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Renaissance



Connotation

TheRenaissance(English:RenaissanceItalian:Rinascimento,composedofri-"re"andnascere"birth",French:LaRenaissance)isfromthemiddleofthe14thcenturytothe16thcenturyTheideologicalandculturalmovementthattookplaceinEuropeprofoundlyaffectedtheintellectuallifeinEuropeintheearlymodernperiod.ItisgenerallybelievedthatitoriginatedinFlorenceinthelateMiddleAges,butthereareobjections.OtherimportantcentersinItalyareVenice,Genoa,Milan,Naples,Bologna,andfinallythePope’sRome.BeginninginItalyandspreadingtootherpartsofEuropeinthe16thcentury,itsinfluencewasreflectedinart,architecture,philosophy,literature,music,scienceandtechnology,politics,religion,andotheraspectsofintellectualinquiry.ScholarsintheRenaissanceadoptedhumanisticmethodsintheirresearch,andsearchedforrealismandhumanemotionsinart.Theterm"Renaissance"canalsoroughlyrefertothishistoricalperiod,butbecausethechangescausedbyitarenotcompletelyconsistentacrossEurope,"Renaissance"isjustageneraltermforthisperiod.

Core

Thehumanisticspirit,thecoreofthehumanisticspiritistoputpeopleasthecenterinsteadofgodasthecenter,andaffirmthevalueanddignityofpeople.Headvocatesthatthepurposeoflifeistopursuehappinessinreallife,advocatesindividualliberation,opposesignoranceandsuperstitiontheology,andbelievesthathumansarethecreatorsandmastersofreallife.

Therootcause

Thedevelopmentofproductivity,theemergingbourgeoisieisdissatisfiedwiththechurch'scontrolofthespiritualworld.

Essence

Theemergingbourgeoisielaunchedananti-feudalnewculturalmovementtopromotebourgeoisideologyandcultureinthenameofrevivingGreekandRomanclassicalculture.

Historicalbackground

ThesocialandpoliticalstructureofItaly

BasedontheuniquepoliticalstructureofItalyinthelateMiddleAges,somescholarsreasoned:ThedistinctivelocalsocialatmosphereprovidesthenecessaryconditionsforarareculturalprosperityinItaly.Intheearlymodernperiod,Italywasnotaunifiedpoliticalentity,butcomposedofanumberofcity-statesandterritories:theKingdomofNaplesinthesouth,theRepublicofFlorenceandthePapalStatesinthecenter,theRepublicofGenoaandtheDuchyofMilaninthenorthandwestrespectively,andLocatedintheeasternpartoftheRepublicofVenice.Italyinthe15thcenturywasthemosturbanizedregioninEurope.ManyItaliancitieswerebuiltontheruinsofancientRomanbuildings;onthesurface,thistiestogethertheclassicalityoftheRenaissanceandthefactthatitoriginatedintheheartoftheRomanEmpire.

ThehistoricalandpoliticalphilosopherQuentinSkinnerpointedoutthatwhenBishopOttoofFreising(1114-1158)cametoItalyinthe12thcentury,henoticedthattherewasaNewformsofpoliticalandsocialorganization,andtheobservationthatItalyseemstohavebeguntobreakawayfromthefeudalsystem,usingmerchantsandcommerceasitssocialfoundation.Relatedtothisistheanti-monarchyideologyexpressedinthemural"AllegoryofGoodandBadGovernment"(AllegoryofGoodandBadGovernment);thisfamousearlyRenaissancemuralislocatedinSienaandwascreatedbyAmbroGioLorenzettipaintedfrom1338to1340;throughthispaintingheconveyedastrongdesireforfairness,justice,republicandgoodgovernance.DespitebeingconstrainedbytheHolySeeandtheHolyRomanEmpire,theseurbanrepublicsarestillpursuingtheideaof​​freedomunremittingly.Skinnerpointedoutthattherearemanylocalpeoplewhoaretryingtheirbesttosafeguardfreedom.Forexample,MatteoPalmieri(1406-1475)notonlypraisedthetalentedartistsinFlorentineart,sculpture,andarchitecture,butalsoexpressedtheTheprosperityofmoral,socialandpoliticalphilosophyinFlorence"issuedacompliment.

Europeancountries

TheMiddleAgesinWesternEuropewasaparticularly"darkage".TheChristianchurchbecamethespiritualpillarofthefeudalsocietyatthattime.ItestablishedastricthierarchyandregardedGodastheabsoluteauthority.Allliterature,art,andphilosophymustfollowthedoctrinesoftheChristianclassics-the"Bible",andnoonecanviolatethem.Otherwise,religiouscourtswillimposesanctionsonhim,orevenimposedeathpenalty.TheBiblesays,"TheancestorsofmankindareAdamandEve.BecausetheyviolatedGod'sprohibitionandatetheforbiddenfruitoftheparadise,theycommittedagreatsin,andthesinhascometotheworldfromthenon."Underthecontrolofthechurch,theMiddleAgesHisliteratureandartarelifeless,andscienceandtechnologyhavenotmademuchprogress.ThespreadoftheBlackDeathinEuropehasalsoaggravatedthepanicinpeople'shearts,makingpeoplebegintodoubttheabsoluteauthorityofreligioustheology.

InthelaterperiodoftheMiddleAges,thesproutofcapitalismfirstappearedinItalyinEurope,drivenbythedevelopmentofproductiveforcesandotherconditions.Thebuddingofcapitalismistheproductofthedevelopmentofthecommodityeconomytoacertainstage.Thecommodityeconomyoperatesthroughthemarket,andthechoiceofpurchase,bargaining,andcontractsigninginthemarketareallvoluntarybehaviorsaftercarefulconsideration.Thisistheembodimentoffreedom.Ofcourse,ifwewanttohavethese"freedoms",wemusthavethefreedomofownershipofthemeansofproduction,andthecommonprerequisiteforallthesefreedomsishumanfreedom.AtthistimeItalyiscallingforhumanfreedom,andthestaleEuropeneedsanewideologicalmovementthatadvocateshumanfreedom.

Theemergenceofthebuddingcapitalismalsoprovidedthepossibilityfortheriseofthisideologicalmovement.Theprosperityoftheurbaneconomyhasmadewealthybusinessmen,workshopowners,andbankerswithgreatwealthandsuccessintheircareersbelievemoreinpersonalvalueandpower,andtheyaremorefullofinnovation,enterprising,andadventurousspirits.Theversatile,elegantandknowledgeablepeopleareuniversallyrespected.Thisprovidedasolidmaterialfoundationandasuitablesocialenvironment,aswellastalentsfortheoccurrenceoftheRenaissance.

InancientGreeceandRome,theachievementsofliteratureandartwereveryhigh,andpeoplewerefreetoexpressvariousacademicthoughts.ThisisasharpcontrasttothedarkMiddleAges.Attheendofthe14thcentury,astheOttomanEmpire,whichbelievedinIslam,continuedtoinvadetheEasternRomanEmpire(Byzantium),theEasternRomansfledtoWesternEuropewithalargenumberofancientGreekandRomanarttreasuresandbooksonliterature,history,andphilosophy.SomeEasternRomanscholarssetupaschoolcalledthe"HellenicAcademy"inFlorence,Italy,toteachabouttheglorioushistoricalcivilizationandcultureofGreece.Afterthisbrilliantachievementandthebuddingofcapitalismcameintobeing,thecomparisonbetweenitssuperiorityanddarknessmakespeople'spursuitofthespiritualrealmconsistent.Asaresult,manyWesternEuropeanscholarsdemandedtherestorationofancientGreekandRomancultureandart.Thisrequirementislikeaspringbreeze,slowlyblowingacrossWesternEurope.TheRenaissancemovementarosefromthis.

