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Morse code



Historyofproduction

Morsecodeisakindofmagicalcode,itisasignalcodeanditisonandoffatalltimes.Suchsignalcodesaredisplayedindifferentsequences.OutdifferentEnglishletters,numbers,andpunctuationmarks.ItsinventorwasAmericanAlfeldWeir.Atthattime,hewasassistingSamuelMorseintheinventionoftheMorsetelegraph(1835).

However,theMorsecodewasinventedbytheAmericanMorsein1837.Itiscomposedofdot(.)anddash(-).Amongthem,onepointisabasicsignalunit,andthelengthofastrokeisequivalenttothelengthoftimeof3o'clock;withinaletterornumber,theintervalbetweeneachdotandstrokeshouldbethetimeoftwopoints.Length;theintervalbetweenletters(numbers)andletters(numbers)isthelengthoftimeat7o'clock.Morsecodeisveryusefulintheearlyradio,itiswhateveryradiocommunicatormustknow.Becauseofthecontinuousadvancementofcommunicationtechnology,countriessubsequentlystoppedtheuseofMorsecodein1999.However,becauseitoccupiestheleastbandwidthandhasatechnicalandartisticcharacteristic,itisinactuallife.Hasawiderangeofapplications.

Morsecodewasfirstexpressedbysomedotsandstrokesrepresentingnumbers.Thenumbercorrespondstotheword,thatis,youneedtolookupacodetabletoknowthenumbercorrespondingtoeachword.Withoneelectrickey,youcanhitdots,strokes,andpausesinbetween.However,thetelegraphwasinventedbyMoss,buthedidnothavetherelevantexpertise.Soafterthat,hesignedanagreementwithAlfeldWeir,askinghimtohelphimselfmakeMorsecodeandmakemorepracticalequipment.Therefore,AlfeldWeirconceivedaplantosendeachcharacterandpunctuationmarkindependentlyofeachotherthroughdots,strokes,andpausesinbetween.Thentheyreachedanagreement,andthenthisschemeofidentifyingdifferentsymbolswasputinthepatentofMoss.However,thisistheAmericanMorsecodeasweknowitnow,andthefirsttelegramintheworldwastransmittedthroughit.

Useasteadyandintermittentradiosignaltotransmitsuchacode,whichisgenerallycalledcontinuouswave,andtheabbreviationisCW.However,itcanbeanelectricalpulseinatelegraphwire,anditcanalsobeamechanicalorvisualsignal(suchasaflashinglight).Ingeneral,anyarbitrarycodingmethodthatcanexpresswrittencharacterswithavariable-lengthsignalcanbecalledMorsecode.ButnowthistermisonlyusedtospecificallyrefertotwoMorsecodesthatrepresentEnglishlettersandsymbols:thisAmericanMorsecodeisusedintheonlinetelegraphcommunicationsystem;theInternationalMorsecode,whichisstillinusetoday,isonlyused.Clickandswipe(pauseremoved).However,thetelegraphcompanychargesbasedonthelengthofthelettertobesent.Thecommercialcodecarefullydesignedafive-charactergroupcodeandsentitasasingleword.Forexample,BYOXO;LIOUY;AYYU.Morsecodecansendthesefive-charactershortsentencesindividually.PeoplegenerallyalsosaysomecommonlyusedMorsecommercialcodesinInternetlanguage.Nowadays,QandZarestillusedinamateurradio:However,theywereoriginallyusedfortheexchangeoftelegraphnumbers,communicationquality,frequencychangesandotherinformationbetweenoperators.

OnJanuary8,1838,EverfieldWeironcedemonstratedatelegraphcodeusingdotsandstrokes.Infact,thisisthepredecessorofMorsecode.However,asastandardforinformationcoding,Morsecodehasaverylonglifeforce.Asfarasthispointisconcerned,itisunsurpassedbyothercodes.

Morsecodewasusedasaninternationalstandardinmaritimecommunicationsuntil1999.WhentheFrenchNavystoppedusingMorsecodein1997,thelastmessageitsentwas:"Attentioneveryone,thisisourlastcrybeforebeingsilentforever!"

Codeclassification

American

AkindofAmericanMorsecodethathasactuallydisappeared.Itusesdifferentdots,strokes,anduniqueintervalstorepresentnumbers,characters,andspecialsymbols.TheuniquenessofthisMorsecodeisthatitisnottransmittedthroughradiowaves,butthroughtelegraphwires.Thisdesignismainlyaimedattelegraphoperatorsontheground.

