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Friedrich Engels



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La vie du personnage

Expérience précoce

Le 28 novembre 1820, Engels est né à Bam, une ville industrielle de la province du Rhin en Allemagne (aujourd'hui Wuppertal).

Anglais (5photos)

En septembre 1837, son père insiste sur le fait qu'il a abandonné l'école pour faire des affaires (l'anglais était alors au milieu de l'école).

Au printemps de 1839, « Lettres de la vallée de Wupei » a été publiée dans la publication « Deutsche Telekom » de la faction, exposant les ténèbres du despotisme et de la piété religieuse, et témoignant de la sympathie pour les travailleurs.

FromSeptember1841toOctober1842, heservedintheBerlinArtilleryCorps, attendedphilosophicallecturesattheUniversityofBerlin, andparticipatedintheactivitiesoftheyoungHegelianschool.Duringthisperiod, hepublished "SchellingonHegel", "SchellingandRevelation" et "Schelling-ChristianPhilosopher" andotherpamphlets, sharplycriticizingtheidealistphilosopherXieXiewhopreached "ApocalypticPhilosophy" Lin, healsowroteanarticleexposingthattheGermanfeudalautocracyrepresentedbyKaiserWilhelmIVbecameastaunchrevolutionarydemocrat.

Après la publication de « L'essence du christianisme » de Feuerbach en 1841, les anglais acceptèrent le matérialisme de Feuerbach.

Ami à vie

InFebruary1844, la "CriticalOutlineofPoliticalEconomy" waspublishedinthe "GermanyandFranceYearbook" editedbyMarx, whichinitiallyrevealedtheabsoluteirreconcilabilityofcapitalistprivateownershipTheinherentcontradiction.AttheendofAugust, EngelsdetouredtoParistomeetwithMarxonhiswaybacktoChina, andtheybegantheirlifelongcooperation.FromSeptembertoMarch1845, hewrote "TheConditionoftheBritishWorkingClass" inBarmen, describingthetragicsituationandhistoricalmissionoftheproletariat, showingthatEngelshadcompletedtwomajorchanges.

En 1844, HECO écrit « La Sainte Famille » avec le marxisme et co-écrit « l'idéologie allemande » de novembre de la même année à mai de l'année suivante. Au printemps de 1846, Engels et Marx fondent le Comité de communication communiste à Bruxelles.

InJanuary1847, EngelsandMarxjoinedtheJusticeLeague.InJune, afterdiscussingwithMarx, heattendedthefirstcongressoftheCommunistLeagueinLondonandfoundedthefirstproletarianrevolutionarypartyundertheguidanceofscientificsocialism.InOctoberofthesameyear, hewaselectedtotheParisDistrictCommitteeoftheLeague, andwascommissionedtodrafttheLeague'sdraftprogram (ie "QuestionsandAnswersonPrinciplesofCommunism"), usingaquestion-et answergenretopreliminarilyclarifythebasicprinciplesofscientificcommunism.InNovember, heattendedthesecondcongressoftheLeaguewithMarxandservedasthesecretaryofthecongress.TheCongressacceptedtheideasofMarxandEngels, formulatedacharterinlinewiththeprinciplesofdemocracy, andentrustedthemtodrafttheprogramofthealliance.

Inmid-February1848, basedonthe "PrinciplesofCommunism", le "CommunistManifesto" draftedbyMarxandEngelswaspublishedinLondon.InFebruaryandMarch, EuropeanbourgeoisrevolutionsbrokeoutincitiessuchasParis, Berlin, andVienna, inMarch, EngelswaselectedasamemberoftheCentralCommitteeoftheCommunistLeagueandjointlydrafted "TheCommunistParty'sRequirementsinGermany" inPariswithMarx.InApril, theyarrivedinCologne, Germany.EngelsservedastheeditoroftheNeueRheinnewspaperandassistedMarxinpresidingovertheeditorialdepartmentofthenewspaper.HehasalsotraveledtoBarmenandothercitiesintheRhineProvince.Fromtheautumnof1848tothebeginningof1849, inordertoavoidofficialpursuit, hewentintoexileinBelgiumandSwitzerland, andhelpedorganizetheworkers 'association en Suisse.

En mai 1849, le parti n'était pas impliqué dans le différend.