Infact,inthemodernWesternworld,itshumanisticspiritandnationalsystemarenothingbutacopyoftheancientGreekandRomaneras.TheItalianRenaissanceera,inadditiontotheadditionofadvancedscienceandtechnology,andtheancientGreekcity-statesThetimesarenodifferent.Inotherwords,iftheeraofGreeceorRomelastsmoretime,mankindwillbemoreadvanced.ThisisthesameinbothEastandWest.Unlessscienceandtechnologyhaveanoverwhelmingadvantage,highercivilizationswilloftenbeconqueredbylowerones.Whentheselowercivilizationsdevelopagain,itisnolongerknownhowmuchtimehaspassed.TheGermanicbarbariansenteredRomeonlytoplunderwealth,justastheCrusadersenteredConstantinopleandJerusalem.Theso-calledbourgeoisieisnothingmorethanbusinessmen,doingbusiness,exchanginggoods,hasemergedfromthetimehumanscan'tfinishtheirfood.Thesebusinessmentraveledaroundtheknownworldatthetime,broadenedtheirhorizons,understoodthedifferencesbetweendifferentcivilizations,andunderstoodthattheworldisnotonlyonevoice,andtherevivalofhumanismisinevitable.

History

Origin

MosthistoriansbelievethattheinterpretationoftheconceptofRenaissanceoriginatedinFlorenceinthelate13thcentury,especiallyinTheerawhentheworksofDante(1265-1321),Petrarch(1304-1374)andGiotto(1267-1337)wereborn.SomescholarsclearlygavethebeginningoftheRenaissance.OneofthemproposedthatLorenzoGhibertiandFilippoBrunelleschishouldcompeteforFlorencein1401.ThecontractforthebronzedooroftheBaptisteryoftheCathedralofSantaMariadelFioreisasign.Otherscholarsbelievethatitwasthegeneralcompetitionbetweenartistsandpolymaths(includingBrunelleschi,Ghiberti,Donatello,andMasaccio)toobtaincommissionsforartworks,whichinspiredtheRenaissance.Creativity.

Cause

However,therearestillmanycontroversiesintheacademiccirclesaboutthereasonwhytheRenaissanceemergedinItalyandoccurredatthattime;accordingly,therearealsomanytheoriesusedtoexplaintheoriginoftheRenaissanceproblem.

  • Mostscholarsbelievethatattheendofthe14thcentury,duetotheinvasionoftheOttomanEmpire,whichbelievedinIslam,manyscholarsoftheEasternRomanEmpire(Byzantium)broughtalargenumberofancientGreekswiththem.AndRomanarttreasures,literature,history,philosophyandotherbookshavefledtoWesternEuropeforrefuge.Thisstatementiswidelyacceptedbyhistorians.

  • Somepeoplealsosaid:Theywerethesouvenirsbroughtbackbythe3rdCrusades(althoughtheywereabandonedhalfwaythroughthethirdcrusade).Theyfoundthesebooksontheroadandmovedthembacktohidethem.Inthebasementofthechurch,itwasdiscoveredlater,marvelingattheartandliteratureofancientRome,andbegantospreaditvigorouslywiththeintentionofachievingtheachievementsofancientRomeatthattime.

  • In1295,MarcoPolo,whowasborninthemerchantofVenice,published"OrientalExperiences"whichseemedabsurdbutfulloftemptationinEuropeansocietyatthetime.ThistriggeredastrongdesireforEuropeanstoexplorethehighlycivilizedandfertileEasternworld,whicheventuallybroadenedthehorizonsofEuropeans.Atthesametime,from1405to1434,ZhengHeintheMingDynastymadesevenvoyagestotheWest,whichfurtherpromotedtheexchangeofEasternandWesterncultures.Therapiddevelopmentofliteratureandart.

Development

Inthe14thcentury,withthedevelopmentofhandicraftindustryandcommodityeconomy,capitalistrelationshavegraduallyformedwithintheEuropeanfeudalsystem;Politically,thefeudalseparatismhascausedwidespreaddissatisfaction,nationalconsciousnesshasbeguntoawaken,andthepeopleofEuropeancountrieshaveexpressedastrongdesirefornationalunity.Asaresult,anewerareflectingtheinterestsandrequirementsoftheemergingcapitalistforcesbegantoappearincultureandart.Theemergingbourgeoisiebelievesthatmedievalcultureisaretrogression,whileGreekandRomanclassicalculturearebrightanddevelopedmodels.Theyaretryingtoreviveclassicalculture-andtheso-called"renaissance"isactuallyanunprecedentedliberationandcreationofknowledgeandspirit.Onthesurface,itistorestoretheprogressiveideasofancientRome,infact,itisthespiritualinnovationoftheemergingbourgeoisie.

Atthetime,Italywasinastateofcity-states.Eachcitywasanindependentorsemi-independentcountry,thatis,acity-state.Afterthe14thcentury,thecitiesgraduallymovedfromarepublictoadictatorship.Dictatorsindulgeinpleasure,believeinNeo-Platonism,hopetogetridoftheshacklesofreligiousasceticism,andvigorouslyprotectartists'depictionsofsecularlife.Atthesametime,thereligiousradicalismoftheFranciscanstriedtoabandonthescholasticphilosophyoforthodoxreligionandpraisedthebeautyofnatureandthespiritualvalueofman.TheHolySeeisalsogoingintocorruption.Thehedonisticscaleofsuccessivepopesisgreaterthanthatofseculardictators.Theyarealsoprotectingartistsandallowingarttodeviatefromorthodoxreligiousdogma.Philosophyandsciencearegraduallydevelopinginamorerelaxedatmosphere,andapreludetoreligiousreformisalsobrewing.

SotheRenaissancefirststartedinItaly.Dantewrotethe"DivineComedy"asearlyas1300andopposedthedictatorshipofthePope,butwasimprisonedanddiedofpoverty.Dante'sworkinfluencedPetrarch,andBoccacciowasbornin1313.Beginningin1338,Petrarchtookfouryearsonandofftowritethefamousnarrativeepic"Africa".ThispoemiswritteninpureLatinfollowingthestyleoftheancientRomanwriterVirgil.TheauthorusedbeautifullanguagetovividlydescribetheSecondPunicWar.Inthepoem,hesangScipiopassionately,praisinghimforbeingsuperiortothesky,comparabletoPompeyandCaesar.Theepic"Africa"​​madePetrarchfamousinthepoetryworld,andmadehimthehonorof"PoetLaureate".Later,Petrarchgavespeecheseverywhere.Hereferredtohisliteraryandacademicthoughtsas"humanstudies"or"humanities",asopposedto"theology".Hescreamedfor"anancientacademic-therevivalofitslanguage,literarystyle,andmoralthinking."Therefore,PetrarchistheinitiatoroftheRenaissanceandisknownasthe"FatherofHumanism".

In1348,TheBlackDeathwaspopular.ThispromptedBoccacciotowriteTheDecameron,"TheDecameron"isthefirstrealistmasterpieceinthehistoryofEuropeanliterature;amodernItaliancriticSanctisonceput"TheDecameron"andDante's"TheDivineComedy"sidebyside,andcalledit"People'sSong".ThisworkcausedtheRenaissancetobecomemoreandmoreunstoppableinItaly.Fromthemiddleofthe14thcenturytothemiddleofthe15thcentury,onlyItalyproducedtheRenaissance,andalargenumberofoutstandingfiguresappeared.ButtheRenaissancespreadquicklyandslowly.

Outbreak

WiththespreadoftheRenaissance,itspreadtothelandofEuropesuccessively,andalargenumberoftalentsappeared,whichalsotriggeredtheeraofgreatnavigation.

Beforetheendofthe15thcentury,therewerethreemaintraderoutesfromtheWesttotheEast.Oneisthelandroute,thetraditional"SilkRoad",landingfromConstantinople,passingthroughAsiaMinor,theBlackSeaandthesoutherncoastoftheCaspianSeatoCentralAsia,andthencrossingthePamirstoChina.Theothertwoaresearoutes:onerunsfromSyriaandtheeastcoastoftheMediterranean,throughthetworiverbasinstothePersianGulf,andtheotherrunsfromEgyptthroughtheRedSeatotheGulfofAden,andthentransferstoIndiaandChina.ThesetraderouteshadpassedthroughmerchantsinItaly,Arabia,ByzantiumandPersiamanytimesbeforetheycouldtransportgoodstoWesternEurope.Inthemid-15thcentury,theOttomanTurkEmpireemergedandsuccessivelyoccupiedAsiaMinorandtheBalkans,controlledtraditionaltraderoutes,andimposedheavytaxesonpastcommodities,whichmadethequantityofgoodsarrivinginWesternEuropenotonlysmall,butalso8-10timeshigherthantheoriginalprice.Asaresult,themerchantsandnoblesofWesternEuropewereeagertocreateanewroutethatwouldbypasstheeasterncoastoftheMediterraneanandreachChinaandIndia.