Becausetheyareancientandintertwined,theyarespeciallydesignedinordertobeabletocooperatewiththeoperator'sansweringmethod.Youcananswerfromthesendingkey:whennotsendingasignal,thistypeofkeyissettotheslavemodeandisonlyresponsiblefortheoccurrence.However,mostoftheseoperatorsareservingtherailwayortheWesternUnionTelexinthefuture.Likemostyoungpeopleatthetime,theteenageEdisonusedtobesuchanoperator.

Modern

Infact,theinternationalMorsecodeisstillinusetoday,eventhoughithasalmostcompletelybecomeapatentforamateurradioenthusiasts.However,itwasnotuntil2003thattheInternationalTelecommunicationUnion(ITU)managedMorsecodeproficientsaroundtheworldtoobtainanamateurradiolicense.AndamateurradioisstillreservedbysomecountriestosendMorsecodesignals.

BecauseMossonlyreliesonastableandnon-adjustableradiosignal,itsradiocommunicationequipmentissimplerthanothermethods,anditcanworkinahigh-noise,low-signalenvironment.Isused.Atthesametime,thebandwidthrequiredbyitisalsoverynarrow,anditcanalsohelptwooperatorswithdifferentnativelanguages​​tocommunicatewitheachotherwhowillencountergreatdifficultiesintelephonecommunication.However,itisthemostcommonlyusedmethodinQRP.

Until1991,intheUnitedStates,itwasnecessarytosendandreceiveatestthroughaMorsecodeoffivewordsperminute.OnlyinthiswaywoulditbepossibletoobtainacertificateissuedbytheFCCthatallowstheuseofhighfrequencybands.Amateurradiocertificate.However,before1999,onlytheproficiencylevelof20WPMwasabletoobtainthehighestlevelofamateurradiocertification;onDecember13,1999,theFCCreducedthisrequirementforadditionalcategoriesto13WPM.

However,everycountrymadeadecisionatthe2003WorldRadiocommunicationConference(WRC03,aspecialmeetingonfrequencyallocationsponsoredbyITU,onceeverytwoyears),thatis,whethertochooseMorsecodeinthemanagementofamateurradiolicenseMaketherequest.EvenintheUnitedStatesandCanada,therewillbewrittenrequirements,butinsomeothercountries,theyarepreparingtocompletelyremovethisrequirement.Militarytelegraphoperatorsandskilledhobbyistscanoftenreceive(copy)Morsecodesatspeedsabove40WPM.Nowadays,therearestillmanyenthusiastsusingthetraditionaltelegraphkeys,butthesemi-automaticandfullyautomaticelectronickeysaremoreandmorewidelyused.Amongthem,computersoftwareisoftenusedtogenerateanddecodeMorsecodeelectricwavesignals.

Morsecoderepresentationmethod

Representationmethod

Infact,therearetwo"symbols"usedtorepresentcharacters:thatis,strokesanddots.Orlongandshort.Thespeedofsendingareportisdeterminedbythelengthofthepoint,anditisregardedasatimereferenceforsendingareport.Thefollowingistheiconoftimecontrol:

Morsecode:----·-·····/-·-·----···

Here,"-"meansstroke,"."meansdot.Thisistheexacttimewhentheabovemessagewassent("="meansthereisasignal,"."meansthereisnosignal,andeachisthelengthofadot):

===.===...===.===.===...=.===.=...=.=.=...=.......===.=.===.=...===.===.===

Astrokeisgenerallythelengthofthreedots;theintervalbetweendotsandstrokesisthelengthofonedot;theintervalbetweencharactersisThelengthofthreedots;andthespacebetweenwordsisthelengthofsevendots.Atthebeginning,beginnersaregenerallytaughttosendcharacterswithshort,shortandfastdot-dashintervals,andthetimebetweensymbolsandwordsisalsoexaggerated.Incomparison,thismethodiseasiertolearn.

PeoplefamiliarwithMorsecodeoftenspellitlikethis:

-----·-·····/-·-·----···

Specialsymbols

Thesearesomecombinationofdotsandstrokeswithspecialmeaning.Theyareconnectedbytwo-letterMorsecode,whichsavesthetimebetweensendingthemastwoletters.

AR:·—·—·(stop,endofmessage)

AS:·—···(waiting)

K:—·—(Invitationtotransmitsignals)(generallyfollowAR,meaning"it’syourturn")

SK:···—·—(terminated,contactends)

BT:—···—(Separator)

···—·(Iwillresendthelastword)

····(same)

········(Error)

Commonlyusedabbreviations

Theabbreviationsaredifferentfromthesamesymbol.Theabbreviationsretainthespacebetweenthecharacters,andtheyarenotusedinconcatenation.

