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Tactics



Dividedfromdifferentperspectives,tacticsareclassifiedintodifferentcategories:offensivetacticsanddefensivetacticsaredividedaccordingtothebasictypeofbattle;dividedintojointtacticsandcontracttacticsaccordingtoform;dividedintoservicetacticsandarmstacticsaccordingtoserviceandarms;Accordingtothescale,itisdividedintocorpstactics,trooptacticsandunittactics.

Sincetheemergenceoftactics,thearmiesofvariouscountrieshaveputforwardmanycombatprinciplesfromdifferentanglesandsides.Theprinciplesthatarecommon,stableandstillusedundermodernconditionsaremainly:preservationofoneselfandeliminationTheenemyisthebasicpurposeofcombat.

Inbattle,destroyingtheenemyisthemainthing,andpreservingyourselfissecond;onlybydestroyingalargenumberofenemiescanyoueffectivelypreserveyourself.Offenseanddefensearethebasicmeanstoachievecombatgoals.Offenseisproactiveandisthemainmeansofdestroyingtheenemy;defenseispassive,whichisameansofpreservingoneselfandassistingoffense.Theuseofinformatizedweaponsandequipmentincombathasimprovedtheabilitytodestroytheenemyandalsoincreasedthedifficultyofpreservingoneself.

Inthebattle,wemustgivefullplaytotheeffectivenessofvariousweaponsandequipment,flexiblyusevarioustactics,bebraveandtenacious,resoluteandactive,annihilateorcontroltheenemy;atthesametime,takevariouseffectivemeasures,especiallystrengtheningtheenemyToprotectagainstattacksbyweaponssuchasnuclear,chemical,biological,precisionguidance,etc.,trytopreserveyourownstrengthasmuchaspossible.

Knowingtheenemyandconfidantisthebasisforthecorrectguidanceofcombat.Inorganizingandcarryingoutbattles,oneshouldbefamiliarwiththesituationofthehostileparties,andfindoutthelawofactionfromit,anduseittoguideone'sownactions,sothatsubjectiveguidanceconformstoobjectivereality.

Inthebattleundertheconditionsofinformationization,variousreconnaissancemethodsmustbeusedtocontinuouslyacquireandfindouttheenemy’sattempts,deploymentofforces,andmethodsofcombatoperations.Itmayuseweaponssuchasnuclear,chemical,biological,andprecisionguidance.Tograspthecharacteristicsoftheenemy’sactions,andtoforeseeitspossibledevelopmentandchange;tocorrectlyunderstandthecombatintentionsofthesuperior,tobefamiliarwiththespecialtiesandcombatcapabilitiesofthevariousservices,arms,andunitsinvolvedinthewar;tobefamiliarwiththebattlefieldenvironmentandtounderstanditsactionsonbothsidesTheprosandconsoftherelationship.Onthisbasis,acomprehensivecomparison,analysis,andjudgmentofallaspectsofthesituationaremade,andtheyaremakinguptheirmindstodeterminethetacticsthatcanpromoteone'sownstrengthsanddefeattheenemy'sshortcomings,andformulateadetailedbattleplan.

Duringthebattle,keepabreastofthedevelopmentandchangesofthebattlefieldsituation,andmodifythebattleplanintime;whenthesituationchangessignificantly,newjudgmentsanddeterminationsaremadeintime,newmethodsofaction,oradjustmentsaremadeTheactionsofthetroopsmakesubjectiveguidanceconsistentwiththeever-changingobjectivereality.Concentratingsuperiorforcesandmasteringtheinitiativeincombatisthefundamentalmethodfordefeatingtheenemy.

Inthebattleundertheconditionsofinformationtechnology,whetheroffensiveordefensive,itisnecessarytoconcentratestrongforcesandfirepowerinthemaindirectionandimportanttiming,andcarryoutin-depthevacuationarrangements.Theconcentrationofpowerstrivestobefast,concealedandtimely.

Whenattacking,concentratefirepowerandelectroniccountermeasures,implementfull-depthcomprehensivefirepowerkillingandelectronicinterferencetoenemiesinmaindirectionsfromdifferentheights,differentdistances,anddifferentdirections,andmaintainuninterruptedfirepoweradvantages;Themainforcesuddenlyandquicklyconcentratesonthemainbreakthrougharea,andbreaksthroughtheenemy'sdefensebycombininggroundattackandairassault;timelymaneuveringthefollow-upforce,maintainingtheoffensivesharpness,andimplementingdivisionandencirclementoftheenemywiththecooperationofthein-depthstrikeforce,Three-dimensionalblockade,eachannihilated.

Duringdefense,themainforces,firepowerandequipmentareconcentratedinthemaindefensivedirectiontoformafull-depth,all-roundandfocuseddefensesystem.Concentratefirepowertoattacktheenemyinthemaindirection,maintainthemainpositionwiththemainforce,timelymaneuverforce,firepower,electronicinterferenceforceandobstacleequipmenttoenhanceorsupportthedefenseinthemaindirection,anduseactivecounter-impactandcounter-attackactionstodefeattheenemy'soffensive.