Inthe15thcentury,theimprovementofscienceandtechnologyandtheadvancementofgeographicalknowledgemadeoceannavigationpossibleandcreatedthenecessaryconditionsforopeningupnewroutes.Intheend,newsearouteswereopened,andwiththesubstantialdevelopmentduringthisperiod,Europebecameaworldleader.

End

AsthethoughtoftheRenaissancehastakenrootintheheartsofthepeople,ithasannouncedthecompletionofthetransitionfromtheMiddleAgestothecapitalistera.Whenthecapitalistrevolutionbegins,theRenaissancewillend.

Representativefigures

ThreeMastersofLiterature(Dante,Petrarch,GiovanniBoccaccio)

Dante(Dante)(1265-1321).PioneeroftheRenaissance,theRenaissancemovementoriginatedinnorthernItaly.ItisgenerallybelievedthatthefirstrepresentativefigureisDante,whoserepresentativeisthe"DivineComedy".

DanteisknownasthelastpoetoftheMiddleAges,andatthesametimethefirstpoetofthenewera.Hislongpoem"TheDivineComedy"(thewholepoemconsistsofthreeparts:"Inferno","Purgatorio"and"Paradise")clearlyexpresseshisaversiontotheCatholicChurch,Wasthefirsttocriticizethechurch.

Inthisepicofmorethan14,000lines,DanteresolutelyopposedtheobscurantismoftheMiddleAgesandexpressedhispersistentpursuitoftruth,whichhadaprofoundinfluenceonthepoetrycreationoflatergenerationsinEurope..

"TheDivineComedy"wasoriginallycalled"Comedy".Inthe"BiographyofDante",Boccacciogavethisworkthetitleof"sacred"inordertoexpresshisrespectforthepoet.Latereditionsweretitled"SacredComedy".TheChinesetranslationiscommonlyknownas"TheDivineComedy".

Petrarch(1304-1374)isanItalianpoet.BorninArezzoonJuly20,1304,anddiedinAlquaonJuly19,1374.Heisnotonlythefounderofhumanism,butalsothefounderofmodernpoetry,knownasthe"fatherofhumanism."

GiovanniBoccaccio(1313—1375)isatranslationofBoccaccio,anoutstandingrepresentativeoftheItalianRenaissanceandahumanist.Therepresentativework"Decameron"criticizesreligiousconservativethinkingandadvocates"happinessintheworld",whichisregardedasamanifestooftheRenaissance.

Threemastersoffinearts(DaVinci,RafaelSanci,Michelangelo)

LeonardoDiSerPieroDaVinci(LeonardodiserPierodaVinci)(April15,1452-May15192nd),isthemostprestigiousartist,sculptor,architect,geographer,engineer,scientist,scientificmaster,literarytheorist,greatphilosopher,poet,musician,andinventoroftheItalianRenaissance.Becauseheisanall-rounder,heisalsoknownas"themostperfectrepresentativeoftheRenaissance."HewasborninVinci,asuburbofFlorence,anddiedinFrance.Themural"TheLastSupper",thealtarpainting"TheMadonnaoftheRocks"andtheportrait"MonaLisa"arethethreemasterpiecesofhislife.ThesethreeworksareamongthetreasuresleftbyLeonardodaVincifortheworld'sarttreasurehouse,andtheyarethecrowningstonesofEuropeanart.

RaphaelCenci(RaphaelCenci)(1483-1520)Italianpainter.BorninUrbinoonApril6,1483,anddiedinRomeonApril6,1520.FormerlyknownasRafaeloSanJoo.HisseriesofportraitsoftheVirginaredifferentfromsimilarsubjectspaintedbymedievalpainters.Theyallembodyhumanisticideaswithmaternaltendernessandyouthfulness.Themostfamousoftheseare"TheMadonnawiththeOrioles"(inthecollectionoftheUffiziGalleryinFlorence),"TheMadonnaontheGrass"(inthecollectionoftheKunsthistorischesMuseuminVienna)and"TheMadonnaintheGarden"(intheLouvreMuseum).Representedas"PortraitofCastiglione"and"PortraitofaWomaninVeil".

MichelangeloBonarotti(MichelangeloBothatRorty)(1475-1564),agreatpainteroftheItalianRenaissance,Sculptorandarchitect,representativeofthehighestpeakofRenaissancesculptureart.Representativeworks"Bacchus,theGodofBacchus","MourningforChrist","David","Moses","BoundSlaves","DyingSlaves",thegroupsculpturesoftheMedicifamilytombsinthechurchofSanLorenzoAnd"DoomsdayJudgment."

Shakespeare(English).HewasaliterarymasterduringtheRenaissance,andhewrotemorethan30playsandmanypopularpoemsinhislife.Theseworksdeeplycriticizedthefeudalmoralandethicalconceptsandsocialbadhabits,andconcentratedonembodyingthespiritofhumanism.Representativeworksincludethetragedy"Hamlet"andthecomedy"TheMerchantofVenice".

Reasons

1.Materialbasis

InmedievalEurope,thetradecenterwasconcentratedontheMediterraneancoast.Italywasthefirsttohavethebudofcapitalism,andthebourgeoisiehopedtobreakthroughThebondageofchurchtheology.Theriseofcommercialcities,thedevelopmentofhandicraftworkshops,andeconomicprosperity.

2.Culturalbasis

AlargenumberofancientGreekandRomanculturalclassicswerepassedtoItalyfromtheEasternRomanEmpire.

Third,classfoundation

Thegrowthoftheemergingbourgeoisie.

Fourth,talentadvantage

ItaliantalentsgatheredinoneplaceduringtheRenaissance.

V.GeographicalLocation

ItalyisrelativelyclosetotheEast,andhasembracedEasternculture(papermaking,printing)earlier.

Sixth,thefuse

TheBlackDeathisprevalentinEurope.

Seven,deepreasons

Thechurchstrictlycontrolspeople'sthinking,whicharousesdissatisfactionbetweenthebourgeoisieandthecommonpeople.

Maininfluence

Mainfunction

1.TheRenaissanceisthefirstbourgeoisideologicalliberationmovementinhistory.

2.Promotethedevelopmentofworldculture,promotetheawakeningofthepeople,startthemodernizationjourney,andmakethenecessaryideologicalandculturalpreparationsforthedevelopmentofcapitalism.

3.Madeideologicalmobilizationandpreparationsforthebourgeoisrevolution.

Socialinfluence

Originalaccumulationofcapital:Asanideologicalemancipationmovementtopromotetheemergingbourgeoisculture,theRenaissancemovementisanearlystageintheprocessofdissemination.Thebuddingdevelopmentofcapitalismlaidasolidfoundation,andatthesametimeaccumulatedprimitivewealthfortheearlybourgeoisie.TheRenaissancemovementfirstappearedinItaly,andlaterspreadfromtheMediterraneancoasttotheAtlanticcoast.Famouscitiesappeared,suchasRome,Florence,Venice,andtheNetherlands.Aseriesofnewcitiesappeared.Capitalistindustryandcommercebegantothriveandcapitalbegantoflow.Intothebagoftheemergingbourgeoisieprovidesthenecessaryconditionsforthesimultaneousopeningofnewroutes,religiousreforms,andfuturebourgeoisrevolutionsorreforms.

Explorationanddiscoveryofhumannature:TheRenaissanceslowlyliberatedfromtheshacklesoftraditionalfeudaltheology,andpeoplebegantoslowlyexplorehumanityunderthecloakofreligion.Value,asaperson,isanewconcreteexistence,notaneweraofpersonalandspiritualattachmentoffeudalandreligiouslords.TheRenaissancemovementfullyaffirmedthevalueofhumanbeingsandemphasizedhumannature,whichbecameapowerfulcallforpeopletobreakthroughthelayersofthemedievalveil.TheRenaissancehadagreatinfluenceonthepolitical,scientific,economic,philosophical,andtheologicalworldviewsofthetime.Itisarevolutionarystormintheideologicalrealmoftheemergingbourgeoisie,alsoknownasthe"ageofgiants."