InMarchandJune1850, heworkedwithMarxtwicetodraftthe "CentralCommitteetotheCommunistLeague" .InordertosupporttheMarxfamilytrappedinextremepoverty, EngelshadtomovetoManchesterthatyearandonceagainstartedbusinessinthe "crash-Engel Company" .DuringhisstayinManchester, EngelsmaintainedfrequentcorrespondencewithMarx, discussingthetheoriesandstrategiesoftheinternationallabormovement, discussingacademicissuesinvariousfields, andexchangingopinions.Inthewordsofhistutor, itissomethingwrittenbyonepersonandanother.Peoplemusthavereaditandfullyagreewithit.Engelsconductedextensivetheoreticalresearch, especiallyin-depthdiscussiononmilitaryscience, linguisticsanddialecticsofnature.

De novembre 1851 à novembre 1852, Engels rédigea une série d'articles intitulés " Révolution et contre-révolution en Allemagne " pour le " New York Daily Tribune ", qui résuma profondément l'Allemagne de 1848 à 1849.

From1857to1859, hewrotemanymilitaryarticlesforthe "NewAmericanEncyclopedia" .From1861to1865, EngelswrotemanyarticlesabouttheAmericanCivilWar.In1864, afterthefoundingoftheFirstInternational, EngelsparticipatedininternationalleadershipwithMarxandfoughtlinestruggleswiththeProudhon, Bakounine, Syndicat, andLassallefactions, andhelpedMarxismintheinternationallabormovementLaythefoundationforitsdominance.Afterthepublicationofthefirstvolumeof "Daskapital" en 1867, hewrotemanywarreviewsforworkers'newspapersandnewspapersusingthebourgeoisie, accuratelyanalyzingandpredictingthecourseandresultsofthewar.

InJuly1869, Engelsfinallygotridofhiscareerasabusinessman.InOctober1870, hemovedtoLondonandreunitedwithMarx.InSeptember1870, Engelsendedhistwodecadesof "Egyptianimprisoned" de la vie des affaires, movedfromManchestertoLondon, andparticipatedintheleadershipoftheInternationalWorkers'AssociationwithMarx.InOctober, atthesuggestionofMarx, hewaselectedasamemberoftheInternationalGeneralCommittee, servingasthecommunicationssecretaryandfinancialcommitteememberoftheGeneralCommitteeinBelgium, Italie, Espagne, PortugalandDenmark.DuringtheParisCommune, heandMarxorganizedactivitiesinsolidaritywiththeCommune.

Après l'établissement de la Commune de Paris en mars 1871, avec le marxisme, il a soutenu la Commune et a fait l'éloge de l'esprit révolutionnaire et de l'héroïsme des ouvriers parisiens dans ses discours et ses lettres, et a clarifié la signification historique de la Commune.

DuringtheInternationalHagueConferenceinSeptember1872, EngelsandMarxmadeimportantcontributionstodefeatingtheBakuninCabalandpassingresolutionsonpoliticalandorganizationalissues.AccordingtoEngels'proposal, theInternationalGeneralCommitteemovedtoNewYork.AftertheHagueConference, hewrote "OnAuthority", "TheSocialistDemocraticLeagueandtheInternationalWorkers'Association" (co-écrit avec Marx) andothertreatises, exposingandcriticizingBakuninGroup'spolitically, theoreticallyandorganizationally.Anarchismandseparatismhaveprofoundlyexpoundedthedialecticalrelationshipbetweendemocracyandcentralism, andbetweendemocracyanddictatorship.AfterthedissolutionoftheInternationalWorkers'Association, EngelsandMarxworkedhardtodisseminatescientificsocialisttheoryandestablishanddevelopsocialistpoliticalpartiesinvariouscountries.

En mars 1875, dans une lettre à Bebel, il clarifie sa position de principe sur la fusion des deux factions du mouvement ouvrier allemand et critique l'erreur commise par certains dirigeants du parti dans la poursuite d'une fusion sans principes ..

De 1876 à 1878, il écrivit une série d'articles intitulée « La réforme de la science de M. Eugen Dohring » (c'est-à-dire, « Théorie anti-Duhring »), critiquant l'idéaliste transcendantaliste de Dohring et le socialisme petit-bourgeois sont les premiers à systématiquement exposer les trois composantes fondamentales du marxisme-philosophie.