Theinitiativeisthefreedomofmovementofthearmy,andthefreedomofmovementisthelifebloodofthearmy.Flexibilityistheabilityofacommandertoproperlyhandlesituations,anditisamanifestationofconsciousinitiativeincombat.Theadvantageofstrengthisthebasisforstrivingforinitiative.Correctsubjectiveguidance,flexibleuseofforces,andchangeoftacticsareimportantconditionsforseizingandmaintainingtheinitiativeanddefeatingtheenemy.Inthebattleundertheconditionsofinformationization,thesituationiscomplexandchangesarerapid.Commandersmustgivefullplaytotheirsubjectiveinitiativeandflexiblycommandbattlesonanobjectivematerialbasis.

Incombat,youmustactivelyattacktomakeyourselfintheactiveposition;whenyouareindefense,strivetotakeactiveoffensiveactions,getridofpassivity,andstrivefortheinitiative;inthemaindirectionandimportanttiming,concentrateyourtroopsandfirepowerinatimelymannerFormandmaintainanadvantageagainsttheenemywithelectroniccountermeasures;extensivelymaneuver,establishafavorablesituation,activelyseekandcreatetheenemy’sweaknessesandmistakes,mobilizetheenemyandmakeitfallintoapassiveposition;deploycleverlyaccordingtothetask,enemysituation,oursituation,andterrainForces,adoptappropriatemethodsofaction;begoodatobservingthebattlefieldsituation,assessthesituation,reactquickly,flexiblymaneuverforces,firepower,andelectroniccountermeasures,changemethodsofaction,andstrikeattheenemywithoutlosingtheopportunity;whenthesituationchangessignificantlyorcommunicationwithsuperiorsisinterrupted,Accordingtothegeneralintentionsofthesuperiors,actproactivelyanddecisively,andcompletecombattasksflexiblyandproactively.

Unexpectedactionscanchangethestrengthsandweaknessesoftheopponents,maketheenemyloseitsadvantageandinitiative,andwinabigvictoryatasmallprice.

Inthebattleundertheconditionsofinformatization,carefulreconnaissanceisrequiredtodiscovertheenemy’sweaknessesandmasteritslawsofaction;takeeffectivedisguiseandsecrecymeasurestoimplementforces,firepower,andelectronicfeintstodeceiveandconfusetheenemy.Causingtheenemy'sillusionandunconsciousness,concealingone'sownattemptsandactions;usingnightdarkness,complexweatherconditionsandfavorableterrain,concealingandquicklyapproachingtheenemy,andconcentratingtroops,fireassaultsandelectronicinterferenceattimesandplacesunexpectedbytheenemy;Takingadvantageoftheenemy'schaosandcoordinationfailure,wewilllosenotimetoannihilatetheenemy.

Underaunifiedplan,allservicesandarmsactinacoordinatedmanneraccordingtopurpose,time,andlocation,givingfullplaytotheiroverallpower,andworkingtogethertoattacktheenemy.Thisisthekeytovictoryinbattle.

Inthebattleundertheconditionsofinformationtechnology,theparticipatingtroopsmustimplementunifiedtacticalthinkingandimplementcentralizedandunifiedcommand;thecommanderisfamiliarwiththeservice,thespecialtiesofthearmsandthecombatcapabilitiesofeachunit,aswellastheperformanceofvariousweaponsandequipment.Onthebasisofthemethodsandmethodsofuse,basedontheintentionsofthesuperiors,thetroopsshouldbeusedrationally,andthetasksshouldbeproperlydifferentiated;thetroopsmustcorrectlyunderstandtheintentofthesuperiors,resolutelyimplementthecombatdetermination,strictlyimplementthecoordinationplan,observethecoordinationdiscipline,activelycooperate,andsupporteachother.

Incombat,usethecommandinformationsystemtocommandandcoordinatetheactionsofthetroops,uninterruptedlycoordinatecombatoperationsindifferentspacesandfieldssuchasground,air,sea,electromagnetic,andnetwork,sothatfirepower,assault,andmaneuver,Informationconfrontationandprotectionarecloselyintegrated.Whenthesituationchangesorthecoordinationisoutofcoordinationorisdestroyed,coordinatedactionsshouldbeadjustedorrestoredinatimelymannertoensurethatthecombatmissioniscompletedinacoordinatedmanner.

Comprehensiveandrigorouscombatoperationssupport,logisticssupportandequipmentsupportareofgreatsignificanceforthesmoothimplementationofcombatmissions.

Forcombatundertheconditionsofinformatization,themainsupportforces,materialsandequipmentmustbeconcentrated,themaindirectionsandtheactionsofthetroopsperformingthemaintasks,andthecontrolofreserveforces;varioussupportoperationsmustbeconsistentwithcombatoperations.Requirements:Combineprofessionalunitsupportwiththetroops'ownsupport;usestandardequipmentsupportwitheasy-to-useequipmentsupport.Duringthebattle,itisnecessarytoestablishafullrangeofreconnaissanceandsecuritysystems,andadoptvariouscamouflagemeasurestopreventsuddenattacksbytheenemy;adoptelectronicoffensivescombinedwithattacksbehindenemylinestocounterandstoptheenemy’selectronicreconnaissanceandinterference;Protectionfromenemynuclear,chemical,biological,andprecisionguidanceweaponsattacks;strengthenengineeringsupport,improveprotectionandmobilitycapabilities,andlimittheenemy’smobility;organizeequipmentmaintenanceandrepairsinatimelymanner;comprehensivelyusevariousforcestosupplymaterialsandequipmentneededforcombatinatimelymanner;Treatthewoundedandsickintimetoconsolidateandimprovethecontinuouscombatcapabilityofthetroops.

