The fake basic printing seen on the market is very poor. .

Look at the disc base: The data recording layer of Blu-ray discs generally presents dark blue to blue-violet, while DVD media presents silvery white or gold.

Computer read: The capacity of the disc can be recognized under Windows VISTA system (Windows XP system only needs to install a tool that can recognize UDF 2.5 format), the minimum capacity of DVD and Blu-ray below 8.6GB must be Is 25GB.


  • On February 19, 2002, the Blu-ray Disc Founders, the predecessor of the Blu-ray Disc Association, was established, and the Blu-ray Disc format specification was officially launched .

  • In February 2003, the Blu-ray Disc Working Group began to provide a new generation of optical disc specifications-Blu-ray Disc technical license.

  • In April 2003, Sony launched the world's first Blu-ray disc recorder in Japan.

  • On May 18, 2004, in order to highlight the openness principle of the association, the Blu-ray Disc Founders formally changed its name to "Blu-ray Disc Association" (Blu-ray Disc Founders). rayDiscAssociation).

  • At the beginning of 2006, Blu-ray disc players were sold globally.

  • In June 2006, the Blu-ray Disc Association released Blu-ray Disc related products at the International Consumer Electronics Show (CES).

  • On July 19, 2006, BenQ first launched its molded Blu-ray drive product BR1000 in the Chinese market.

  • On October 14, 2006, Sony launched the world’s first notebook computer "VAIOA' series with a Blu-ray Disc player.

  • On November 11, 2006, Sony Computer Entertainment (SCE) began to sell the next-generation game console "PlayStation3" equipped with a Blu-ray disc player in Japan.

  • In August 2007, China Hualu Group formally submitted a proposal to the Blu-ray Disc Association, hoping to incorporate China’s self-developed DRA technology into the Blu-ray Disc audio standard.

  • August 24, 2007 , Pioneer Company officially listed the Blu-ray player BDP-LX70 in China.

  • On September 1, 2007, the Blu-ray Disc Association was held at the Consumer Electronics Show (IFA) in Berlin, Germany Announced that Blu-ray discs have occupied 90% of the next-generation optical disc market in Japan, and the sales of Blu-ray discs in Europe have also been ahead of HDDVD by a ratio of 3:1. In the United States, more than 66% of the next-generation optical disc market is occupied by Blu-ray discs. /p>

  • At the end of 2007, Sony launched the first high-definition player BDP-S300/BM with Blu-ray DVD in China.

  • On January 4, 2008, Warner Bros. Entertainment announced that it only supports Blu-ray discs as the movie disc format.

  • January 5, 2008, Times NewLine Cinema, a subsidiary of TimeWarner, expressed support for Blu-ray.

  • On January 9, 2008, another subsidiary of Time Warner, HBO, also expressed support The release of Blu-ray discs.

  • On January 28, 2008, Woolworths Group PLC in the United Kingdom announced that only Blu-ray discs will be sold in all stores from now on.

  • On February 11, 2008, BestBuy, a major US retailer, announced that all stores began to fully support Blu-ray disc players, DVDs and related products. On the same day, online movie store Netflix also made the same Decided,.

  • On February 15, 2008, Wal-Mart, the largest chain retailer in the United States, announced that all stores will only sell Blu-ray discs from June. Players, DVDs and related products.

  • On February 19, 2008, Toshiba President Atsutoshi Nishida announced that the company has decided to stop the development of all HDDVD players and recorders. At the same time, the production of HDDVD disc players for computers and games was immediately discontinued. With the withdrawal of the HDDVD leader Finally, the battle for the next-generation optical disc format that had lasted for many years was officially brought to an end, and the Blu-ray Disc finally won.

  • In July 2008, Beijing CESI Technology Co., Ltd. (CESI) designated China’s first Blu-ray Disc product testing center to provide domestic Blu-ray Disc manufacturers with Carry out the selection of product testing.

  • On January 20, 2009, Shanghai Xinsuo Music Co., Ltd. established a Blu-ray disc copy production line, and the monthly production capacity of Blu-ray discs is expected to reach 500,000.

  • On March 18, 2009, the Blu-ray Disc Association, China Hualu Group, and Guangzhou Guangsheng Digital Technology Co., Ltd. jointly announced in Beijing: DRA (Digital Audio Codec) technology has been As an optional codec technology for the Blu-ray Disc format, it is written in version 2.3 of the BD-ROM format.

  • In July 2009, 25 manufacturers in China obtained FLLA (Blu-ray Disc Format and Labeling License Agreement) authorization.

  • On August 10, 2009, Toshiba applied to join the Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA).

  • On September 2, 2009, the Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA) announced its plan to incorporate 3D technology into the Blu-ray Disc (BD) format.

  • On September 13, 2013, optical disc manufacturer Singulus announced that Blu-ray discs with a capacity of 100GB for storing 4K content have come out.

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