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North Bridge Chip



The synonym North Bridge chip generally refers to the North Bridge (computer motherboard north bridge chip).

Features

The data processing capacity of the north bridge chip is very large, and the heat generation is increasing, so the north bridge chip is covered with heat dissipation The chip is used to enhance the heat dissipation of the north bridge chip, and the north bridge chip of some motherboards also cooperates with the fan for heat dissipation. Because the main function of the north bridge chip is to control the memory, and the memory standard changes more frequently like the processor, so the north bridge chip in different chipsets is definitely different. Of course, this does not mean that the memory technology used is completely different, but There must be some differences between the north bridge chips of different chipsets.

Model

Intel platform

The 82845E/82845GL/82845G/82845GV/82845GE/82845PE of the Intel845 series chipset, except for the 82845GL, all support 533MHzFSB (82845GL only Support 400MHzFSB), memory support, the above 845 series North Bridge chips support up to 2GB of memory, 82845G/82845GL/82845E support DDR266, the rest support DDR 333, in addition 82845G/82845GL/82845GV also supports PC 133SDRAM, except for 82845GL/82845GV All support the AGP4X slot; the 82865P/82865G/82865PE/82865GV/82848P of the 865 series chipset supports 800MHzFSB, DDR 400 except for the 82865P (82865P only supports 533MHz FSB, DDR333, and supports dual-channel memory except for 82848P. Maximum memory capacity of 4GB (82848P only supports single-channel maximum 2GB memory), except 82865GV, supports AGP8X slot; the highest-end Intel desktop AGP platform is the 82875P north bridge of the 875 series, which supports 800MHz FSB, 4GB dual-channel DDR400 and PAT functions. Intel’s chipsets or Northbridge chips with "G" in the name also integrate the graphics core.

There are also 915/925 series 82910GL, 82915P, 82915G, 82915GV, 82915PL, 82915GL, 82925X and Eight Northbridge chips including 82925XE. In terms of supported front-side bus frequencies, 82910GL only supports 533MHz FSB, while 82925XE supports 1066MHz FSB. The remaining 82915P, 82915G, 82915GV and 82925X all support 800MHz FSB; in terms of memory support, 82910GL, 82915PL and 82915GL Both only support DDR memory (DDR400), 82925X and 82925XE only support DDR2 memory (DDR2533), the remaining 82915P, 82915G and 82915GV can support DDR memory (DDR 400) and DDR2 memory (DDR2533), all these eight north bridge chips It can support dual-channel memory technology. Except for 82915PL, the maximum memory capacity is 4GB (82915PL only supports 2GB memory). In addition, 82925X also supports ECC memory; 82910GL, 82915G, 82915GL and 82915GV have integrated support D IntelGMA900 display core of irectX 9.0 (Intel Graphics Media Accelerator900); in terms of external graphics interface, 82915P, 82915G, 82915PL, 82925X and 82925XE all provide a PCI ExpressX16 graphics card slot, while 82910GL, 82915GL and 82915GV do not support independent graphics card sockets. Slot.

After that, Intel released seven Northbridge chips, including 82945P, 82945G, 82945GZ, 82945GT, 82945PL, 82955X, 82975X supporting dual-core processors in the 945/955/975 series. In terms of supported front-side bus frequencies, 82945GT only supports 667MHz FSB, 82945GZ and 82945PL only support 800MHzFSB, and the rest all support 1066MHzFSB. In terms of memory support, all seven northbridge chips can support dual-channel memory technology and only Supports DDR2 memory and therefore no longer supports DDR memory. Among them, 82945PL and 82945GZ only support DDR2 533 up to 2GB, 82945P, 82945G and 82945GT support up to 4GB DDR2667, 82955X and 82975X support ECC memory technology and up to 8GB DDR2667; in dual In terms of core processor support, 82945P, 82945G, 82945GZ, 82945PL only support PentiumD, 82955X and 82975X support Pentium D and Pentium EE, 82945GT supports CoreDuo; 82945G, 82945GZ and 82945GT integrate Intel GMA950 graphics core supporting DirectX 9.0 ( IntelGraphics Media Accelerator950), this is an upgraded version of GMA900; in terms of external graphics interface, 82945P, 82945G, 82945GT, 82945PL, 82955X, 82975X all provide a PCI Express X16 graphics card slot, while 82945GZ does not support a separate graphics card slot.