BattlePrinciples.Inadditiontothetraditionalninecombatprinciples,theU.S.militaryalsostipulatesthefiveprinciplesofinitiative,depth,agility,coordination,andversatilityforair-groundintegratedoperations.TheRussianarmywillmaintainregularcombatpreparations,implementcombatresoluteness,enthusiasm,anduninterruptedness,andmakefulluseofspiritualandpsychologicalfactors,whicharealsolistedascombatprinciples.

Themaincontentofoffensivetacticsincludesthecharacteristicsofoffensivecombat,theprinciplesofoffensivecombat,andtheuseofoffensivetacticsundermodernconditions.

Offensivecombathastheinitiativetochoosetheattackdirection,target,timingandmethod,whichfacilitatesthesuddennessofthebattle;canprepareforcombatinadvance,whichisconvenientforformingafavorablebalanceofforces;canimplementawiderangeofmaneuversandiseasytouseFireassaulteffectandfavorablesituation;itisdifficulttousegoodpositionconditions,anditiseasytobekilledbyenemyfire.

Offensivebattlesareusuallycarriedoutinacomplex,changeableandfierceconfrontationalenvironmentatthesametimeinthefull-dimensionalspaceofthebattlefield,withstrongsuddenness,flexibility,andmobility;theoffensivepurposeisfirmandtheactionisfast.,Commandcoordinationiscomplex,andsupporttasksareheavy,mainlyincluding:

①Concentratingsuperiorforces.Reasonablystipulateoffensivetaskstoensuretheformationofanoverallstrengthadvantageagainsttheenemy;focusthemainforces,especiallyfirepower,onthemainattackdirectionandkeytargetstoformafocusedattackdeployment;focusontheconcentrationofcombateffectivenessandachieveconcentrationthroughtimelymaneuvering,andconcentrationofpowerItisorganicallycombinedwithuseandevacuationconfiguration.

②Striketheenemy’skeytargets.Theenemy’sreconnaissance,command,communications,electronicwarfare,firepowersystems,andkeypointsrelatedtotheirdefenseandsafetyareregardedasthetargetsofprioritystrikesandkeyattacks,inordertodestroytheenemy’sdeploymentstructure,commandandcoordination,andweakentheenemy’soverallcombatcapability.Timeandplace,concentratingsuperiorforces,assaulttheenemy'sweakandvitalparts,andannihilatetheenemy.

③Fulldepthattack.Whileattackingtheenemy’sfrontiers,itusespowerfulforcesandfirepowertoattacktheenemy’sdeeptargetsbyadoptingvariousmethodssuchasrapidadvances,interspersedroundabouts,infiltrationattacks,airborneassaults,andfireassaults.

④Concealsuddenactions.Begoodatmakinguseofthenaturalconditionsofthebattlefield,concealattackingcombatattemptsandactions,andactivelycreateandcapturefighters;comprehensivelyusecamouflage,feint,electronicinterferenceandothermeasurestodeceive,confuseandmobilizetheenemy;taketheenemy'sunexpectedtimeandplaceFighttheenemywithtacticsandweaponstocompleteoffensivecombatmissions.

⑤Usetacticsflexibly.Accordingtothedifferentnatureandsituationoftheoffensivetargets,flexibleuseofstrongoffensiveandattackmethods,flexibleuseofvariousattackmethods,extensiveuseofdifferentcombatmethods,unifiedorganizationoftroops,useoffirepowerandinformationconfrontation,etc.,tocombineinformation,firepower,mobility,andassaultCombinecloselytostriketheenemysuddenly,swiftly,accuratelyandviolently.

⑥Annihilatetheenemyquicklyandswiftly.Withbraveandtenaciousfightingspirit,fightingwilltooverwhelmallenemies,andswiftcombatactions,seizeadvantageousfighteropportunitiesandcarryoutresolute,sudden,rapid,andcontinuousattackswithoutgivingtheenemyachancetobreathe.

Offensivetacticsundermodernconditionsemphasizesystemconfrontation,focusonthecomprehensiveuseofcombatforces,firepower,information,andpsychology,acquireandmaintaininformationinitiative,organizesmall,versatilecombatunits,evacuate,Three-dimensional,non-linedeploymentofcombatforces;emphasisoninformationsharingandforcesharingbetweencombatunitsandtheentirecombatsystem,scientificandprecisecoordinatedplanning,real-timeandflexiblecommand,andfulluseofvariousmeanssuchasassaults,firestrikes,informationattacks,etc.Thecomprehensivecombateffectivenessoftheenemy’scombatsystemistousemultiplemethodssuchasnon-linearcombatandlinearcombat,asymmetriccombatandsymmetriccombat,non-contactcombatandcontactcombat,precisionstrikeandprobabilisticstriketoimplementmulti-dimensionalcombatagainstthekeytargetgroupsoftheenemy’scombatsystem.,Parallelandcontinuousattacks,toensuretheformationofcombateffectivenessadvantagesinthedecisivetimeanddirection,cutoffandinterferewiththeenemy'sinformationtransmission,destroytheenemy'scombatsystem,destroytheenemy'scombatwill,andstrivetoachievethebestcombateffectattheleastcost;emphasizingcomprehensivenessHowever,wewillfocusonorganizingvariousguarantees,comprehensivelyusingallmeansofsupport,andimplementingpreciseguaranteestoensurethesmoothprogressofmajorcombatoperationsandthemaintenanceofcontinuouscombatcapabilities.