A-Allafter(usedtorequestrepetitionafterthequestionmark)

AB-Allbefore(same)

ARRL-AmericanRadioRelayLeague(AmericanRadioRelayLeague)Followingthealliance)

ABT-About

ADS-Address

AGN-Again

ANT-Antenna(antenna)

ABN-Allbetween

BUG-Semiautomatickey(semiautomatickey)

C-Yes(Yes,good)

CLG-Calling(call)

CQ-Callinganystation(contactanystation)

CUL-Seeyoulater(tobeSeeyou)

CUZ-Because(because)

CW-Continuouswave(continuouswave)

CX-Conditions(condition)

DE-From(from)

DX-Distance(sometimesreferstolongdistancecontact)(long-distancecommunication)

ES-And(and)

FB-Finebusiness(similarto"OK")

FCC-FederalCommunicationsCommission(FederalCommunicationsCommission)

FER-For(for)

FREQ-Frequency(Frequency)

GA-GoodafternoonorGoahead(dependingoncontext)(afternoon)

GE-Goodevening(晚安)

GM-Goodmorning

GND-Ground(groundpotential)(地surface)

GD-Good(好)

HI-Laughter(laugh;laugh)

HR-Here

HV-Have(有)

LID-Pooroperator

MILS-Milliamperes(mA)

NIL-Nothing

NR-Number(number)

OB-Oldboy(老boy)

OC-Oldchap(老兄)

OM-Oldman(anymaleamateurradiooperatorisanOM)(AnymaleamateurradiooperatorisanOM)

OO-OfficialObserver(OfficialObserver)

OP-Operator

OT-Oldtimer

OTC-Oldtimersclub(Oldoldtimersclub)

OOTC-Oldoldtimersclub(Oldoldtimersclub)

PSE-Please

PWR-Power

QCWA-QuarterCenturyWirelessAssociation(QuarterCenturyWirelessAssociation)

RI-acknowledgeordecimalpoint(determinedbycontext)

RCVR-Receiver(receiver)

RPT-Repeatorreport(determinedbycontext)

RST-Signalreportformat(Readability-SignalStrength-Tone)(receivingindicator)

RTTY-Radioteletype(radioteletype)

RX-Receive

SAE-Selfaddressedenvelope

SASE-Selfaddressed,stampedenvelope

SED-Said(说)

SEZ-Says(说)

SIG-Signal(Signal)

SIGS-Signals(Signal)

SKED-Schedule

SN-Soon(soon=nearfuture)

SOS-(emergencycall=internationalgeneral)

SRI-Sorry(Sorry)

STN-Station(radiostation)

TEMP-Temperature(temperature)

TMW-Tomorrow(tomorrow)

TNX-Thanks

TU-Thankyou

TX-Transmit

U-You

UR-Youroryou're(determinedaccordingtothecontext)

URS-Yours(你的)

VY-Very(very)

WDS-Words(words)

WKD-Worked(工作)

WL-Will(will)

WUD-Would(会)

WX-Weather(weather)

XMTR-Transmitter(transmitter)

XYL-Wife(wife)

YL-Younglady(usedofanyfemale)

73-Bestregards

88-Loveandkisses(notes)Shouldbeusedbetweenthe"oppositesex")

99-goaway(requestedtoleave,notfriendly)

Howtotalk

Radiocontact

JustletterscanuseMorsecodetocommunicateaccurately.Therewillbemanycommonmodelsintheworldtomakecommunicationmoreefficient.

HereisanexampleofCWcommunication,whichoccursbetweenstationA(s1)andstationB(s2):

s1:CQCQCQdes1K[callAnyone(CQ),thisis(de)s1,end(K).]

s2:s1des2K(calls1,thisiss2,end)(thetwostationshaveestablishedacommunicationconnection)

s1:SK(goodbye.)

p>

s2:SK(Goodbye.)

Asanexample,thereisnoconversationbetweentheabovestations.Thisisjustademonstrationofacontact.

TheSOSsignalSOS

InAugust1909,theAmericanship"Alaphoi"wasunabletonavigateduetoarupturedtailshaft,soitwasshottotheneighboringcoastandpassingships."SOS"signal.Thisisthefirsttimethissignalhasbeenused.