Negativeinfluence:Intheprocessofdissemination,theRenaissanceoveremphasizedthevalueofpeople,whichcausedtheexpansionofpersonaldesires,materialenjoymentandextravaganceinthelaterstageofthedissemination,whichhadaseriesofnegativeinfluences..

ScientificAchievements

Literature

WriterseverywherehavebeguntousetheirowndialectsinsteadofLatinforliterarycreations,todrivethepublicLiterature,injectsalargenumberofliteraryworksintovariouslanguages,includingnovels,poems,prose,folksongsanddramas.

InItaly,the"ThreeMastersofLiterature"appearedintheearlyRenaissance.Dantewrotemanyacademicworksandpoemsthroughouthislife,amongwhichthefamous"Newborn"and"TheDivineComedy".Petrarchistheoriginatorofhumanismandisknownasthe"fatherofhumanism."Hewasthefirsttocallfortherevivalofclassicalculture,proposingtouse"humanstudies"tooppose"theology".Petrarchmainlycomposedmanypoems,andhisrepresentativeworkisthecollectionoflyricalsonnetpoems.BoccaccioisthefounderofItaliannationalliterature,andthecollectionofshortstories"Decameron"ishisrepresentativework.

InFrance,theRenaissancemovementformedtwofactions.OnefactionwastheAristocraticfactionrepresentedbythe"SevenStarPoetrySociety",andtheotherwastheElaDemocratsrepresentedbyBurley.The"SevenStarPoetrySociety"representedbyLonzaandDuBellecontributedtothetheoryoflanguageandpoetry.Theyfirstproposedtheunificationofnationallanguages,whichpromotedthedevelopmentofFrenchnationallanguages​​andnationalliterature.However,theyrejectedfolkpoetryandonlyservedafewnobles.RabelaisisahumanistwriterafterBoccaccioandarepresentativeoftheFrenchRenaissanceDemocrats.The"BiographyoftheGiant"hecreatedin20yearsisarealistworkintertwinedwithrealityandfantasy,whichoccupiesanimportantpositioninthehistoryofEuropeanliteratureandeducation.

InUnitedKingdom,therepresentativefiguresareThomasMooreandShakespeare.ThomasMoreisafamoushumanistthinkerandthefounderofutopiansocialism.His"Utopia"writteninLatinin1516wasthefirstworkofutopiansocialism.Shakespeareisageniusdramatistandpoet.TogetherwithHomer,DanteandGoethe,heisknownasthefourepoch-makingEuropeanwriters.Hisworkshaveacompletestructure,livelyplots,richandrefinedlanguage,andprominentpersonalitiessuchas:"Hamlet","KingLear",etc.,whichcollectivelyrepresentthehighestachievementsofEuropeanRenaissanceliteratureandhaveaprofoundeffectonthedevelopmentofEuropeanrealistliterature.Impact.

InSpain,themostoutstandingrepresentativesareCervantesandVega.Cervantesisarealistwriter,dramatistandpoet.Hewrotealargenumberofpoems,playsandnovels,amongwhichthefull-lengthsatiricalnovel"DonQuixote"wasthemostfamous,whichhadasignificantimpactonthedevelopmentofEuropeanliterature.Vegaisadramatist,novelistandpoet,thefounderofSpanishnationaldrama,andisknownasthe"fatherofSpanishdrama."Heisarareandprolificwriterintheworld.Hehascreatedmorethan2,000scriptsinhislife,andmorethan600havebeenpasseddowntothepresent.Therearereligiousdramas,historicaldramas,mythicaldramas,swordoperas,pastoraloperasandotherforms,whichdeeplyreflectThesocialrealityofSpainisdeeplylovedbythemasses.Themostoutstandingmasterpieceis"YangquanVillage".

FineArt

TheItalianpaintersoftheRenaissancemainlyincludeGiottodiBondona,Masaccio,PaulUccello,DomiNicoKirandao,SandroBotticelli,LeonardoDaVinci,RafaelSanzio,TitianVercelliandMichelangelo.

GiottodiBondone(ca.1267-January8,1337)wasanItalianpainterandarchitect,andwasrecognizedasthepioneeroftheItalianRenaissance.Knownasthe"FatherofEuropeanPainting".Hisrepresentativepaintingsinclude"TheKissofJudas","TheLastJudgment"and"MourningforChrist".

ListoffamouspaintingsintheRenaissance(18photos)

Masaccio(Masaccio,December21,1401-Fall1428),formerlyknownasTommasoCassai(TommasoCassai),fullnameTommasodiserGiovannidiMoneCassai(TommasodiserGiovannidiMoneCassai),wasthefirstgreatItalianRenaissanceinthe15thcenturyApainter,hismuralsareoneoftheearliestmilestonesofhumanism.Hewasthefirstpaintertouseperspective.Heintroducedvanishingpointsforthefirsttimeinhispaintings.Thecharactersinhispaintingsappearedinnaturethathadneverbeenseeninhistory.Thefigure.Hisrepresentativepaintingsinclude"TriplePaintingsoftheAltarofCassia","TheVirgin,SantaAnaandtheHolyChild","GoldOfferings","AdamIsExiledfromtheGardenofEden",and"HolyTrinity".

PaoloUccello(1397-December10,1475),formerlyknownasPaolodiDono(PaolodiDono),wasanItalianpainter,famousforhispioneeringartisticperspective.Hisrepresentativepaintingsincludeathree-pieceoilpaintingdepictingthe"BattleofSanRomano".

DomenicoGhirlandaio(1449-January11,1494)wasanItalianRenaissancepainter,andMichelangelowashisapprentice.

SandroBotticelli(March1,1445-May17,1510),formerlyknownasAlessandroFilipepi(AlessandroFilipepi),wasAnartistoftheFlorentineschoolofearlyEuropeanRenaissance.Hisrepresentativepaintingsinclude"TheThreeMastersComing","Spring","TheOdetoOurLady","VenusandMars","TheBirthofVenus","TheAnnunciationofOurLady","Slander","MysteriousNativityPicture,PallasandKenTauros.

RaffaelloSanzio(April6,1483-April6,1520),anItalianpainter.Hisrepresentativepaintingsinclude"TheSchoolofAthens","TheVirginandChild","TheTriumphofGalatea","St.Georgevs.theDragon","TheVirginandtheChild","TheVirginofConnors","TheVirginofAlba","TheVirginandChildontheChair","TheSistineVirgin","TheChristisUnsettledfromtheCross","Fables","PortraitofaGentleman","TheBaptismofSt.John'sDesert","PopeJulioII","Perugi"PortraitofNoble","TheMadonnaontheGrass","TheCrucifiedChrist","TheMadonnaofFollino","TheMadonnaofAnci,""St.CatherineofAlexandria","ThePinkMadonna".

TizianoVecelli(c.1477-August27,1576)wasagreatpainterofthelateItalianRenaissanceandarepresentativeoftheVenetianschool.

Michelangelo(March6,1475-February18,1564),hisfullnameisMichelangeloDiRodovicioBuonarrotiSimoNi(MichelangelodiLodovicoBuonarrotiSimoni),bornin1475inGabriels,Florence,isasculptor,architect,painterandpoet.Hisrepresentativepaintingsincludethe"Genesis"ceilingpaintingoftheSistineChapelintheVatican,thefresco"TheLastJudgment",theoilpainting"Burial","PortraitoftheVirgin,""HolyFamilyandSt.John".

Music

TheclassicalmusicworksoftheRenaissanceperiodweremainlyproducedfrom1400to1600AD.Theendofthisperiodismoreclearlydefinedthanthebeginning,unlikeotherartcategories.Therewasnoobviouschangeinmusicalperformanceintheearly15thcentury,soitcanbesaidthatthemusicalcharacteristicsoftheRenaissancechangedgradually.

ItiscertainthatearlyRenaissancemusicworksmainlyrelyonthethirdintervalasharmony.Thepolyphonicmusicthatbeganinthe12thcenturybecamemoredetailedthroughoutthe14thcenturywithoutrelyingonsoundexpression.Themusicoftheearly15thcenturytendedtobesimple,andthesoundwasdevotedtosmoothness.