Themaincontentofdefensivetacticsincludesthecharacteristicsofdefensivecombat,principlesofdefensivecombat,andtheapplicationofdefensivetacticsundermodernconditions.Defensivebattlesareusuallycarriedoutsimultaneouslyontheground(onthewater)andintheair,forwardandindepth;thebattleissuddenandthepreparationtimeisshort;electronicconfrontationisfierce;itisimportanttoimprovesurvivability;offensiveoperationsareextensive;thesituationchangesdrastically,andthecommandcoordinationiscomplicated.Mainlyinclude:

①Overalldefense.Comprehensivelyconsidertheneedsoffrontieranddepth,ground(water)andair,differentdefensedirectionsanddifferentdefensepoints,soastointegratethemintoawhole,andbuildafull-depththree-dimensionaldefensesystemunderthepremiseofensuringkeypoints;makefulluseofthefavorableconditionsofthebattlefieldAndtheadvantagesofpre-preparation,focusingonthespecialtiesofvariousservices,arms,andunits,scientificallycombinedefensiveforcestoformadefensivestructurethatenablesvariousdefensiveelementstointeract,andisconducivetoexertingtheirmaximumcombateffectiveness;centeredonunifiedgoalsandintentions,carefullyorganizedThecoordinatedactionsofvariousdirections,units,units,andvariousbranchesofservicecloselyconnectvariouscombatoperationssuchasprotection,resistance,offensiveoperations,support,andsupport,disruptingtherhythmoftheenemy'soffensiveaction,anddefeatingtheenemy'sfull-depththree-dimensionalattack,Tomaintainthestabilityofthedefense.

②Focusonfighting.Payattentiontotheformationofoverallstrength,adoptasystematicapproachtogainrelativeadvantages,correctlyhandletherelationshipbetweenconcentratingcombatstrengthandpreservingdefensiveviableforces,andorganicallyconcentratecombatforcesonthemaindefensivedirections;notonlypre-selectionandformationofmajordefensivedeploymentsduringdefensivebattlepreparationsAndkeydefensiveareas,andatdifferentstagesoftheenemy’soffensive,timelyadjustdefensedeployment,implementforceandfiremaneuvering,coordinatemaindefenseactionsandadjustthemaindefensedirectionintime,andachievekeydefensesthroughoutthedefenseprocess;Whilearrangingdefensiveforcesinabalancedway,masterpowerfulmaneuveringforces,maneuverattherighttimeasneeded,andquicklyformanadvantageinkeydirectionsandseasons.

③Anti-anti-combination.Whilerigorouslydefendingandfightingstubbornly,seizeallfavorableopportunitiestotakevariousactiveoffensiveactionssuchasharassment,counter-impact,andcounter-attacktocontinuouslyconsumeandstriketheenemy’soffensiveforce,andgraduallydeprivetheenemy’soffensiveability;scientificallygraspallkindsofThescaleoftheuseofmethodsistointegrateoffenseanddefense,integratingoffenseanddefense,focusingonthestabilityofdefenseasawhole,closelycombiningcombatmethodssuchastightdefense,tenaciousresistance,andextensiveassaultwithtimelycounter-impact,counter-attack,andcomprehensiveuseofvariousdefenseforcestocoordinateandunifyThedefensiveactionthwartedtheenemy’soffensive.

④Tenaciousandflexible.Activelymobilizeandgivefullplaytosubjectivefunctions,maximizetheoverallpowerofvariousdefensiveelements,andbegoodatmakinguseofstrategiesaccordingtothedevelopmentandchangesofdefensivecombatsituations,andmakingupfortheobjectivematerialconditionswithdecisivecommandandflexibleandfastactions.Weaknessesanddeficiencies;indangerousandcomplicatedsituations,resolutelyimplementthefightingdeterminationandintentionsofsuperiors,analyzeandjudgevariouscomplexsituationscalmly,activelystriveforvariousadvantageousconditions,andadoptvariouseffectivemeasurestomaintainthecontinuityofthefightingStabilityofsexanddefense.

Defensetacticsundermodernconditionsemphasizethecomprehensiveuseofvariouscombatforcessuchasland,sea,air,space,information,andpsychology,toobtainandmaintaininformationadvantages,tomasterthefreedomofcombatoperations,andtoorganizemoreAcapablecombatunitestablishesanon-linearandstar-pointeddefensedeploymentsystemwithdispersedforcesandaggregatedeffectiveness.Takemobiledefenseasthemainform;topreventtheenemy'sfull-dimensional,all-weatherinformationreconnaissance,missile,aircraftairassault,specialdamage,three-dimensionalrapidbreakthrough,psychologicalattack,etc.asthemaindefensestyle;topreventtheenemy'scommandandcontrolcenter,informationsystemnodes,Parallelandcontinuousprecisionstrikesatkeynodesofthecombatsystem,suchasmainbattlepositions,arethemaincontent.