The latest ones are the 82946PL and 82946GZ of the 946 series and the 82P965, 82G965, 82Q965 and 82Q963 of the 965 series. They all support the latest dual-core processor Core 2Duo. The 82P965 also supports the top Core 2 Extreme. 82946PL and 82946GZ only support 800MHzFSB, while 82P965, 82G965, 82Q965 and 82Q963 all support 1066MHzFSB. In terms of memory support, 82946PL and 82946GZ support up to 4GB of memory, while 82P965, 82G965, 82Q965 and 82Q963 support up to 8GB of memory. In addition, 82946PL, 82946GZ and 82Q963 support dual-channel DDR2667 memory, while 82P965, 82G965 and 82Q965 support dual-channel DDR2800 memory. In terms of display interface, except that 82Q963 does not support independent graphics card slots, the other five Northbridge chips can support PCI Express x16 graphics card slots. And 82946GZ, 82Q965 and 82Q963 also integrate Intel GMA3000 (Intel Graphics Media Accelerator 3000) graphics core that supports DirectX 9.0c and OpenGL 1.4; while 82G965 integrates support for DirectX10 and OpGL 1.5 and Intel Clear Video technology (Intel Clear Video Technology) Intel GMA X3000 (IntelGraphics Media Accelerator X3000) display core, and Intel GMAX3000 also supports hardware T&L for the first time in Intel integrated graphics (Intel GMA3000 with similar specifications only supports software T&L), and also supports H.264 hardware decoding and HDMI (Hi-Definition MultimediaInterface, high-definition multimedia interface) multimedia audio and video output interface; 82P965 and 82Q965 also support Intel VIIV (Viiv) technology for the digital home.

In addition, 82P965, 82G965, 82Q965 and 82Q963 also support the following special technologies:

(1) IntelFast Memory Access (IntelFMA, Intel Fast Memory Access Technology), by optimizing the available memory bandwidth The use of, and reduce the memory access delay time, the updated graphics memory controller hub (GMCH, which is the north bridge chip) backbone architecture improves the system performance, basically can be said to be the continuation and upgrade of the PAT technology supported by the previous 82875P north bridge;

(2) Intel Flex Memory Technology (Intel FMT, Intel Flexible Memory Technology), allows to insert different sizes of memory and can continue to maintain dual-channel mode, which is more than before on Intel chipset motherboards to enable dual-channel The limitation that the memory of the same capacity and the same specification must be used in the memory mode is much more flexible, and the original small-capacity memory must be discarded when upgrading the system memory. With IntelFMT technology, the original small-capacity memory when upgrading the system memory The capacity memory does not have to be abandoned, which reduces the upgrade cost and makes the upgrade easier;

(3) Intel Quiet System Technology (Intel QST, Intel Quiet System Technology), the intelligent system fan speed control algorithm will be based on the system It can automatically adjust the fan speed and reduce the change of fan speed, thereby reducing the system noise that can be perceived;

(4)USB Port Disable (USB port disable technology), which can be enabled or disabled as needed USB port, this function can prevent malicious deletion or insertion of data through the USB port, thus adding another layer of data protection function.

In addition, 82Q965 and 82Q963 also have special features for digital office for business users, supporting Intel Stable Image Platform Program (Intel SIPP, Intel Stable Image Platform Program) and Intel vPro (vPro) technology, of which 82Q965 It also supports Intel ActiveManagement Technology (IntelAMT, Intel Active Management Technology), with system defense function, supports remote and offline management of out-of-band networked systems, regardless of system status, which can help improve IT efficiency, asset management, and system security And availability, the “system defense” function can help prevent software attacks and intrusions. If the client is infected with a virus, it will be isolated from the network; if the key software agent is lost, it will proactively send an alarm to IT managers to meet the needs of business users’ remote management and Security requirements.