Bytheendofthe15thcentury,polyphonicreligiousmusicbegantobecomemorecomplicated,inasenserelatedtotheextremedevelopmentofpaintingatthetime;thenintheearly16thcentury,musicbegantosimplifyagain..

Musicinthelate16thcentury,especiallysmalltunes,tendedtobemorecomplexandchromatic.AtthistimeinFlorence,musiciansalsobegantoturntotheclassicalgenre.TheytriedtorestorethedreamlikemusicalformofancientGreecethroughtheformofelegiacpoems.

Astronomy

ThePolishastronomerCopernicuspublished"OntheMovementofCelestialBodies"in1543,inwhichheproposedthatthesystemisdifferentfromPtolemy’sgeocentrictheory.Theheliocentrictheoryofthesystem.TheItalianthinkerBrunodeclaredin"OnInfinity,theUniverseandWorlds"and"OntheCause,OriginandUnity"andotherbooksthattheuniverseisinfiniteinspaceandtime,andthesunisonlythesolarsystem,notthecenteroftheuniverse.Galileoinventedtheastronomicaltelescopein1609,published"AstralMessenger"in1610,andpublished"ADialogueontheTwoWorldSystemsofPtolemyandCopernicus"in1632.TheGermanastronomerKeplerputforwardthreelawsofplanetarymotioninthe"NewAstronomy"in1609and"TheHarmonyoftheWorld"in1619bystudyingtheobservationdataofhisfellowDanishastronomerTycho.Revolvingaroundthesuniscarriedoutalonganellipticalorbit,andsuchmovementisnotconstant.

Mathematics

AlgebramadeimportantdevelopmentsduringtheRenaissance,andsolutionstothirdandfourthdegreeequationswerediscovered.TheItalianCardanopublishedtheformulaforfindingtherootsofthecubicequationinhisbook"Dashu",butthediscoveryofthisformulashouldbeattributedtoanotherscholar,Tartaglia.ThesolutionofthequarticequationwasdiscoveredbyFerrari,astudentofCardano,anditisalsorecordedinDashu.InhisbookBombelliexplainedtheirreducibilityofcubicequations,usedimaginarynumbers,andimprovedthepopularalgebraicsymbolsatthetime.SymbolicalgebrawasestablishedbytheFrenchmathematicianVedainthe16thcentury.Hepublished"IntroductiontoAnalyticalMethods"in1591,systematicallyorganizingalgebra,andforthefirsttimeconsciouslyusedletterstorepresentunknownandknownnumbers.Inhisotherbook"OntheRecognitionandCorrectionofEquations",WeiDaimprovedthesolutionofthirdandfourthdegreeequations,andestablishedtherelationshipbetweentherootsandcoefficientsofquadraticandcubicequations,whichiscalledinmoderntimesVeda'stheorem.TrigonometryalsoachievedgreaterdevelopmentduringtheRenaissance.TheGermanmathematicianRegMontanus'"OnVariousTriangles"isEurope'sfirsttrigonometricworkindependentofastronomy.Thebooksystematicallyexpoundsplanetrianglesandsphericaltriangles,aswellasaveryprecisetableoftrigonometricfunctions.Onthebasisofredefiningtrigonometricfunctions,Copernicus'sstudentReticusmademoresophisticatedtablesoftrigonometricfunctions.TheFrenchmanDescartessuccessfullycreatedanalyticgeometryin1637afterestablishingthecoordinatesystem.Fermatestablishedmethodsforfindingtangents,findingmaximaandminima,anddefiniteintegrals,andmadesignificantcontributionstocalculus.Itrestrictedthestudyofindefiniteequationstotherangeofintegers,thusstartingthebranchofmathematicsofnumbertheory.InhiscommunicationwithPascalandhiswritings,heestablishedthebasicprincipleofprobabilitytheory—theconceptofmathematicalexpectation

Physics

Intermsofphysics,Galileodiscoveredthethreelawsoffreefall,parabolicandpendulumthroughmanyexperiments,givingpeopleanewunderstandingoftheuniverse.HisstudentTorriZellyprovedtheairpressurethroughexperimentsandinventedthemercurybarometer;theFrenchscientistPascaldiscoveredthelawofpropagationofpressureinliquidsandgases;theBritishscientistBoylediscoveredthelawofgaspressure.Descartesusedhiscoordinategeometrytoengageinopticalresearch,andforthefirsttimein"RefractiveOptics",heputforwardatheoreticaldeductionforthelawofrefraction.Healsoclearlyproposedthelawofconservationofmomentumforthefirsttime:thetotalamountofmatterandmotionwillalwaysremainthesame.Descartesdidpreliminaryresearchonissuessuchascollisionandcentrifugalforce,whichcreatedconditionsforHuygens'success.

PhysiologyandMedicine

TheBelgiandoctorVisaliuspublished"TheStructureoftheHumanBody"oneThebookchallengesGalen’s"Trinity"theory.TheSpanishdoctorServetediscoveredthesmallcirculatorysystemoftheblood,whichprovedthatthebloodflowsfromtherightventricletothelungsandreachestheleftventriclethroughatortuousroute.BritishanatomistHarveyhaspublished"HeartandBloodMovementTheory"andotherworksthroughalargenumberofanimalanatomyexperiments,systematicallyexplainingthelawofbloodmovementandtheworkingprincipleoftheheart.Hepointedoutthattheheartisthecenterofbloodmovementandthesourceofpower.Thismajordiscoverymadehimtheoriginatorofmodernphysiology.

Geography

Navigationtechnologyhasproducedarevolutionaryleap.ExplorersfromPortugal,Spain,andItalystartedaseriesoflong-distancenavigationactivities.ThegeographicaldiscoveriesofColumbus,Magellanandothersprovidestrongevidenceforthetheoryofearthcircle.

TherediscoveryofprintinginEurope,aswellasthepapermaking,compass,andgunpowder(fourgreatinventionsofChina)thatcamefromtheEast,promotedtherapidspreadofscientificideas.

Architecture

RenaissancearchitectureisanarchitecturalstylethatwasborninItalyinthe14thcenturywiththeRenaissanceculturalmovement.BasedonthecriticismofthesupremacyofthetheocracyintheMiddleAgesandtheaffirmationofhumanitarianism,thearchitecthopestoreshapethecoordinatedorderoftheidealclassicalsocietywiththehelpofclassicalproportions.Therefore,generallyspeaking,Renaissancearchitecturepaysattentiontoorderandproportion,withrigorousfacadeandplancomposition,andacolumnarsysteminheritedfromclassicalarchitecture.Thereisastrongpursuitoftheproportionofthebuilding,forexample,itmustbeamultipleof3and2.Symmetricalshapesareusedtorestore"naturalness"inacentralizedmanner,andtherulerisusedfordrawinganddrawing,andcirclesandsquaresaremainlyopposedtoGothicarchitecture.

Psychology

AftertheRenaissance,theforgottenpsychologycontinuedtodevelopinthe17thcentury.Inthe19thcentury(1879),"FatherofModernPsychology"Wundtfoundedpsychology.Sincethen,psychologyhasdevelopedasanindependentdiscipline.

Historicalinfluence

EssenceofRenaissance:Theoriginalmeaningoftheterm"Renaissance"referstothe"rebirthofclassicalGreekandRomanculture".However,theculturalrevolutionmovementoftheemergingbourgeoisieinWesternEuropeancountriesatthattimeincludedaseriesofmajorhistoricalevents.Themainoneswere:theriseof"humanism",therenewalofartisticstyles,theemergenceofutopiansocialism,andthebeginningofthedevelopmentofmodernnaturalsciences.Theapplicationofprintingandthedisseminationofscientificandculturalknowledgeandsoon.Thisseriesofmajoreventsisnotsomuchthe"rebirthofclassicalculture"asitisthe"beginningofmodernculture";itisnotsomucha"renaissance"asitisan"innovation".The"Renaissance"markedagreatturningpointinthedevelopmentofhumancivilization.Itisanewculture,areflectionofthenewpoliticalandeconomicrequirementsofthesocietyatthattime,andananti-feudalstruggleoftheemergingbourgeoisieintheideologicalandculturalfields.Toputitsimply,theessenceoftheRenaissanceisthebourgeoisideologicalemancipationmovement.