Inthesummerof1880, attherequestoftheleaderoftheFrenchWorkers'Party, Lafarge, certainchaptersinthe "Anti-DuhringTheory" wereadaptedinto "UtopianSocialismandScientificSocialism" (c.-à- "SocialDoctrinefromUtopiatotheDevelopmentofScience"). Thispamphlet, appelé "IntroductiontoScientificSocialism" byMarx, playedanimportantroleinpopularizingthebasictheoriesofMarxism.Between1873and1883, EngelsdrewupawritingoutlineforDialecticsofNature, completedseveralchaptersandfragments, andlaidthefoundationforthestudyofDialecticsofNature.

Dirigeants internationaux

Après la mort de Marx en 1883, Engels assuma seul la responsabilité de diriger le mouvement ouvrier international, de trier et de publier (ou de réimprimer) l'héritage de Marx, de défendre et de développer la théorie marxiste, et de former la tâche importante des jeunes militants et théoriciens socialistes de divers pays.

En juillet 1885, Engels entreprit l'énorme travail de compilation et de publication des manuscrits des deuxième et troisième volumes de « Das Kapital » inachevé de Marx dans ses dernières années, et le deuxième tome de « Das Kapital » fut publié.

En janvier 1887, la version anglaise du premier volume de la capitale est publiée.

En 1888, il écrivit « Ludwig Feuerbach et la fin de la philosophie classique allemande », qui révélait la relation entre Marx et la philosophie de Hegeland Feuerbach et expliquait le matérialisme dialectique, les principes fondamentaux de l'isme et du matérialisme historique.

En juillet 1889, sous la direction et la promotion d'Engels, se tient à Paris le Congrès international des travailleurs socialistes (la Seconde Internationale).

InAugust1893, EngelsattendedtheThirdCongressoftheSecondInternationalheldinZurichduringhistriptotheEuropeancontinent.Intheclosingspeechoftheconference, hehopedthattheproletariatofallcountrieswouldstrengthenunityandlearnfromeachotherinthestruggleagainstthecommonenemyandstriveforliberation, andabidebythecommonrevolutionaryprinciples.Atthesametime, theproletariatofallcountriesshould "organizeinanindependentmanner" andinsiston "liberté" .Theprincipleof "joint" et "voluntarycontact" .Inotherarticlesandletters, heemphasizedtheestablishmentofanindependent, autonomousandequalrelationshipbetweensocialistpartiesinvariouscountries.Thepartiesandtheproletariatofvariouscountriesshoulddeterminetheirownrevolutionarystrategiesaccordingtolocalconditions.HeopposesanypartyspeakingonbehalfoftheEuropeanproletariatanddoesnotrecognizeit.Whichpartyenjoysthe "rightoffirstborn" toleadtheinternationalcommunistmovement, andopposesanypartyleadertogiveorderstosocialistsinothercountries.In1894, en réponse aupar social-démocrate allemand ty et la position du Parti des Travailleurs Français sur la question paysanne, écrivit le « Problème paysan franco-allemand », critiquant leur ligne d'accommodement aux petites tendances paysannes. En décembre 1894, le troisième volume du Capital fut publié.

Dans ses dernières années

Inhislateryears, Engel en direct Dina Trois-storyunitbuildingat122RegentParkRoad, du Nord-Ouest de Londres, England.AfterthedeathofMarx, thishousesurroundedbygreentreesbecamethehomeofrevolutionariesfromallcountriesandtheholylandofsocialistsallovertheworld.EngelswarmlyreceivedleadersoftheBritishlabormovement, poorIrishworkers, Frenchfleeingfarmersanduniversitystudentsinexileathome, allowingthemtorecuperateand "refuge" here.Atthesametime, hetreatsvisitingdemocratsandconservativeswithsincerity.RudolfMeyer, aGermanConservativeandeconomist, oftenstayeddrunkathomewithEngels.