SIS (Silicon System)

In the early days, SIS648FX, SIS655FX, SIS655TX, SIS656, and SIS649 that support DDRSDRAM memory and SIS661FX integrated with SiS Mirage display chip. Among them, SIS655FX, SIS655TX and SIS656 support dual-channel memory technology; SIS648FX, SIS655FX, SIS655TX and SIS 661FX support AGP 8X specification, while SIS656 and SIS649 support PCI Express X16 specification; all six Northbridge chips support DDR400 memory, while SIS 649 can support DDR2 533 memory, and SIS 656 can even support DDR2 667 memory.

There are relatively new Northbridge chips such as SIS662 supporting 800MHz FSB and SIS 649FX and SIS 656FX supporting 1066MHz FSB. These three Northbridge chips all support PCIExpress x16 graphics card slot and DDR2 667 memory. Among them, SIS 656FX also supports dual-channel memory technology, while SIS 662 integrates SIS Mirage1 display core.

ATI (Yetian)

It is mainly the Radeon 9100 series north bridge chip. Radeon 9100 IGP, Radeon 9100Pro IGP and RX330 these three north bridge chips all support 800MHz FSB, dual-channel DDR 400 memory and AGP 8X specification, Radeon 9100IGP and Radeon 9100 Pro IGP also integrate Radeon 9200 display chip that supports DirectX 8.1.

Radeon Xpress 200 IE (RC410), Radeon Xpress 200IE (RXC410) supporting 800MHz FSB, Radeon Xpress 200 IE (RS400), Radeon Xpress 200CrossFire IE (RD400), Northbridge chips such as CrossFire Xpress 1600 IE. All these north bridge chips support PCIExpress x16 graphics slot; Cross Fire Xpress 1600 IE supports dual-channel DDR2 800, in addition to the other support both DDR400 and DDR2 667, and except Radeon Xpress 200 IE (RC410), all support dual Channel memory technology; in addition to RadeonXpress 200 IE (RXC410) and CrossFire Xpress 1600 IE, all of them integrate the ATI Radeon X300 graphics core that supports DirectX 9.0. In addition, Radeon Xpress 200 CrossFire IE (RD400) and CrossFireXpress 1600 IE also support ATI’s CrossFire. Graphics parallel technology.

VIA (VIA)

PT800/PT880/PM800/PM880 and the earlier P4X400/P4X333/P4X266/P4X266A/P4X266E/P4M266, etc., Among them, the name of the VIA chipset or the name of the Northbridge with the word "M" also integrates the graphics core (the same applies to both the Intel platform and the AMD platform). The four Northbridge chips, PT800, PT880, PM800 and PM880, can support 800MHz FSB and DDR 400 memory, and all support the AGP8X specification. Among them, PT880 and PM880 support dual-channel memory technology, and PM800 and PM880 also integrate the S3 UniChrome Pro display chip. Since then, there will be Northbridge chips such as P4M800, P4M800 Pro, PT880 Pro, PT880 Ultra, PT894, PT894Pro, P4M890 and PT890. Among them, P4M800, P4M800 Pro, PT880 Pro support 800MHz FSB, PT880Ultra, PT894, PT894 Pro, P4M890 and PT890 support 1066MHz FSB; P4M800 and P4M800 Pro support AGP8X graphics card slot, PT880 Pro and PT880 Ultra support both AGP 8X graphics card slot And PCI Express x16 graphics slot (actually based on PCI Express x4), while PT894, PT894 Pro, P4M890 and PT890 support true PCIExpress x16 graphics slot; in terms of memory support, P4M800 and P4M800 Pro only support DDR400 memory and Does not support dual-channel memory technology, while PT880 Pro, PT880 Ultra, PT894, PT894Pro, P4M890 and PT890 support DDR 400 and DDR2533 at the same time, and support dual-channel memory technology in addition to P4M890 and PT890; in addition, P4M800, P4M800 Pro and P4M890 also integrates the S3Graphics UniChrome Pro display core.

The latest is the integrated chipset P4M900, which supports all processors of the Socket 478/Socket775 series, including the latest Conroe core Core 2 Duo and Core 2 Extreme, supports 1066MHz FSB and single-channel DDR2 667 memory, and It integrates the VIA Chrome HC IGP display core that supports DirectX 9.0, and also supports an independent PCIExpress x16 graphics card slot. P4M900 is the first of all VIA chipsets to support DDR2 667 and DirectX 9.0.