Thecoreideaof​​theRenaissanceisHumanism.HumanismoriginatedinItalyinthesecondhalfofthe14thcentury,andthenspreadthroughoutWesternEurope.Humanistsuse"humannature"tooppose"divinenature"anduse"humanrights"tooppose"theocraticpower."Theyputforwardtheslogan"Iamahuman,andIhaveallthecharacteristicsofhumans".Theyareverydissatisfiedwiththechurch'scontrolofthespiritualworld.Theydemandthattheybecenteredonpeopleratherthangods.Theyextolhumanwisdomandpower,praisetheperfectionandsublimeofhumannature,opposereligioustyrannyandfeudalhierarchy,andadvocateindividuality.Emancipation,equalityandfreedom,promotethedevelopmentofhumanpersonality,demandworldlyhappinessandjoyintheworld,andpromotescientificandculturalknowledge.Therefore,theconceptofhumanismfocuseson"people",thedisplayof"people"'sinstincts,andthemotivationfor"people"topursuetruth,goodness,andbeauty.

ThehistoricalroleoftheRenaissance:Engelsoncespokehighlyoftheprogressiveroleofthe"Renaissance"inhistory.Hewrote:"Thisisthegreatestandprogressivechangethatmankindhasneverexperienced.Itneedsgiantsandhasproducedgiants-intermsofthinkingability,enthusiasmandcharacter,intermsofversatilityandknowledge.Times."[GiantreferstotheThreeGreatRenaissances]

Firstofall,itisthediscoveryofman.IntheMiddleAges,theidealpersonshouldbeinferior,passive,anddonothing.Thesignificanceofpeopleintheworldisnotcommendable.TheRenaissancediscoveredthegreatnessofmanandman,affirmedman'svalueandcreativity,andproposedthatifmanistobeliberated,hispersonalityshouldbefree.

(1)Emphasizethevalueofpeople,requiretheuseofpeople’singenuityandcreativepotential,opposeapassiveinactioninlife,andpromoteapositiveadventurousspirit.

(2)Payattentiontolifeinthisworldanddespisemythsabouttheemptinessoftheafterlifeorparadise,thuspursuingmaterialhappinessandcarnalsatisfaction,andopposingreligiousasceticism.Inliteratureandart,itisrequiredtoexpresshumanfeelingsandopposehypocrisyandpretentiousness.Suchas:Petrarch's"SongCollection",Boccaccio's"Decameron".

(3)Attachimportancetoscientificexperimentsandopposetranscendentalism;emphasizetheuseofhumanintellectandopposeblindobedience;requirethedevelopmentofindividualityandopposetheimprisonmentofhumannature;demandindulgenceinmoralconceptsandopposeself-restraint;advocate"civilmorality",Believesthatcareersuccessandmakingafortuneareethicalbehaviors.

(4)Promoteanoptimisticattitudetowardslife.Theseunstoppablethirstforknowledgeandthespiritofinquisitiveexploration,theoptimisticandenterprisingspiritofstrugglingtocreatehappinessinthisworld,liberatedpeoplefromtheshacklesofmedievalChristiantheology.ItispreciselyundertheguidanceofthisspiritthatthebourgeoisiecreatesInthemoderncapitalistworld.

Secondly,theRenaissancebrokethedominanceofreligiousmysticism,stronglypromotedandinfluencedthereligiousreformmovement,andprovidedanimportantboosttothismovement.TheRenaissanceadvocatedemphasizinglifeintheworldandopposingauthority,whicharousedsuspicionanddislikeoftheCatholicChurchandtheologyamongcontemporarypeople.HumanistsintheRenaissancesatirizedandexposedthecorruptionanduglinessoftheCatholicChurchthroughliteratureandart.

Thirdly,theRenaissancebroketheunificationofscholasticphilosophywiththeologyasthecore,clearedthewayforfutureideologicalemancipationandprogress,andgaverisetovarioussecularphilosophies.AmongthemisBritishempiricistmaterialism(Bacon).Italsopromotedthedevelopmentofpoliticaltheory.MachiavellilaidthefoundationforthelaterEnlightenment.AlargenumberofthinkerssuchasHobbesandLockedeveloped"naturalrights","socialcontract","people'ssovereignty"and"threepowers"."Discrete"andothertheories.

Fourth,itdeniesfeudalprivileges.IntheMiddleAges,feudalprivilegeswerejustified,andtheconceptoffamilystatuswasdeeplyrooted.TheRenaissancemadethesethingslosetheirweightinthescaleofhumanbeings.Thenobilityofpeoplehasbeengivennewconnotations.Petrarchsaid:"Therealaristocracyisnotborn,butself-made."InItaliansociallifeatthattime,talents,meansandmoneyreplacedthefamilybackgroundandbecameanypersonofbackgroundtoclimbtheladderofhighsociety.

Fifth,getridofsuperstitionandemancipatethemind.TheRenaissancerestoredthevalueofreason,dignity,andthinking.AlthoughtheRenaissancedidnotachievemuchinphilosophy,itdestroyedtherigidscholasticphilosophysystem,advocatedscientificmethodsandscientificexperiments,proposed"knowledgeispower",andcreatedanewtrendofexploringpeopleandtherealworld.Peoplefirmlybelieveintheirowneyesandtheirownminds,andbelievethatexperimentsandexperiencearereliablesourcesofknowledge.Thisrealisticattitude,wayofthinkingandscientificmethodlaidasolidfoundationforthegreatdevelopmentofnaturalscienceinthe17thto19thcenturies.

Sixth,theRenaissancecreatedalargenumberofcharmingandexquisiteartworksandliterarymasterpieces,whichbecamepricelesstreasuresinthetreasurehouseofhumanart.IntheMiddleAges,biblicallegendsfloodedtheartworld,suffocatingthelifeofart.TheRenaissancenotonlyturnedtheVirginintoahumanwoman(Raphael),andturnedtheimageintoatributetothehumanbody,butalsobeganadirectdescriptionofdailylifeandrealpeople.Forthefirsttime,sciencessuchasanatomyandperspectivewerecombinedwithart.Fromthenon,modernrealistartinWesternEuropebegan.

Thisextensiveandlastingideologicalandculturalmovementbrokethroughthefeudalautocracyandreligioustheologyinthefieldofideology,breakingthroughtheshacklesoffeudaldictatorshipandreligioustheology,liberatingpeople’sminds,andpromotingtheprosperityofEuropeanculturalandideologicalfields.ItlaidtheideologicalandculturalfoundationfortheemergenceofEuropeancapitalistsociety.

EuropeanRepresentatives

Italy

AsthebirthplaceoftheRenaissance,Florence,Italyhasachievedoutstandingresultsinpoetry,painting,sculpture,architecture,andmusic.Achievement.ThefamousMedicifamilyinFlorencewasthemostimportantpatronofartatthattime.ThethreefamousfineartssuchasJeRaphael,MichelangeloandLeonardodaVinciwereallborninItaly.

Representatives:

TheimageoftheVirgin(17photos)

Poets:Dante,Petrarch

Philosophers:MarcilioFicino,PicodelaMirandola

History:LeonardoBruni,LorenzoVala,MachiaWilly,QuiciaDini

Authors:Dante,Boccaccio,Petrarch,

Painters:Leonardo,Raphael,Titian,BottiCelli

Sculptor:Michelangelo

Architect:Brunelleschi

Musician:Palestrina,LaSo

Spain

TheSpanishRenaissanceinthesecondhalfofthe16thcenturyandthebeginningofthe17thcenturyenteredthe"goldenage",withoutstandingachievementsinnovelsanddramas.

Representatives:writerCervantes,dramatistRobdeVega

Germany

InGermany,Themainachievementsaremanifestedinpeasantwars,satiricalliterature,andscientificandtechnologicalinventions.

Representatives:Dürerandothers.

France

InFrance,freethoughtandskepticismarequitedeveloped.

Representatives:Essayist:Montaigne,Novelist:Rabelais,etc.

