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Short-term memory



Interpretation

Psychologistsdividethememoryintoinstantaneousmemory(sensorymemory)andshort-termmemoryaccordingtothelengthoftimetheinformationisstoredandthewaytheinformationisencoded,storedandprocessed.Andlong-termmemory.

Short-termmemoryreferstothememoryinwhichpeopleprocess,encode,keepshort-termstimulusinformationandhavelimitedcapacity.Short-termmemoryistheintermediatelinkfrominstantaneousmemorytolong-termmemory.Itsfunctionistotemporarilystoreinformationsothatitcanenterlong-termmemory.

Short-termmemoryincludestwocomponents:directmemoryandworkingmemory.Directmemorymeansthattheinputstimulusinformationisstoredinthebrainforashorttimewithoutfurtherprocessingandcoding,buttheinformationcapacityisverylimited.Workingmemoryreferstothememorythatprocessesandencodestheinputstimulusinformationagaintoexpandtheinformationcapacity.Inshort-termmemory,onlytheprocessed,processedandencodedinformationcanbetransferredtolong-termmemoryforfurtherstorage,otherwiseitwillbeforgotten.

Features

Limitedcapacity

Thecapacityofshort-termmemoryislimited.Thecapacityofshort-termmemoryisalsocalledshort-termmemorybreadth,whichreferstothemaximumnumberofthingsthathavenothingtodowitheachotherafterabriefpresentation.

TheAmericanpsychologistMiller'sresearchonshort-termmemorycapacityshowsthatthereareabout7stimulusitemsmaintainedinshort-termmemory,andthehumanshort-termmemoryspanis7±2Block.

However,someresearchershavefoundthatthememoryspantestoverestimatesthetruecapacityofSTM,becauseparticipantscanuseotherinformationsourcestocompletetasks,suchasechomemory.Therefore,someresearchersestimatethatwhenotherresourcesofmemoryareseparated,thepurecontributionofSTMtothememoryspanofabout7chunksisonly2~4.

Althoughthecapacityofshort-termmemoryislimited,retellingandchunkingcanincreasethepossibilityofcodedinformationbeingretainedinshort-termmemory,sothatwecanremembernormally.

Theretentiontimeisshort

Withoutretelling,theretentiontimeoftheinformationintheshort-termmemoryisonly15-20seconds.

Theroleofblocks

Blockscaneffectivelyexpandthecapacityofshort-termmemory.Whenprocessingandprocessinginformation,peopleusetheknowledgeandexperiencestoredinlong-termmemorytocombineseveralsinglestimuliintolargerinformationunits(ie,chunking),whichcaneffectivelyexpandandincreasethebreadthofshort-termmemoryandimproveMemoryefficiency.

Theroleofretelling

Retellingreferstotheprocessofrepetitionofthematerialthathasjustbeenmemorizedthroughlanguagetoconsolidatethementaloperationofmemory.Inthecaseofretelling,thelearningmaterialskeptinshort-termmemorywilltransfertolong-termmemory.Thecontentofshort-termmemorycanbetransformedintolong-termmemorythroughretelling.

Coding

Codingmethod

Thecodingofshort-termmemoryismainlyauditorycoding,buttherearealsovisualcodingandsemanticcoding.

Auditorycoding

Conrad's1964experimentfoundthatwhensubjectsrecalledvisuallystimulatingletters,whathappenedThevastmajorityoferrorsarehomophonicconfusion.Therefore,itisconcludedthatthereisauditorycodinginshort-termmemory.Thatis,inshort-termmemory,thestimulusinformationismainlyencodedandstoredinauditoryform.Evenifthestimulusinformationispresentedvisually,theindividualwillconvertthemintoauditorycodeswhenprocessingthevisualstimuli.

Visualcoding

PosnerusedtheAaexperimentin1969tofindthatthesubjectsweremorelikelytohavehomomorphicrelationships(AA)thanhomophonicrelationships(Aa)Lettersrespondquickly,buttheadvantagesofthestimulusinformationofthishomomorphicrelationshipcanonlyappearininformationprocessingrelyingonvisualcoding.Therefore,itisconcludedthatintheinitialstageofshort-termmemory,thereisaprocessofvisualcoding,andthenthetransitiontoauditorycoding.

SemanticCoding

Wickensusesproactiveinhibitiondesignexperimentstoshowthatthereisacertainsemanticcodinginshort-termmemory.

Influencingfactors

  1. Wakefulnessstatus.Theawakeningstateistheexcitementlevelofthecerebralcortex,whichdirectlyaffectstheeffectofmemorycoding.Forexample,Ebbinghausfoundthroughexperimentsthatsubjectshadthehighestlearningefficiencybetween11and12inthemorning,andthelowestlearningefficiencybetween6and8intheafternoon.Thismayberelatedtodifferentstatesofawakeningatdifferenttimes.

  2. Processingdepth.Thegreatertheprocessingdepth,thebettertheeffectofshort-termmemorycoding.

  3. Block.Blockingthecontentofthememoryorexpandingtheamountofinformationcontainedineachblockcanimprovethecodingeffectofthememory.

Storage

Aneffectivemethodforshort-termmemoryinformationstorage-retelling.Itcanpreventtheinformationinshort-termmemoryfrombeingdisturbedbyirrelevantstimuliandbeingforgotten.

Retellingisdividedintotwotypes:mechanicalretellingorretentionretelling;fineretelling.Amongthem,fineretellingisanimportantconditionforshort-termmemorystorage.

Extraction

Theextractionofshort-termmemoryreferstorecallingthestimulusinformationintheshort-termmemory,orbeingabletorecognizethestimulusagainwhenthestimulusreappears.Theextractionofshort-termmemoryisextremelyrapid.ExperimentscreatedbySternbergshowthathumanscanextractshort-termmemoryapproximately30timespersecond.

Sternbergconductedanexperimentalstudyofshort-termmemoryretrievalwhenusingadditivereaction.

Assumethatthesubjects’retrievalandretrievalofmemoryitemsinshort-termmemorycanbedividedintothreemethods:(1)Parallelscanning(2)Automaticallystoppingseriesscanning(3)Completeseriesscanning.

Theresultsshowthattheinformationextractionofshort-termmemoryiscarriedoutinacompleteseriesofscans.

Forgetting

Forgettingprocess

Thecapacityofshort-termmemoryislimited,andthestoragetimeisalsoveryshort.Intheabsenceofretelling,short-termmemorycanholdinformationfor15-20s.

Causesofforgetting

Waugh&Normanhasshownthroughexperimentsthattheforgettingofshort-termmemoryismainlycausedbyinterference.Thatis,forgettingisbecausetheinformationinshort-termmemoryisinterferedbyotherirrelevantinformation.

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