ULI (Universal Force) has left the chipset market for many years. Before 2012, there were not many products, mainly M1683 and M1685. These two north bridge chips can support 800MHz FSB. , M1683 supports AGP 8X specification and DDR 500 memory, while M1685 supports PCI Express X16 specification and DDR2 667 memory.

NVIDIA (Nvidia)

It is relatively late to enter the Intel platform chipset market. At first, it was mainly positioned in the high-end market nForce4 SLI IE, nForce4 SLI X16IE, nForce4 SLI XE and nForce4 Ultra IE. These north bridge chips all support 1066MHz FSB, dual-channel DDR2667 memory and PCI Express x16 graphics card slot, and support NVIDIA's SLI multi-graphics parallel technology except for nForce4 UltraIE.

Next are nForce 590 SLI IE, nForce 570 SLI IE and nForce570 Ultra IE, which support all processors of the full range of Socket 775 interfaces, including the latest Conroe core Core 2 Duo and Core 2 Extreme, support 1066MHz FSB and Dual-channel DDR2 667 memory.

AMD platform

VIA:

Except for KT880, KT600, KT400A that support K7 series CPUs (Athlon, Duron, AthlonXP) In addition to the earlier KT400, KM400, KT333, KT266A, KT266, KT133, KT133A, there are also K8M800, K8T800, K8T800 Pro, K8T890 and K8T890Pro. Among them, the KT600 and KT880 that support the K7 series support 400MHz FSB, DDR 400 memory and AGP8X specifications, and the KT880 also supports dual-channel memory technology. K8M800 and K8T800 that support K8 series support 800MHz HyperTransport frequency, K8T800 Pro, K8T890 and K8T890 Pro support 1000MHz HyperTransport frequency, K8M800, K8T800 and K8T800 Pro support AGP 8X specification, while K8T890 and K8T890Pro support PCI Express X16 specification and are compatible with Force4Vidia Similarly, K8T890Pro can also support the SLI connection between two nVidia Geforce 6 series graphics cards to improve the graphics performance of the system; K8M800 also integrates the S3UniChrome Pro display chip.

The relatively new ones are mainly K8M890 and K8T900, both of which support the full range of AMD K8 series processors, PCI Express x16 graphics slot, and 1000MHz HyperTransport frequency. Among them, K8M890 also integrates S3 graphics UniChmore Pro display core.

SIS:

Mainly support K7 series CPU SIS748, SIS746, SIS746FX, SIS745, SIS741, SIS741GX, SIS740, SIS735, and support k8 series CPU's SIS755, SIS755FX, SIS760 and SIS756. Among them, SIS755 and SIS760 support 800MHz HyperTransport frequency, SIS755FX and SIS756 support 1000MHz HyperTransport frequency; SIS755, SIS755FX and SIS760 support AGP 8X specification, while SIS756 supports PCI ExpressX16 specification; SIS760 also integrates the SIS Mirage 2 display chip that supports DirectX 8.1.

The relatively new ones are mainly SIS760GX, SIS761GL and SIS761GX. Among them, SIS760GX and SIS761GL only support 800MHz HyperTransport frequency, while SIS761GX supports 1000MHz HyperTransport frequency; SIS760GX supports AGP 8X graphics card slot, SIS761GX supports PCIExpress x16 graphics card slot, and SIS761GL does not support independent graphics card slot; SIS760GX Integrated SIS Mirage2 display core, while SIS761GL and SIS761GX integrate SIS Mirage 1 display core. Then there is SIS 771, which supports a full range of SocketAM2 processors, supports 1000MHz HyperTransport frequency and PCI Express x16 graphics slot, and also integrates the SIS Mirage 3 display core that supports DirectX9.0.

NVIDIA:

In addition to the earlier nForce2IGP/SPP, nForce2 Ultra 400, nForce2 400 that support K7 series CPUs, the newer one supports K8 series CPU nForce3 series nForce3250, nForce3 250Gb, nForce3 Ultra, nForce3 Pro and nForce4 series nForce4, nForce4Ultra and nForce4 SLI, these are all single-chip chipsets, of which nForce3 series support AGP 8X specification, and nForce4 series support PCIExpress X16 specification , NForce4 SLI can even support the SLI connection between two nVidia Geforce 6 series graphics cards (GeForce6800Ultra, GeForce 6800GT, GeForce 6600GT supporting SLI technology), which greatly improves the graphics performance of the system.