Britain

InBritain,poetryanddramahaveunprecedentedprosperity.

Representatives:Author:Shakespeare,Philosopher:ThomasMore

Amongthem,Shakespearei>,Dante,DaVinci,knownasthe"ThreeGiantsoftheRenaissance".

Netherlands

Erasmus,Boss

Importantcontributions

ManyachievementsintheMiddleAgesareContributetothiseraofsymbolicrebirth.Oneofthemistoregaininterestinlearning.ThefirstcollegeofOxfordUniversitywasestablishedin1264.By1400,thereweremorethanfiftyuniversitiesinEurope.AncientdocumentsoriginallypreservedbytheArabsaretranslatedintoLatin.Throughtheseancientdocuments,theatmosphereofeducationanddebatecanbepromoted.EuropeanshadcontactwithArabsintheHolyLand,Sicily,Spainandotherplaces,andrediscoveredmanytreasuresthroughthis.TheancientGreekmathematicianEuclid’sworkisanexample,whichwasEuropeanuntilthenineteenthcentury.Standardmathematicstextbook.TheArabsalsospreadthenewnumbersystem,theconceptofdecimalpointandtheconceptofzero,andtheseconceptsweredevelopedinIndia.Around1450,thespreadofknowledgeacceleratedwiththeinventionoftheprintingpress.

Thesecondimportantcontributionistheimprovementoflivingstandards,especiallyinlargecommercialcitiesinItaly.TheCrusadesopenedupEuropeans'horizonsandgaveaglimpseofthewealthoftheEast,especiallysilk,spices,andcotton.MerchantsfromVenice,Genoa,Florence,andothercitiesviefortradebetweenEuropeandtheEasternMediterranean.Afterthesebusinessmenaccumulatedsurpluswealthfromtheirbusinessactivities,theybegantousearttobeautifytheirhometownsandcities.Sculptures,paintings,architecture,music,poetry,andliteraturefindnewwaysofexpressinginterestingthemes,surpassingthereligiousthemesthathavebeendominantsincetheMiddleAges.Theygenerallyportraydailylife,knightstories,andadventureplots,andEuropeanculturehasbecomemorehuman,andreligiouselementshavealsodecreased.

Technologydevelopmenthasalsobeenupdated,andmoreeffectiveproductsandserviceshaveemerged.Manufacturing,farming,trade,andnavigationtechnologieshaveallbeenimprovedanddeveloped,greatlysurpassingancientachievements.Thedesireforprofitencouragescreativityandexploration.Asthedecliningaristocracydisappeared,middle-classmerchantsandcraftsmenbegantofightforpoliticalpowerequaltotheireconomicpower.

Bythe1500s,Europeancountrieshadledtheworldinmanyimportanttechnologies.Europeansunleashtheirvitalitythroughtheexplorationoftheworld,thesearchfortraderoutes,theReformationofProtestants,andtheconstantpoliticalcompetitioninEuropeitself,whichhasalsogiventhisregionapivotalpositionforcenturies.

ItisgenerallybelievedthattheRenaissanceoriginatedinItalyinthe14thcentury(thewordRenaissanceoriginatedfromRinascimentoinItalian,meaningregenerationorrevival).Fromthelate15thcentury,itexpandedtoWesternEuropeancountriesandreacheditspeakinthe16thcentury..In1550,Vasariofficiallyuseditasthenameofthenewcultureinhis"ArtistCelebrityBiography".ThiswordwastransliteratedinFrenchasRenaissance,anditwasusedinvariousEuropeancountriesafterthe17thcentury.Inthe19thcentury,WesternhistoriansfurthertookitasthegeneraltermforWesternEuropeanculturefromthe14thtothe16thcentury.WesternhistoriansoncethoughtitwastherevivalofancientGreekandRomancultureandart.

Thoughtsoftheworks

TheworksoftheRenaissanceperiodembodyhumanisticideas:advocatetheliberationofindividuality,opposethemedievalasceticismandreligiousviews;advocatescientificculture,opposeobscurantism,Getridoftheshacklesofpeople'sthoughtsbythechurch;affirmhumanrights,opposetheocraticrights,rejectallauthorityandtraditionaldogmasthatarethefoundationoftheologyandscholasticphilosophy;supportcentralizationandopposefeudalseparatism,thisisthemainideaof​​humanism.Amongthem,representativeworksinclude:Dante's"DivineComedy",Boccaccio's"Decameron",Petrarch's"SongCollection",Machiavelli's"Monarchy",Rabelais'"GiantBiography",etc.

TheartoftheRenaissancecelebratedthebeautyofthehumanbodyandadvocatedthattheproportionofthehumanbodyisthemostharmoniousproportionintheworld,andappliedittoarchitecture.Aseriesofpaintings,althoughstillbasedonreligiousstories,Sculptures,buttheyshowscenesofordinarypeople,dragginggodstotheground.

HumanistsbegantostudytheBiblewiththemethodofstudyingclassicalliterature,andtranslatedtheBibleintothelanguageofthenation,whichledtotheriseoftheReformationMovement.

Humanismextolsthesecularanddespiseheaven,advertisesreasontoreplaceenlightenment,affirmsthat"man"isthecreatorandenjoyeroflifeinthisworld,requiresliteratureandarttoexpresspeople'sthoughtsandfeelings,scienceforthewelfareofpeople,andeducationTodevelophumanpersonalityrequiresliberationofhumanthoughts,feelingsandwisdomfromtheshacklesoftheology.Advocatingthefreedomofindividuality,ithasplayedasignificantroleinthedevelopmentofhistory.

EducationalDevelopment

TheEuropeanRenaissanceperiodgenerallyreferstothehistoricalperiodinwhichtheRenaissanceoccurredinWesternEuropefromthemiddleofthe14thcenturytotheendofthe16thcentury.Duringthisperiod,inWesternEurope,withthedeclineofthefeudalsystem,thebuddingofcapitalistproduction,andthedevelopmentofexchangesbetweentheEastandtheWest,anewbourgeoisieandnewaristocraticclassemerged.Inordertoseektheirowneconomicinterestsandpoliticalstatus,intheformofrevivingancientGreco-Romanculture,theysetoffamovementagainstfeudalcultureandcreatinganewbourgeoisculture.TheRenaissancemovementstartedinItalyinthe14thcentury;afterthemid-15thcentury,itspreadtoHolland,Spain,France,England,Germanyandotherplacessuccessively.

IntheRenaissance,progressivethinkersadvocatedananti-feudalandanti-theologicalhumanisticculture,advocatedthe"human"asthecenter,requiredindividualliberation,valuedlifeintheworld,andadvocatedreasonandknowledge.Thecoreofitsideologyisbourgeoisindividualism,anditstheoreticalbasisisthebourgeois"theoryofhumannature."However,itattackedthefeudalismandreligioustheocraticimprisonmentofpeople'sthoughtandspirit,andthuspromotedthereformofreligion,economy,politics,andeducationinsomeWesternEuropeancountries.

Inordertoopposefeudaleducationandchurcheducation,somehumanitiesscholarspaidmuchattentiontotheresearchandexcavationofancienteducationalthoughtsandeducationalmaterials.ItalyPPVegelius,theearliesthumanisteducationthinker,wrote"OnGentleman'sDemeanorandLiberalEducation"basedonancientdocumentsasearlyasthe15thcentury,requiringeducationthatconformstothevalues​​offreemen.,Sothattheeducatedcangetgoodphysicalandmentaldevelopment.In1411,GuarinopublishedatranslationofPlutarch's"OnChildren'sEducation".In1417,thehumanistscholarPoggiodiscoveredtheoriginal"PrinciplesofOratory"byM.F.QuintiliangintheAbbeyofSt.Gallen.Fiveyearslater,Cicero's"Rhetoric"wasdiscoveredinLodi.Sincethen,otherbooksorreadingsaboutancienteducationhavealsoappeared.Bythe16thcentury,notonlydidallthemajorclassicalworksoneducationhavebeenfamiliartohumanistscholars,someteachers,educationalthinkersandpublishersalsopublishedmanytreatiseson"neweducation".Whattheywanttotrainisnolongermonksandclergy,butmainlysocial,political,literary,andcommercialactivistsandadventurers.Theydemandededucationalinnovationwiththeidealofcultivatingphysicalandmentalhealth,knowledgeable,andversatilenewcomers(seeHumanisticEducation).Thewidespreaddisseminationofhumanisticeducationalthoughtsgenerallyimpactedthefeudaleducationsystemandbrokethechurch'smonopolyofschooleducation.Varioustypesofnewschoolshaveappeared,andthetargetofeducationhasbeenexpanded.Inadditiontoeducatingthechildrenofprincesandnoblesandwealthybusinessmen,theschoolsrunbysomehumanisteducatorsalsoaccommodatethechildrenofindividualcivilians.