Inordertopromotethedevelopmentoftheworldlabormovement, EngelsinhislateryearstraveledalloverEurope, buthealsohopedtovisitAmerica.OnAugust8,1888, Engels, hisoldfriend, thechemistScholema, Marx'sdaughterElenaandherhusbandEvelynsetofffromtheportofLiverpool, Englandonthe "Berlin" navire, andembarkedonatriptotheUnitedStatesacrosstheAtlantic.OnAugust17, EngelsandhispartyarrivedinNewYork.ThiswasthefirsttimehesetfootonAmericansoil.EngelsmetwithleadersoftheAmericanlabormovement, visitedNewYorkandBoston, andwatchedtheworld-famousNiagaraFalls.InConcord, hevisitedtheprisonandsawthattheprisonershadtheirownclubs, theycouldreadbooksandnewspapers, theycouldeatfishandbreadeveryday, et leurs vêtements étaient très différents de ceux des ouvriers ordinaires. production pitaliste.

Le 28 novembre 1890, 70e anniversaire d'Engels, des organisations du parti et des amis du monde entier exprimèrent leur souhait de lui souhaiter un anniversaire. Mais Engels déclina poliment cette gentillesse.

Afterhis74thbirthday, Engels'bodywentfrombadtoworse.Oneyearafterheturned, hefellill, alumpappearedontherightsideofhisneck, andthedoctordiagnosedhimwithadvancedesophagealcancer.Inthewill, hehandedoverallthemanuscriptsandlettersofMarx'sworkstoMarx'slegalheir-hisdaughterElenaMarx.TheentirecollectionofhimselfandMarxwasgiventotheleadersoftheGermanSocialDemocraticPartyBebelandSinger.Healsohasabout30,000poundsofproperty, 3 / 8toMarx'sdaughtersLauraandElena, 1 / 3tothechildrenofMarx'seldestdaughter, Little Jenny et1 / 4tohimalongwithfurnitureSecretaryLouisa.PartoftheremainingpropertywasgiventotheGermanSocialDemocraticPartyasactivityfunds , et une partie a été donnée à la nièce de sa femme, Mary Allen Roscher.

Les choses derrière moi

OnAugust5,1895, EngelsdiedofadvancedesophagealcancerinhisapartmentbytheThames.OnAugust10th, peopleheldamemorialserviceforEngelsintheWaterloostationhallofWestminsterBridge.OnAugust27th, inaccordancewithhiswill, asmallboatrowedintothedepthsoftheseaatEastbourne, England'sfavoritebeachduringEngels'slifetime, lena, EvelynandEngels'comradeLesnasittingontheboat.WiththefourdisciplesEdwardBernstein, theyrecitedDante'sverses, tookuptheblackashespot, andgentlysankitintothesea, andhisasheswerescatteredintheseaof IsbornBay.

Althoughthereisnocemeteryforpeopletoadmire, peoplearoundtheworldhaveestablishedexhibitionhallsandmonumentstocommemorateEngels.OnNovember7,1918, ontheoccasionofcelebratingthefirstanniversaryofthe "Révolution d'Octobre", theSovietUnionestablishedamonumenttoMarxandEngelsinMoscow'sRevolutionSquare.TheMarx-EngelsSquarewasalsobuiltinBerlin, Allemagne, withstatuesofthetwoerectedonthesquare, àBrussels, Belgique, "Swan House" whereMarxandEngelslivedtogetherwasturnedintoamemorialplace.

InEngels'hometownofWuppertal, Ruhr, Allemagne, hisformerresidencehasbeenmeticulouslyprotectedandrepaired.Thisisanindependentbaroquefour-storybuildingwiththeexceptionofEngels'lifestories.Intheexhibition, thereisalsoaChineseversionof "TheCompleteWorksofMarxandEngels" .ThepeopleofhishometownrespectedEngelsverymuchandcalledhim "thefamoussonofWuppertal." HisformerresidencewaslistedbythegovernmentasaneducationbaseforGermanprimaryandsecondaryschoolstudents, andthestreetnexttotheformerresidencewasalsorenamed "Friedrich Engel Strasse", .Peoplefromallovertheworldhavecomehereinanendlessstreamallyearround.Withaheartofreverence theyunderstandthegloriouslifeofEngels.