There are also nForce4 SLI X16, GeForce 6100 and GeForce 6150, which all support 1000MHz HyperTransport frequency and PCIExpress x16 graphics card slot. Among them, nForce4 SLIX16 supports two truly full-speed PCI Express x16 slots, which can maximize the power of SLI technology; GeForce 6100 and GeForce 6150 integrate an NV44-based display core that supports DirectX 9.0c.

The latest is nForce 590 SLI, nForce 570SLI, nForce 570 Ultra and nForce 550 four Socket AM2 platform chipsets, supporting the full range of SocketAM2 processors, except for nForce 590 SLI, it still uses the traditional north-south bridge architecture. Everything else is a single-chip chipset. All nForce5 series all support 1000MHz HyperTransport and PCIExpress x16 graphics slot. Among them, nForce 590SLI and nForce 570 SLI also support NVIDIA's SLI technology, and nForce 590 SLI can support two truly full-speed PCI Express x16 slots, support top-level Quad SLI technology, and maximize the power of SLI technology.

ULI(Uli):

The newer ones are M1695 and M1697, both of which support the full range of AMD K8 Series processors, PCI Express x16 graphics slot, HyperTransport frequency of 1000MHz. Among them, in addition to the PCI Express x16 graphics card slot, the M1695 also supports the AGP 8X graphics card slot (although it is based on the south bridge chip, but it has the real AGP8X bandwidth); moreover, if the M1695 is the north bridge and the M1697 is the south Bridge, it can support two real full-speed PCI Express x16 graphics card slots.

ATI:

ATI entered the AMD platform chipset market relatively late. In the early days, there was Radeon Xpress 200 (the north bridge chip is RS480) that supports K8 series CPUs. RadeonXpress 200P (the north bridge chip is RX480), both of which support the PCI Express X16 specification. Among them, Radeon Xpress200 also integrates a Radeon X300 display chip that supports DirectX 9.0. Radeon Xpress200 has two distinctive technologies. One is the "HyperMemory" technology. Simply put, it integrates local graphics memory dedicated to the graphics core next to the motherboard’s northbridge chip. ATI has also made a very flexible design for HyperMemory technology. You can use the onboard video memory alone, or share memory with the system, and you can also use the onboard video memory and system memory at the same time; the second is the "SurroundView" function, that is, adding a separate graphics card with an integrated graphics core to achieve three-screen display output Function.

Then Radeon Xpress200 CrossFire (RD480), Xpress CrossFire 3200 (RD580) and Xpress CrossFire1600, all support 1000MHz HyperTransport frequency and PCIExpressx16 graphics card slot, and all support CrossFire multi-graphics parallel technology. Among them, Xpress CrossFire3200 (RD580) has 40 PCI Express Lanes in the North Bridge chip, which can support two full-speed PCI Express x16 graphics card slots, which can maximize the power of CrossFire technology.

The latest is Radeon Xpress 1100 and RadeonXpress 1150 Socket AM2 platform chipsets, supports a full range of SocketAM2 processors, both support 1000MHz frequency HyperTransport and PCIExpress x16 graphics slot, and both integrate ATI Radeon X300 displays the core, but the core frequency of the two is different. The core frequency of Radeon Xpress 1100 is 300MHz, while the core frequency of Radeon Xpress 1150 is 400MHz.

Function

The North Bridge chip is responsible for contacting the CPU and controlling the memory (only for Intel CPUs other than the Core series, AMD series CPUs have integrated memory in the CPUs after the K8 series Controller, so the north bridge chip of AMD platform does not control the memory), AGP data is transmitted inside the north bridge, providing the type and main frequency of the CPU, the front side bus frequency of the system, the type of memory (SDRAM, DDR SDRAM, RDRAM, etc.) and Support for maximum capacity, AGP slot, ECC error correction, etc. The north bridge chip of the integrated chipset also integrates a graphics processor.