Payattentiontopreventtheenemyfromimplementingsystemattacksandpsychologicaldeterrence,maintainandenhancethestabilityofthedefensesystem,payattentiontoeffectivecamouflage,deception,feintandotheractionstoreducetheenemy'sreconnaissanceeffect,andlimittheenemy'slong-rangeprecisionstrikesTheuseofcapabilities,withspecialemphasisoncreatingandusingalladvantageousfighterstocarryoutdecisiveandflexibleactiveattacks,tocarryoutparallel,asymmetric,andnon-linearattacksonthecenterofgravityandweaklinksoftheenemy’scombatsystem,toimprovetheenthusiasmofdefense,andtodestroytheenemy’scombatsystem.Disrupttheenemy'soffensiveplanandimprovedefensiveeffectiveness.

Movement,thearmyisdividedintomarchingandtransportation,thenavyistheferry,andtheairforceisthetransition.Theparkingduringthemovementincludescamping,parking,andstayinginstandbyandassemblyareas.Movementandparkingundermodernconditionsarecarriedoutwhentheenemy'sair,ground,andmaritimereconnaissanceandsurveillanceandthreatsofattack,androadsandairwaysmaybedamagedorinfected.

Movementandparkingmustbecarefullyplannedandfullypreparedtostrengthenreconnaissance,securityandtrafficprotection,prepareforenemyattacksandlong-rangefireprecisionstrikes,andarriveatdesignatedareasquickly,concealed,safely,andontime,Seaareasorairports,strengthenthesecurityandprotectionmeasuresintheareawheretheyarestationed.Combatsupportincludescombatcombatsupport,combatlogisticssupport,andcombatequipmentsupport.

Combatcombatsupportmainlyincludestheprotectionofreconnaissanceintelligence,vigilance,confidentiality,communication,informationprotection,electromagneticspectrummanagement,nuclear,chemical,biologicalprotection,engineering,camouflage,meteorologyandhydrology,battlefieldmanagement,etc.

Inaddition,thenavy,airforce,andstrategicmissileforcesalsohavenavigation,navigation,dangerandlife-saving,piloting,aviationcontrol,radar,electronicdefense,airport(position)defense,targets,geodesy,andballistics.Meta-computingandotheraspectsofprotection.

Combatlogisticssupportincludesfinancialandlogisticsmaterials,healthservices,militarytransportation,infrastructureandbarracks.

Inaddition,thenavy,airforce,andstrategicmissileunitsalsoprovidesupportforcoastaldefenseengineeringconstruction,airportengineeringconstruction,andmaintenanceofpositionfacilities.

Combatequipmentsupportincludesequipmentdeployment,equipmentmaintenance,equipmentfundingandotheraspects.

Inaddition,thenavy,airforce,andstrategicmissileunitsalsohaveguaranteesintermsofequipmenttechnology,maintenanceandusemanagementofpositionequipment.

Thebasicrequirementsfortheorganizationandimplementationofcombatsupport:formulateaplancarefully,clearlyspecifythetasksandforcesusedforcombatsupport,andmakefullpreparations;concentratethemainforcestoensurethemaindirectionsofactionsandthecompletionofthemaintasks,Properlycontrolthereserveforces;combineprofessionalsupportwithitsownsupport,standardequipmentsupportwithconvenientequipmentsupport,andstriveforthecooperationandsupportoflocalarmedforcesandthemasses;rationallyorganizesupportforces,clearlydistinguishsupporttasks,andusevarioustypesofsupportflexiblySupportmeans,carefullyorganizesupportcoordination;frequentlychecksupportwork,payattentiontocontactandreport,adjustandsupplementsupportforcesinatimelymanner,andcontinuouslyimplementcombatsupport.

Tacticsemergewiththeemergenceofcombat,anddevelopwiththeadvancementofmilitarytechnologyandthedevelopmentofcombatpractice.

Thedevelopmentoftacticshasgraduallyevolvedfromtheancientarmytacticsintoarmstacticsandservicetactics,andfromcontracttacticstojointtactics.

Theterm"tactics"wasearlierseenin"SongShu·Suolu"writtenbyLiangShenyueintheSouthernDynastyofChina.Throughtactics".InsomeEuropeancountries,mostofthemarederivedfromtheGreekwordtaktikra,whichmeanstheartofformation.

Tacticsbegantoevolvefromhuntingskills.Accordingtolegend,inthebattleofZhuoluwheretheYellowEmperordefeatedChiYouinancientChina,primitivebattleformationsemergedandearlytacticsemerged.

Intheeraofcoldweapons,thebasicfeatureofcombatistheuseofstonetools,metalge,spearsandotherweapons.Opposingpartiesformasquareformationtoconfronteachotheristheinitialformoftactics.Subsequently,thelargephalanxofthedensegroupevolvedintoasmallphalanx.Thephalanxofapprenticesisroughlysquareandhasanevendistributionofforces.Itisonlysuitableforlocalcontending.Itisinconvenientformaneuveringanddifficulttoexpand.

Inthe11thcenturyBC,withtheincreaseinthenumberoftanks,themobilityofcombatincreased,andvehiclewarfaretacticsbecamethemainrepresentativesofthetime.Afterthe6thcenturyBC,theuseofironweaponsandtheemergenceofbarracksbarriers,theriseofflexibleandmobileinfantryandcavalry,causedthebattlefieldtoexpandfromtheplainsandwildernesstothedangerousareasofmountainsandrivers,andthereweremanyphalanxesofdensegroupsthatwerenotworkingwell.Theevolutionofthisformationresultedinastrangebattlemethod,whichhasbeenwidelyused.Suchasrestraintandassault,openattackandsecretattack,feintandambush,etc.,arecommontacticsintheSpringandAutumnandWarringStatesperiod.

