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AddressProtocol

TheInternetreliesontheTCP/IPprotocoltorealizetheinterconnectionofdifferenthardwarestructures,differentoperatingsystems,anddifferentnetworksystemsonaglobalscale.OntheInternet,eachnodereliesonauniqueIPaddresstodistinguishandcommunicatewitheachother.TheIPaddressisa32-bitbinarynumberaddress,composedof48-bitfields,eachfieldisseparatedbyadot,usedtoidentifytheTCP/IPhost.

EachIPaddresscontainstwoparts:networkIDandhostID.ThenetworkIDidentifiesallhostsonthesamephysicalnetwork,andthehostIDidentifieseachhostonthephysicalnetwork,soeverycomputerontheentireInternetisidentifiedbyitsownuniqueIPaddress.

TheIPaddressconstitutesthebasisoftheentireInternet.ItissoimportantthateverynetworkedcomputerhasnorighttosetitsownIPaddress.Thereisaunifiedorganization-IANAisresponsibleforassigninguniquenesstotheorganizationapplyingforit.TheorganizationcanassignauniquehostIDtoeachhostinitsownnetwork,justasanorganizationhasnorighttodetermineitsownstreetnameandhousenumberinthecitytowhichitbelongs,butcanindependentlydeterminethevariousinternalTheofficenumberisthesame.

Classification

Networkaddressesarecurrentlydividedintofivecategories,representedbytheEnglishlettersA,B,C,D,andE.Theyaredividedintotwoformatsegments,withthenetworknumberinfront.Thehostnumberfollows.StartingfromTypeA,thelengthofthepreviousnetworknumberiseight,sixteen,andtwenty-fourdigits.Ifyousimplyunderstand,becausethenetworknumberoftypeAhasonlyeightdigits,therearefewernetworknumbersthatcanbeallocated,andtypeDandEarededicatedcategories,sothemostusedaretypesBandC.Theyaredistinguishedbythefixedsequencenumberatthefront.

Addresstype

IPv4

ThecharacteristicsofIPv4aremainlyreflectedinthefollowingaspects:

(1)IPv4addressspaceislessthan4billion,feweractuallycanbeused.

(2)IPv4doesnotdistinguishbetweennetworkterminalhostsandterminaldevices,andeachcomputercanbeusedasahostandarouter.Theroutingprotocolmanagesroutingtablerecords.Commonroutingprotocolsincluderoutinginformationprotocol,openshortestpathprotocol,bordergatewayprotocol,etc.

(3)IPv4isindependentofspecificnetworkhardwareandcanrunonlocalareanetworks,wideareanetworks,andtheInternet.Thenetworkaddressallocationplanisunique,andthedevicehasauniqueaddress.

(4)IPv4lackssecuritysupportandcannotrealizethenetworkreal-namesystem.Thenodeconfigurationinthenetworkisverycomplicatedandcannotmeettheuser's"plugandplay"demand.

IPv6

ThemainfeaturesofIPv6areasfollows:

(1)IPv6addresslengthis128bits,whichisconvenientforhierarchicalmanagementstructureandimprovesthroughputAndnetworktransmissionefficiency.

(2)IPv6hashighersecurityandprovidesprivacysettingssuchasidentityauthenticationandprivacy.

(3)IPv6addsmulticastsupportandconvectionsupporttoensurethequalityofservice.Inaddition,IPv6canalsouseautomaticconfiguration,whichisconducivetonetworkmanagementandconvenientapplications.