Distinguish

1. The main difference between South Bridge and North Bridge chips

The South Bridge is mainly responsible for IO, and the North Bridge is used to exchange data between CPU and memory, graphics card, and PCI .

2. How to distinguish the South Bridge and North Bridge chips cleverly?

Use function to distinguish South Bridge and North Bridge chips:

North Bridge:

It is mainly responsible for the data between CPU and memory Exchange and control the internal transmission of AGP and PCI data are the main determinants of motherboard performance. As the chip becomes more and more integrated, it also integrates many other functions. For example, due to the internal integration of the memory controller in Althon64; nVidia removed the South Bridge in its NF3 250, NF4 and other chipsets, and added functions such as Gigabit network and serial hard disk control in the North Bridge. Now the mainstream Northbridge chip brands include VIA, NVIDIA and SIS.

Of course, the quality of these chips is not determined by the motherboard manufacturer, but what kind of chip the motherboard manufacturer adopts directly determines the performance of the motherboard. For example, it is also a chip using VIA, and its performance is KT600>KT400A>KT333>KT266A, etc. On the current mainstream AMD platform, the optional chipsets are: KT600, NF2, K8T800, NF3, etc.; for the INTEL platform, there are 915, 865PE, PT880, 845PE, 848P, etc.

South Bridge:

The South Bridge chip is mainly responsible for the control of some peripheral interfaces such as I/O interfaces, the control of IDE devices and additional functions, etc. Etc. Common ones include VIA’s 8235, 8237, etc.; INTEL’s include CH4, CH5, CH6, etc.; nVIDIA’s MCP, MCP-T, MCP RAID, etc. In this part, brand-name motherboards are not very different from ordinary motherboards, but with their excellent workmanship, they have become the first choice of many people. It is not ruled out that in order to survive the competition, some motherboards with lower quality may adopt the more powerful South Bridge in order to win the function.

Use the position of the chip on the main board to distinguish the south bridge chip and the north bridge chip:

The north bridge chip is a chip located near the CPU socket, and it is generally covered with heat dissipation. Slices.

Overheating problem

Panic phenomenon

A computer that is in use frequently freezes. At first I thought it was a virus infection, but no virus was found after checking and killing; I also thought that the hard disk was too fragmented and the system was unstable, but the problem was still not solved after defragmenting the hard disk. Then I formatted the system disk and reinstalled the system. But the problem is still unresolved, which seriously affects daily work.

Phenomenon analysis

After reinstalling the system, the fault has not been eliminated. It seems that there is a problem with the hardware. I suspected a memory failure at the beginning, but the failure remained unresolved after replacing the memory module. Where is the problem? After careful analysis, since there is no problem with the memory, the motherboard is most likely to fail.

So using the replacement method, after replacing the motherboard, turn on the computer to test, the fault disappeared, it seems that the root of the problem appeared on this motherboard. The materials and workmanship of the motherboard are quite ordinary. After careful inspection, it was found that there was no breakdown of the capacitors on the motherboard, and there were no burned traces on the entire PCB. So which part of the motherboard is the problem. After cleaning the motherboard again, it was reloaded into the computer and connected to various devices. The result was a crash again halfway through the boot. So I touched the heat sink on the motherboard chip with my hand and found that the north bridge chip was very hot. It seems that the problem is It is here. I bought a radiator with a fan, and after some tossing,

finally replaced it, and installed the replaced north bridge heat sink on the south bridge chip. After booting up, after some tests, the fault was completely eliminated, and after careful analysis, I understood the cause of the fault. It turns out that the machine was equipped in winter, and the low temperature did not have much impact, and then the problem was exposed after the summer.

Solution

When such problems occur, memory sticks are generally considered first. However, due to problems with the CPU Cache or poor heat dissipation of the motherboard, it is also prone to frequent crashes. The author once found that the failure was caused by insufficient heat dissipation of the motherboard on a 845PE motherboard of a certain brand. After touching the motherboard components around the CPU, I found that the temperature was very high and hot. After replacing the high-power fan, the crash failure was resolved. For Cache problematic failures, you can enter the CMOS setting program, and the problem can be solved smoothly after Cache is disabled. Of course, the speed after Cache is disabled will definitely have an impact.

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