Principales réalisations

Établir la théorie

Entrée principale : le marxisme

InAugust1844, EngelsvisitedMarxwholivedinParis, Thetwoestablishedadeepfriendship.InSeptemberofthesameyear, HECO- wrotethebook "TheHolyFamily" avec Marx criticizingtheidealisminHegel'sphilosophyandexpoundingsomeimportantprinciplesofdialecticalmaterialismandhistoricalmaterialism.Between1845and1846, thetwoco-authoredthebook "GermanIdeology" whichwasthefirstsystematicexpositionofhistoricalmaterialism.In1845, Engelswrotethebook "TheSituationoftheBritishWorkingClass" whichclearlypointedoutforthefirsttimethatthepoliticalandeconomicstatusoftheproletariatwouldinevitablypushittofightforitsownliberation; whilesocialismcouldonlybecomethegoaloftheworkingclass'spoliticalstruggle.Willbecomeapoliticalforce.

EngelsandMarxestablishedtheCommunistCommunicationCommitteeinBrusselsinearly1846toestablishcontactswithsocialistgroupsinvariouscountriestopromotescientificsocialism.In1847, MarxandEngelswereinvitedtojointheLeagueofJustice, asecretorganizationofGermanworkers, andactivelyparticipatedinitsreorganization.EngelsattendedthefirstcongressoftheLeagueinJune, expoundingtotheconferencethebasicprinciplesofscientificsocialism, andreorganizingtheoldleagueintoacommunistleague.FromDecember1847toJanuary1848, la "CommunistManifesto" co-authoredbyMarxandEngelspubliclysetupthebannerofthecommunistmovementforthefirsttime.Itwasadetailedtheoreticalandpracticalpartyprogram, markingthebirthofMarxism.

Le mouvement ouvrier

ComparedtoMarx'stheoreticalperformance, Engelsismoreinclinedtoberesponsibleforrealizingrightsandinterestsfortheworkingclassthroughpracticalwork.AfterthedeathofMarxin1883, Engelscontinuedtoleadtheinternationallabormovementfor12yearsandestablishedtheSecondInternationalin1889.Inhislateryears, Engelsfocusedhisattentiononorganizingthesocialdemocraticparty, thelegalpartyoftheproletariat, inademocraticcountry, andstrivingforspecificeconomicinterestsandpoliticalstatusfortheworkersundertheframeworkoftheconstitution.However, herepeatedlyarguedthattheproletariatcannotgiveuptheviolentrevolution..EngelsreflectedonthelimitationsofMarx'sviolentrevolutionin "Introductionto" ClassStruggleinFrance » .HepointedoutthattheGermanworkingclassmustusevotingrightstocompetewiththebourgeoisieforeveryseatandusevotestoprovethepoweroftheproletariatinordertowinthedecisivebattleinthefuture.ThisideawasfurtherelaboratedbyBernsteinafterhisdeath, andlatercriticizedbyLenin, whichwascalledrevisionism.Legalstruggleandviolentrevolutionbec amethewatershedbetweenBernsteinandLenin.ItisworthnotingthattheSocialDemocraticParty, whichwasnotfoundedbyEngelsandlatersublimeMarxism, stillexistsinmostEuropeancountries, andhasbecomeamajorcongressionalpartyinmanycountries.PartoftheSocialDemocraticPartyintheEngelserawaslaterchangedtotheCommunistParty, orfromTheoriginalSocialDemocraticPartysplitup, andtheCommunistInternationalwasfoundedundertheleadershipoftheCommunistPartyoftheSovietUnion.Leninwastheinitiator.Inthe1940s, theCommunistPartyoftheSovietUniondisbandedtheCommunistInternationalbecauseoftheanti-fasciststruggle.Inthe1920sand1930s, Germany'sSocialDemocraticPartyandtheCommunistPartyfoughtfiercelyaroundrevisionistissues, whichwasoneofthereasonswhytheNaziPartytookadvantageofitsemptinessandbecametherulingparty.GermanlawdoesnotallowtheestablishmentofaCommunistParty.Sofar, theMarxist-LeninistCommunistPartyhasmostlychangedtheprincipleofviolentrevolution.Infact, thisisacover-upmethodforcontinuingthestruggleinthecountrywhereitislocated.