In1912,whenthefamousTitaniccruiseshipwasindistressonitsmaidenvoyage,itsentCQD(theBritishMarconiRadioCompanydecidedtouseCQDastheship’sdistresssignal),butbecauseD(—··)waseasyTheotherletterswereconfused.Thesurroundingshipsdidnotrealizethatitwasadistresssignal,andtherewasnoquickrescue.ThenewdistresssignalSOS(···———···)wassentwhenitwasabouttosink.AfterthesinkingoftheTitanic,SOSwaswidelyacceptedandused.

Infact,althoughtheSOSsignalwasestablishedin1906,BritishradiooperatorsrarelyusetheSOSsignal.TheyprefertheoldCQDdistresssignal.JohnGeorgePhillips,chiefradioofficeroftheTitanic,hasbeensendingtheCQDdistresssignaluntilHaroldBrad,alower-levelradiooperator,adviseshim:"SendSOS.Thisisanewcallsignal.ThismayalsobeYourlastchancetosendit!"ThenPhilipmixedtheSOSsignalinthetraditionalCQDdistresssignal.ThedistresssignalwasnotreceivedbytheCalifornianuntilthenextmorningbecauseshedidnotmonitortheradio24hoursaday.

Signaltransmissionandreceptionmethod

Threesignals

Threeadditionalsignalsthatneedtoberememberedandused:

  1. Beforecommunicating,remembertousethe"start"signal"—・—・—".

  2. Ifanerroroccursduringcommunication,thesignal"・・・・・・"whichmeans"error"mustbesentout,andthenthecorrectsignalmustbetransmitted.

  3. Whenthecommunicationends,youmustremembertoaddthesignal"・・・—・"whichmeans"end".

Sendsignal

  1. Firstwritethecontenttobesentonpaper.

  2. ThenaddMorsecodetotheside.

  3. Sendthesignalwhilereadingthemanuscript.

Receivethesignal

  1. Preparepaperandpentorecordthesignal.

  2. Payspecialattentiontotheparagraphsbetweeneachword,soasnottomakemistakes.

  3. ConvertMorsecodeintotext.

MorseCodeApplication

InJanuary2015,GotoKenji,aJapanesehostagekidnappedbytheterroristorganization"IslamicState"(IS),wastakenThenewsofthebeheadingshockedtheworld.OnFebruary1stofthatyear,aninterpretationvideobyJapanesenetizenscirculatedontheInternet.ThecontentpointedoutthatGoto’sfilmreleasedbyISwascomparedwiththehostageYukawaHarukaontheright.Fuji’sblinksappeartobemorefrequent.SomeJapanesenetizenszoomedinonGoto’sscreen.JapanesenetizensdecipheredthatGoto’sblinkedaneyetotypetheMorsecode,andtheinformationhewantedtorevealwas"Don’tsaveme",causingtrouble.Fewnetizensdiscuss.

"S.0.S"isaninternationalMorsecoderescuesignal,notanabbreviationofanyword.TheInternationalRadiotelegraphConventionofficiallyconfirmeditasaninternationalgeneralmaritimedistresssignalin1908,andlaterextendeditasadistresssignalinallsituations.Thecombinationofthesethreelettersisusedbecauseitscode"..."istheeasiestcodeforthesendertosendinatelegramandtheeasiestcodeforthereceivertorecognize;anditisusinglettergraphicsWhenthedistresssignalison,whethertheobserverislookingupordown,itisnoteasytocauseambiguity.

Uselightforhelp

  1. Accordingtotheaboveregulations,youcanuselighttoperformverysimplecoding:"threeshorts,threelongs,andthreeshorts".Ifthelightisinaccordancewith"shortlight-dark-shortlight-dark-shortlight-dark,longlight-dark-longlight-dark-longlight-dark,shortlight-dark-shortlight-dark-shortlight-dark"Ifthisruleisusedtoshowit,thenitmeansthedistresssignal"SOS".

  2. Ifyouuseaheadlightoraflashlighttosendadistresssignal,youdon’tneedtousethepowerswitchtoturnthelightonandoff.Youcanblockitwithyourhandwhenit’sdark.

  3. Whenthismethodisusedinthedaytime,itcanberealizedbyreflectinglightfromamirror,andusingamirrortoreflectthelightontothetarget.

Usenumbersforhelp

Thenumberof"SOS"isrepresentedas"191519",becauseSisthe19thletterinthealphabetandOisthe15letters.Theuseofdigitalrepresentationcannotonlyaskforhelp,butalsonotexposeoneself,whichisrelativelyconcealed.

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