Thereareproblems

ThesolutiontotheshortageandwasteofnetworkaddressesproducessubnetstoreducethewasteofIP.Inrecentyears,withthecontinuousemergenceofnewnetworksandtherapiddevelopmentofnetworktechnology,underthecurrentIPV4protocol,someofthenewnetworkterminalsproducedhavehundredsof,andsomehaveonlyafew,whichresultsinIPaddresses.Inordertoreducetheoccurrenceofthiskindofwaste,subnetdivisioncameintobeing.Theimportantfeatureofsubnettingisthesubnetmask.ThesubnetmaskcandividetheIPaddressintotwoparts:thehostaddressandthenetworkaddress.SubnettingcanpartiallyshieldtheIPaddress,andthendistinguishthehostIDandthenetworkID,indicatingthatitisanIPonaremotenetworkoranIPonalocalareanetwork,andsubnettingcandividealargenetworkintoasmallnetworkthatiseasytomanage.AnothermethodisNATaddresstranslation:NetworkaddresstranslationisalsoNATtechnology.TheIPV4protocolcommonlyusedintheInternetnowhasmanydefects,butthetimeperiodforthedevelopmentandwidespreaduseofIPV6islong,andNATtechnologycaneffectivelyextendtheservicelifeofIPV4.NATcanmodifytheIPinthesourcedatapackettoshieldtheinternalnetwork.IfyouwanttoincreasethescopeofuseofNAT,newperformancedevelopmentmustbecarriedout.ThekeystepofNATtechnologyistheformationofthetranslationtableontheNATconfigurationrouter.AslongastheformationoftheNATtranslationtableiscompleted,allworkisbasicallyfinished.

Developmenttrend

ThenetworkaddresscomplieswiththeIPV4protocol.Withthecontinuousincreaseofnetworkusers,therehasbeenatrendthatcannotmeettheneedsofusers.ThenewdevelopmentdirectionisIPV6.Infact,itsdevelopmentiseasytounderstand.Since32bitscannolongermeetthedemand,themostdirectwayisofcoursetoextendthenumberofbits.IPV6expandstheaddressto128bits.However,sincethepreviousnetworkcommunicationhasalwaysusedthepreviousprotocol,theworkingstandardsofmanyhardwarecommunicationdeviceshavenotchanged,sothisisabottleneckprobleminthedevelopment.Tochangethestandardfromanewdevice,howtoconverttheworkingdesignstandardisanimportantissuetobeconsideredinpracticalapplications.

IPaddress

Definition

IPaddressisawayofaddressinghostsontheInternet.Eachcomputerisassignedalogicaladdress,sothatnotonlyThecomputercanidentifyandshareinformation.TheIPaddressisa32-bitbinarynumber,whichisusuallydividedinto4"8-bitbinarynumbers".TheIPaddressislikeahomeaddress.Ifauserwantstotransmitinformation,hemustknowtheIPaddress.Thehomeaddressismainlyexpressedinwords.TheIPaddressisrepresentedbybinarynumbers.OnlywhenusershaveacertaindegreeofunderstandingofIPaddressescantheyrealizetheroleofIPaddressesintheirlives,andtheneffectivelydivideIPaddresses.

Function

ThenetworkaddressisnotwritteninChinesecharacters,butisactuallya32-bitbinarynumberstream.Butallnetworkusershaveneverenteredabinarystreaminthenetwork,isthereanerror?Ofcoursenot,becausethe32-bitlengthistoolongandnoteasytoremember.Therefore,itisobviouslyinappropriatefornetworkuserstomemorizethe32-digitseries.Peoplecameupwithanotherrepresentationmethodcalleddotteddecimalnotation.Thespaceislimited.Simplyput,itistouse8-digitdecimalnumberstorepresentthe32-digitbinarynumberseries..Here,somefriendswhohavemorecomputeroperationsmayhaveacertainimpression.However,mostInternetusersstillenteraspecificURLinthebrowser,suchaswww.baidu.com,andweonlyneedtorememberthisname.Thisisthedomainnameresolutionofthenetworkaddressfortheconvenienceofusers.Inotherwords,itistogiveanetworkaddressamemorablename.Thereisaone-to-onecorrespondencebetweenthetwo.Usingthepreviousexample,"HarbinRailwayTechnicalVocationalCollege"correspondstoanaddress,whichinturnisrepresentedbythisname.Ifyouwanttogotothisaddressanddon'tknowwhereyouare,youtakeataxiandsaythename,andthedriverwillfindthecorrespondingplacebasedonthenameoftheunit.Sothetwocorrespondtoeachother.Allinall,thenetworkIPaddresscandescribethelocationofdifferentnodesinthenetwork,usesomeprotocolstoachieveaccess,andatthesametimeusesimpleandeasy-to-remembernamestoachieveaccess.

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