Inordertogetridofthechurch’scontrolovereducation,thehumanistsinItalyestablishednewcourtschoolswiththesupportofsomeprinces,nobles,andlocalrulers.Themostfamousofthesearethecourtschoolcalled"HappyHouse"hostedbyVictorino,andthecourtschoolofFerrarahostedbyGuarino.Thesetwoschoolshadagreatinfluenceonearlyhumanismeducation.Theseschoolshirewell-knownscholarsandrecruitstudentsfromalloverEuropetoprovideso-calledgeneralisteducation.Aftertheforeignstudentsreturned,theyspreadItalianhumanismwidely.

TheNetherlands,wherecapitalistproductiondevelopedrapidlyatthattime,wasthefirstcountrytoreceivetheinfluenceoftheRenaissance.Sincethe14thcentury,educationintheNetherlandshasbeenrelativelydeveloped,themostsuccessfulofwhichistheschoolsponsoredbythe"CommonLifeBrotherhood".Bythe16thcentury,theseschoolswereinnovatedaccordingtothehumanisticeducationalideology.

FranceAsearlyas1458,alectureonGreekliteraturewasofferedattheUniversityofParis.However,duetotheobstaclesofconservatives,thespreadofhumanismwasslow.Itwasnotuntiltheendofthe15thcenturythattheRenaissancetrendgraduallyspreadinFrance.G.Bede,afamousscholarwhostudiedRomanlaw,oncevigorouslypromotedtheeducationalthoughtsofhumanism.Underhisactiveinitiative,KingFrancisIestablishedtheFrenchAcademyin1530topromoteanewstudyofhumanism.Inthe16thcenturyFrance,notonlydidoutstandinghumanisteducatorssuchasF.RabelaisandM.E.deMontaigneappear,butitalsobecamethecenteroftheWesternEuropeanRenaissancemovement.

TheRenaissancethoughtspreadtoUKrelativelylate.Itwasnotuntilthebeginningofthe16thcenturythatagroupofhumanistscholarsinfluencedbyItaliannewstudies,suchasT.Moore,J.Collet,W.Lily,etc.,carriedoutactivitiestopromotehumanisticcultureandeducationinLondon,andgainedSupportandencouragementfromtheroyalfamilyandimportantministers.D.Erasmus,whohasbeenteachingattheUniversityofCambridgeforalongtime,playedasignificantroleinpromotingthenewstudiesofhumanismintheUK,andpromotingthedevelopmentofOxfordandCambridgeuniversities,aswellasgrammarschoolsandpublicschoolsatthattime.ThehumanistpoliticianT.ElliottcombinedtheItalianhumanisticeducationalthoughtswiththespecificconditionsoftheUnitedKingdom,andadvocatedthecultivationofaristocraticgentlemenwithnewhumanisticthoughtsastheeducationalgoal.Hehastranslatedalotofbooks,amongwhichtheBookofRulers,publishedin1531,wasthefirsteducationalmonographinBritain.BecausehiseducationalthoughtsweremoreinlinewiththeinterestsandneedsoftheBritishrulingclassatthattime,awaveofdiscussionof"gentlemaneducation"emergedinBritain,andthehumanisticeducationinBritainwaspushedtothedirectionofnewaristocracy.

TheintroductionoftheRenaissancetoGermanybeganwhenthehumanistscholarP.LutherreturnedtoChinafromstudyinginItalyin1456andtaughtnewstudiesatuniversitiessuchasHeidelbergandLeipzig.In1476,thefamousDutchscholarR.AgricolawenttoHeidelbergUniversitytoteachafterstudyinginItaly.Bythebeginningofthe16thcentury,newstudieswerealsoestablishedinuniversitiessuchasWittenbergandJena.Atthesametime,anewtypeofliberalartshighschoolfirstappearedinsomecommercialcities.Especiallysincethe1940s,duetotheinfluenceoftheeducationalreformofthehumanisteducatorJ.SturmoattheStrasbourgliberalartsmiddleschool,thiskindofliberalartsmiddleschoolhasbeenpromoted.

Variousviewpoints

Theterm"Renaissance"(Renaissance)wasfirstproposedbyFrenchhistorianMicheletin1855tosummarizethe"renaissanceoftheworldandhumanity"inthe16thcentury.Explore";sincethen,historianshavehadmanydifferentopinionsonitsinterpretation.

MostviewsbelievethattheRenaissanceoriginatedinItalyinthefifteenthcenturyandthenspreadthroughoutEurope.TheRenaissancerepresentstheclassicalculturalconnectionbetweentheWestandancienttimes(beforetheMiddleAges),andistheabsorptionofArabknowledge(especiallymathematicalknowledge).TheRenaissanceenabledpeopletofocusonthequalityoflifeintheworld(suchashumanism).TheRenaissanceisalsoanexplosionofknowledgeduetoprintingandtheapplicationofnewtechnologiesinthefieldsofart,poetry,andarchitecture.Thesenewtechnologieshavecausedfundamentalchangesintheformatandcontentofartandliterature.Duringthisperiod,thisviewbelievedthatwiththeriseofexchangesandexploration,theRenaissancerepresentedEurope'stransformationfromalongperiodofstagnantwaterintoaturbulentriver.Therefore,theItalianRenaissanceisoftenregardedasthebeginningofmodernity.

MarxisthistoriansbelievethattheRenaissanceisa"pseudo-revolution"(pseudo-revolution)inart,literatureandphilosophy.Thesechangesonlyaffectedasmallwealthyminority,andthelivesofmostoftheEuropeanpopulationremainedunchangedcomparedtotheMiddleAges.ThereforetheydonotrecognizetheRenaissanceasanimportantevent.

MosthistorianstodaybelievethattheRenaissancerepresentsagreatchangeinrationalthinkingandthinking,ratherthanagreatchangeinmaterial.PerhapsthemostimportantpointofviewoftheRenaissanceisthatthosewholivedintheRenaissancebelievedthattheywerelivinginanewera,anerathatcompletelybrokewiththeMiddleAges.

JohanHuizinga(1872-1945)acknowledgedtheRenaissance,butquestionedwhetheritbroughtbeneficialchanges.HebelievesthattheRenaissanceisanerathathasdeclinedfromtheMiddleAgesandhasdestroyedmanyimportantthings.Forexample,theLatinlanguageusedinthechurchandsomeotherpeopleatthattimehasdevelopedalotsincetheclassicaleraandisalivinglanguage.However,peopleobsessedwithclassicalpurityintheRenaissancebelievedthatLatinwasinconflictwithitsclassicalform,andthenaturalevolutionofLatinstopped.RobertS.LopezconsideredtheRenaissancetobeaperiodofeconomicdepression.However,GeorgeSartonandLynnThorndikebelievedthattheRenaissancesloweddowntheprogressofscience.

Relatedconcepts

InthehistoryofEuropeanhistoryandphilosophy,humanismwasmainlyusedtodescribethemoreadvancedideasfromthe14thto16thcenturiesthatweremoreadvancedthanthoseoftheMiddleAges.Generallyspeaking,historianstodaycalltheculturalandsocialchangesduringthistimetheRenaissance,andtheeducationalchangemovementashumanism.

Thewordhumanismactuallyappearedverylate.ItcamefromtheLatinhumanitas,whichwasusedbytheancientRomanwriterCicero.ThephilosophersoftheGermanEnlightenmenteracollectivelyreferredtohumanbeingsasHumanitt,whilethehumanistsatthetimecalledthemselveshumanista.

ThewordHumanismdidnotappearuntil1808.

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