OnMarch6,1895, EngelsmadeafinalreflectionandrevisionoftheentiretheoreticalsystemofMarxisminthe "IntroductiontotheClassStruggleinFrance": « Historyshowsthatwehavealsobeenwrong.WeTheviewheldatthattimewasonlyanillusion.Historydidmore: itnotonlyeliminatedourmistakesatthetime, butalsocompletelychangedtheconditionsfortheproletariattofight.Themethodofstrugglein1848, althoughithasbeeninallrespectsItisold, butthispointisworthyofmorecarefulstudyhere.HistoryclearlyshowsthattheeconomicdevelopmentoftheEuropeancontinentatthattimewasfarfrommatureenoughtoeradicatecapitalism ... in1848, asimpleHowimpossibleitistoachievesocialtransformationthroughasurpriseattack.Theold-styleuprisings, thefortificationstreetfightingthatplayedadecisiveroleeverywherebefore1848, aremostlyoutdated.IfwetalkabouttheconditionsforwarbetweencountriesChangeshavetakenplace, sotheconditionsofclassstrugglehavealsochanged.Theeraofsuddenattacksandtheeraofrevolutionsledbyaconsciousminorityledbyunconsciousmasseshaspassed.Abrand- nouvelleluttedelaproleta riatThemethodbegantobeadopted, andquicklyobtainedfurtherdevelopment.Itturnedoutthatinthestateinstitutionsthatthebourgeoisieusestoorganizeitsrule, therearemanythingsthattheworkingclassmayusetofightagainsttheseinstitutionsthemselves.Workersbegantoparticipateinthestateparliaments, Municipalcommitteesandindustrialandcommercialarbitrationcourts;. theybegantocompetewiththebourgeoisieforeveryelectedposition, aslongastherewereenoughworkers'votestovotewhenthepositionwasreplaced.Asaresult, thebourgeoisieandthegovernmentwereafraidoftheworkers'partyLegalactivitiesaremoreafraidofitsillegalactivities, pays andelectionachievementsareevenmoreafraidofuprisings.InRomance parlant, peoplearebeginningtounderstandthattheoldstrategymustbemodified.Germany'suseofvotingrightstoseizeusTherolemodelsofallpositionsthatcanbecapturedareimitatedeverywhere; unpreparedattackshaveretreatedtoasecondarypositioneverywhere ".

Théorie économique

Horizons de recherche

. Inthelate1970s, Lukácsputforwardtheslogan "ReturntoMarx" inhisfinalwork "OntologyofSocialExistence" "BacktoMarx" isactuallytobetterdevelopMarx.Facingthenewcentury, ourfundamentalwaytoadvancethestudyofMarxismshouldbetostrivetoachievetheunityof "returningtoMarx" et "developingMarx" Parce que "returningtoMarx" canclearthesource, setthingsright, "ancêtres" de anddigdeeperintothesourceofMarxism, soastosurpasstheSovietmodeltextbooksystem; "developingMarx" meansthatwecan'tjuststicktoMarx'soriginaltextandthoughts .Il est nécessaire de restaurer l'esprit novateur du marxisme en avançant avec son temps, de développer et d'innover les théories marxistes, et de répondre aux nouvelles questions de l'époque. "

Marx Etude d'analyse Ne jamais contourner Engels, letalonemisinterpretEngels.ItisnotdifficulttounderstandwhyBernsteinpioneeredrevisionism, heneededtouseEngelsasashieldandcriticizedhim, LuCatchopenedupthepathofWesternMarxismandcondemnedhim, andwhenscholarstriedtoopenthewayforthedialecticsofthesubject, theyalsolikedtodegradehimasanoutdatednaturalsciencematerialist.Andeverythingisbasedondemeaninghistory.Onthepremiseofobjectivityandregularity, andwhetherthispremiseiscorrect, aslongaswecarefullyread "GermanIdeology" et "Daskapital" especiallythepartofthe "NatureandSociety" inthemanuscriptofEngels'DialecticsofNature, weallBeingabletomakecorrectjudgments, howuntenableisEngels'viewof "détruire" Marx 'théorie.