JudgingfromthepitsofterracottawarriorsandhorsesexcavatedneartheMausoleumoftheFirstEmperorofQin,themilitaryformationoftheQinDynastyhadamixedformationofchariotsandinfantry.DuringtheHanDynastyandtheThreeKingdomsperiod,thereweremanynewcreationsinformationsandtactics,includingtheLongSnakeFormation,theFiveArmyFormations,andZhugeLiang'sEightFormations.Amongtheeightformations,thefourformationsofsky,earth,wind,andcloudarepositive,thefourformationsofdragon,tiger,bird,andsnakeareodd,thefourcornersarepositive,andthecornersareodd.Theycanbesquare,round,curved,andstraightaccordingtothesituation.,Sharpchanges.

ThephalanxtacticsofsomeEuropeancountrieshavebeensuccessivelyreplacedbynewformationsandtactics.

Forexample,in371BC,thecommander-in-chiefoftheThebesofAncientGreece,Epaminonda,usedadiagonalformationtoconcentratehisforcesondecisiveareastocarryoutthemainattackanddefeatedtheSpartanarmy.Inroughlythesameperiod,theancientRomanlegionswerearrangedinahorizontallywide,verticalandshort,relativelyevacuatedhorizontalformation,carryingoutcavalrytwo-wingattacksandcontinuousinfantryassaultstocontinuouslystrengthentheassaultforcetowinvictory.

Withtheemergenceofhorsecombat,cavalrytacticshavedevelopedrapidly.

FromtheWesternHanDynastytotheSuiandTangdynasties,thecavalry'stacticssuchaslong-rangeraids,circuitousencirclement,andvictoriesweresuccessivelyusedinChina.Intermsofwaterwarfareandnavalwarfaretactics,variouscountriesinitiallyusedwoodenboatspoweredbypaddlestofight,andtheship-to-boardwarfaretacticsandtheimpacttacticscameoutsuccessively.

Inthe10thcentury,theNorthernSongDynastyofChinahadusedgunpowderforcombat.Inthe13thcentury,artillerytroopsappearedintheMongolian-KindomWarinChina,creatingatacticthatcombinedfirepowerandhand-to-handcombat.GenghisKhan'slargescaleformationmarkedtheheydayofcavalrytactics.AftergunpowderandfirearmswereintroducedintoEurope,thearmiesofsomecountriesbegantoequipgunsandartilleryinthefirsthalfofthe14thcentury.

Inthesecondhalfofthe16thcentury,duetotheextensiveuseoffirearmsandtheimprovementofthequalityofcombatants,inordertopromotefirepowerandreducethecasualtiescausedbyenemyfirepower,theChineseMingDynastySancaiformationandthefamousgeneralQiJiguangcreatedthemandarinduckFormation,thebattleformationchangesfromalargeformationtoasmallformation,denselytendingtoevacuate,makingthebattleacombinationoffirepower,maneuvering,andassault.

In1631,KingGustavIIAdolfofSwedencreatedamethodofconcentrateduseofartilleryintheBattleofBreitenfeldandtheChinesePost-GoldArmyintheBattleofDalingRiver.Theearlyartillerytacticscameintobeing.

Inthefirsthalfofthe17thcentury,insomeEuropeancountries,duetotheimprovementofgunsandartilleryandtheimprovementofartillerymovementperformance,firepowerbegantobecomeanimportantfactorindeterminingtheoutcomeofbattles,andthedepthofthebattleformationwasfurtherreducedandformedLinetactics.Withthedevelopmentofshipbuildingandnavigation,thetonnageofsailingwarships(ships)ofsomenavieshasbeencontinuouslyincreased,andlarge-caliberartilleryhasbeengenerallyequipped,andbattlelinetacticshavegraduallybeenadoptedinnavalbattles.

Attheendofthe17thcentury,thearmywasgenerallyequippedwithbayonetsandflintlocks,andimplementedamercenarysystem,promptingcontinuousimprovementoflinetactics.DuringtheFrenchbourgeoisrevolution,thearmyimplementedacompulsorymilitaryservicesystemandcreatedcolumntacticstoovercometheweaknessofthelineformation,suchasweakwingsandinconvenientmaneuverability.NapoleonIcombinedtheinfantry,cavalry,andartilleryintothearmyanddivisionstofacilitatecoordinatedactionsbetweenthearms,facilitatethecombineduseofscatteredformations,horizontalformationsandcolumnformations,andperfectcolumntactics.

Inthemid-nineteenthcentury,withthewidespreaduseofrear-mountedrifledguns,thelethalityofmilitaryweaponswasgreatlyimproved.AftertheFranco-PrussianWar,columntacticswereabandonedandskirmishlinetacticsbegantoappear.Asthenavalsailingwarshipsofvariouscountriesaregraduallyupgradedtosteamironarmoredships,theshipsareequippedwithtorpedoesandtorpedoes,andtheirmobilityandfirepowerhavebeengreatlyenhanced.Shipmaneuveringtacticshavereplacedbattlelinetactics.

Sincethe20thcentury,avarietyofaircrafthavebeenusedonthebattlefield,andthecombathasexpandedfromthegroundtotheair.Theairforcetacticsofcoordinatedcombatwithreconnaissanceaircraft,fighters,andbombershavebeenproduced;theaviationforceshavesupportedgroundforcesandgroundforces.Theemergenceofairdefensehasbroughttacticsintoathree-dimensionalphase;aftersubmarinesandaircraftareusedinseabattles,seaattackshavebecomethebasictacticsinnavalbattles,andseathree-dimensionaltacticshaveinitiallytakenshape.

DuringtheFirstWorldWar,variouslong-rangeartillery,tanks,engineeringmachineryandelectroniccommunicationequipmentwereusedinbattle,resultinginarmoredtactics,chemicaltactics,signaltactics,artillerytacticsandengineeringtactics.Getrapiddevelopment.Inthebattle,theinfantry,artillery,tank,aviation,airborne,engineer,andsignalcorpswereorganicallycombined,andunderunifiedcommand,theyactedinconcertinaccordancewithpurpose(target),time,andlocation,andcontracttacticscameintobeing.

DuringtheSecondWorldWar,tanks,artillery,andaircraftwereimprovedandusedextensively,aswellasairbornetroopsandelectroniccountermeasureswerewidelyused.Servicetacticsandarmstacticswerefurtherimproved,andcontracttacticswerefullydeveloped..

TheChinesePeople’sLiberationArmyhaslongbeenintheconditionoffightingagainstenemieswithsuperiorequipmentwithinferiorequipment.Aftertensofthousandsofbattles,ithascreatedasetofflexibleandmobiletacticsbasedonthePeople’sWar.

DuringtheAgrarianRevolutionaryWar,thebasictacticusedbytheRedArmyofChineseWorkersandPeasantswasattack.Forenemiesthatarestationedbutnotyetconsolidated,tacticssuchasrushingareusedaccordingtodifferentoccasionsandtimings;formovingenemies,ambushtacticsareoftenadopted;forenemiesthatarenotexpectedtobeencountered,tacticsofrapidassaultareusuallyadopted.

DuringtheWarofResistanceAgainstJapan,thebasictacticsoftheEighthRouteArmyandtheNewFourthArmywerestillattacks.Thestylesandmethodsweremoreflexibleandchangeable.Theyfurtherdevelopedthemethodsofattackandcreatedlandminewarfareandtunnelwarfare.

DuringtheWarofLiberation,withtheimprovementofweaponsandequipment,theChinesePeople'sLiberationArmycloselyintegratedmobilewarfarewithpositionalwarfare.Thebasicmethodofplaywastoconcentratesuperiorforcesandwipeouttheenemy.

Whenattacking,theyoftenresorttoroundabouts,encirclement,interspersed,split,andfocusedassaultstowipeouttheenemy.Indefense,afocusedechelondeploymentisusuallyestablishedtoformatightfirepowerdistributionsystemtoformasupport-pointcirculardefense.Inbattlessuchascrossingriversandcapturingislands,varioustacticsunderspecialterrainandweatherconditionshavebeenfurtherenriched.

Withtheincreaseanddevelopmentofarms,variousarmscontracttacticshavebeenformedanddeveloped.

AfterWorldWarII,thearmiesofsomecountrieshavebeenequippedwithnuclearweapons,missiles,infantryfightingvehicles,helicopters,andnewelectronicequipment,andmajorchangeshavetakenplaceintheircombatmethods.

Whenattacking,inthedecisivetimeanddirection,quicklyandcovertlyconcentratesuperiorforces,firepowerandtechnicalequipment;establishevacuation,depth,andthree-dimensionaldeployment;usefirepowercombinedwithelectronicinterferencetoattacktheenemy.Suppressindepth;attackmostlyfromonthemove,andcombinedwiththeverticalencirclementofairbornetroops,implementhigh-speed,large-depthcontinuousassaultstoannihilatedefensiveenemies.

Duringdefense,usetheterraintoquicklybuildfortificationstoformasupportingpoint-likedeep,circular,andthree-dimensionaldefensesystem;formafar,medium,andnearconnection,andacombinationofhigh,mediumandlowfirepower;increaseThecoverzoneisdeeptostrengthentherearareadefense;thecombinationoftenaciousresistance,obstacles,firepower,electronicinterference,counter-impactandothermeanstothwarttheenemy'soffensive.

Inthe1990s,withtheextensiveuseofinformationweaponsandequipmentandinformationnetworksystems,thebattlefield’sperceptioncapabilities,long-rangeprecisionstrikecapabilities,andrapidmaneuverabilitywereunprecedentedlyimproved,especiallyinthethinkingandtheoryofjointoperations.Theuseoftacticshasallowedtheformationanddevelopmentofjointtacticsofvariousservicesandarms.

Inthe21stcentury,jointtacticsundertheconditionsofinformatizationhavedevelopedrapidly.

TheChinesePeople'sVolunteerscreatedmanynewmethodsoffightingintheWartoResistUSAggressionandAidKorea.Especiallyinviewoftheenemy’sairsuperiority,strongfirepower,andfastmaneuverability,themethodofsmallencirclementandsmallannihilationwarsarewidelyusedinoffensivetoannihilateenemieswithstrongdefenses.Indefense,asupportcombiningtunnelsasthebackboneandfieldfortificationsisestablished.Thepoint-typedefenseindepthsystem,etc.,allhaveobviousmoderntacticalcharacteristics.

Duringtheperiodofsocialistrevolutionandconstruction,theChinesePeople'sLiberationArmyhascontinuouslydevelopedarmstactics,service(contract)tacticsandjointtacticsofvariousservicesinthedefenseofairspace,territorialwaters,andborderself-defenseoperations.Withthecontinuousdevelopmentofmilitarytechnology,tacticalelementssuchascombatorganization,combatdeployment,combatprocedures,andcombatmethodswillshowsomenewtrends.

Combatunitsarewidelydistributedinvariousspacessuchasland,sea,air,andsky,andaregenerallydistributedinaglobal,scattered,anddottedmanner,formingfarandnear,highandlow,tangibleandintangiblephasesbetweenthemThecombinednon-linearandirregulardeploymentcanachievecomplementarycapabilitiesandfunctionsharing,andgreatlyimprovetheoverallcombateffectivenessofthecombatsystem.

Infutureoperations,combatpowerwillbecomposedofvariousforcesatalllevelsofstrategy,campaign,andtactics,includingland,sea,air,space,information,andpsychology.Traditionalcentralizeddeploymenthasbeendifficulttoadapttobattlefieldconditions.Itisnotconducivetotheeffectiveuseofcombatpower.

Atthesametime,withthegradualenhancementofthe"soft"and"hard"comprehensivestrikecapabilitiesofweaponsandequipment,thecentralizeddeploymentofcombatforcesislikelytosuffergreaterlossesinashortperiodoftime.Therefore,itisnecessarytodecentralizethedeploymentofcombatunitsandcohesiveeffectivenesstopromotetheenhancementoftheoverallfunctionsofthecombatsystem.

Thenumberofpersonnelandequipmentineachcombatunitissmall,andthescaleissmall.Itnotonlyhastheabilitytofightindependentlyinvariousenvironments,butalsohastheabilitytosmoothlyobtaincombatenergyfromtheentirecombatsystem.Inthefuture,battlefieldtransparencywillbecomehigherandhigher,andtherewillbemoreandmoreseamlesslinksbetweenthedetectorandtheshooter.Inthepast,thenumber-scalegroupingswereeasilydetectedandhitorevendestroyed,andthesurvivabilityofthebattlefieldwasweakened.

Inthefutureinformationwarfare,thepurposeofthewarwilltendtobelimited.Theboundarybetweenwar,campaignandbattlewillbecomeblurred.Thecombatstatuswillbeimprovedandthefunctionswillincrease.Targetsarebecomingmoreandmorediverse.Formationwithasinglecapabilityinthepastisdifficulttoadapttothecomplexizationofcombattasks.Itisurgentforcombatformationstodevelopinthedirectionofminiaturizationandversatilityinordertoenhancethemobility,flexibility,andeffectivenessofthetroops.Combatoperationswillbewidelycarriedoutbymultipleforcesinmultiplespacesandfieldssuchasland,sea,air,space,information,andpsychology,whileeffectivelyattackingandprotectingmultipletargetsthroughoutthedepthofthebattlefield.

Infutureoperations,combatforcesandcombattargetswillbewidelydeployedandexistinvariousspacessuchasland,sea,air,andsky.Theoffensivepartycanimplementafull-depth,non-lineattackfrommultipledimensions;thedefendingpartyItalsoneedstoimplementfull-depth,multi-dimensional,non-lineardefense.

Incombat,youcanmaximizeyoureffectivenessbyinvestingyourstrengthinashortperiodoftime.

Inordertomosteffectivelydestroytheenemy'scombatsystemintheshortesttime,combatwillincreasinglyemphasizethereleaseofcombatenergyintheshortestpossibletime,andsimultaneousstrikesagainstmultiplekeytargetsoftheenemy'scombatsystem.Maketheenemyhardtodefend.Combatisincreasinglyemphasizingthecomprehensiveutilizationofthefunctionsofvariouscombatmethods,startingfromcombateffects,selectingandusingthecombatmethodsthatcaneffectivelyreleasecombatpowerandachievethebestcombatobjectives,soastoimprovetheoveralleffectivenessofcombatconfrontation.

Infuturecombat,therewillbemoreandmorecombatmethods.Differentcombatmethodshavedifferentfunctionsanddifferentfunctionsindifferentenvironments.Ifusedimproperly,itwillnotonlybedetrimentaltothecompletionofthecombatmission,butalsoMaycauseunnecessarylossestooneself.

Atthesametime,combatisnotonlyaconfrontationbetweentheweaponandequipmentsystem,butalsoaconfrontationwiththecombatmeanssystem.Thecomplexbattlefieldenvironment,complexcombatmissions,anddiversecombatobjectivesrequirenotonlybreakingnodes,breakingthesystem,butalsonecessaryconsumption;itisnecessarytofocusonnon-contactcombat,andcontactcombatcoordinationmustnotbeneglected;attentionshouldbepaidtoinformationconfrontation,Itisalsoinseparablefromtroopsandfirepowerassault.

Accordingtocombatmissionsandobjectives,startingfromcombateffectiveness,fullyconsideringthecombateffectivenessofcombatmethods,selectingcombatmethodsthatsuitcombatrequirementsandimprovetheoverallcombatcapability,combinedwiththescientificcombinationofspecificbattlefieldenvironments,areflexibleandefficientuse.

Publisher:ChinaMilitaryEncyclopediaEditingOffice

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