Lors de la lecture Littérature Marxistes Mr.Mikhailovskyoftenencountered "insocialsciences". "Dialecticalmethod" rencontré "dialecticalthinking" withinthescopeofsocialissues (thisscopeisonlydiscussed) etc.Becauseofthesimplemind (ifitisonlysimple, that'sokay) hethoughtthatthismethodisbasedontheHegelianthree-stagemethod.Lawstosolveallsociologicalproblems.Aslongashelooksattheproblemsalittlemorecarefully, hecan'thelpbeingconvincedthatthisviewisabsurd.WhatMarxandEngelscallthedialecticalmethod (itistheoppositeofthemetaphysicalmethod) isnothingbutThescientificmethodinsociology. Cette méthode tient compte d'un organisme vivant en développement continu (plutôt qu'une combinaison mécanique de sorte que divers éléments sociaux peuvent se combiner aléatoirement), il faut étudier cet organisme. Il faut donc analyser objectivement les rapports de production qui constituent la forme sociale, et étudier la loi de l'activité, lire " jamais le développement de la forme sociale ". rehasneverbeenaMarxistwhobelievesthatMarx'stheoryisahistoricalandphilosophicalformulathatmustbeuniversallyobeyed, somethingthatgoesbeyondthedescriptionofacertainsocio-economicform.OnlysubjectivephilosophersMr.MikhailovskydidnotunderstandMarxinthisway, andeventhoughtthatMarxmusthavesomegeneralphilosophicaltheory, il y a donc, hegotaveryclearanswerfromMarx: hehasfoundthewrongperson.TherehasneverbeenaMarx.Theactivistsdonotconformtotherealityandhistoryofthesocio-economicrelationshiponthebasisoftheory, butonthebasisofsomethingelse ... andtheycannotjustifytheirviewsonthebasisofotherthings, becausethefounderof "marxisme" ... Veryclearlystatedthisrequirementfortheory, anduseditasthebasisforalltheories.

Loi de la valeur

Article principal : Capitale

Ce qui est décisif, c'est que le passage de la page 19 du volume du Capital de Marx est :

Inshort, aslongaseconomiclawswork, Marx'slawofvalueisuniversallyapplicabletotheentireperiodofsimplecommodityproduction, thatis, untilsimplecommodityproductionchangesduetotheemergenceofcapitalistformsofproductionItisuniversallyapplicable.Priortothis, priceswerecenteredonthevaluedeterminedbyMarx'slaw, andchangedaroundthisvalue, sothatthemorefullydevelopedthesimplecommodityproduction, themoreitwasnotinterruptedbyexternalviolentinterference.Theaveragepriceinthelongerperiodoftimewillbemoreconsistentwiththevalue, untilthedifferenceinquantityissmallenoughtobenegligible.Therefore, Marx'slawofvaluestartsfromthebeginningoftheexchangeofproductsintocommodities.Itwasuniversallyapplicableeconomicallyuntilthe15thcentury.However, theexchangeofcommoditiesbeganbeforethewrittenhistory.TheaboveisthesupplementaryexplanationmadebyEngelsforMarx'sCapital.

Cependant, les gens ne décrivent pas l'ontologie de la méthodologie (c'est-à-dire la dialectique) comme les dispositions des méthodes historiques, au contraire, ils parlent directement de méthodes logiques, car ils ne s'attendaient pas à explorer le « comment » de la méthode scientifique.

Édition de livres

Afficher plus de livres

Évaluation historique

influence principale

Afterthe1880s, theinternationallabormovementfurtherdevelopedinabroadaspect, spreadingtotheentireEuropeanandNorthAmericancontinent.TheelderlyEngelscloselyfollowedthesocialistmovementeverywhere.Wehaveabroadunderstandingofthehistoryandstatusquoofeachcountry, maintainregularcontactwithsocialistpartiesandlabormovementactivistsinvariouscountries, andgivethemsuggestionsandadvicefromtimetotime.EngelsrepeatedlytaughtsocialistsinvariouscountriestoproceedfromtheirownconditionsandpersistinAndusethebasicprinciplesofMarxismtoindependentlydeterminethepoliciesandstrategiesofthecountry'srevolution.Hesaid: "Marx'shistoricaltheoryisthebasicconditionofanyunswervingandconsistentrevolutionarystrategy, inordertofindsuchastrategy, allthatisneededisApplythistheorytotheeconomicandpoliticalconditionsofthecountry."

Inthe1880sand90s, Engelscontinuedtoengageintheoreticalresearchinvariousfieldsofthought, comprehensivelyenrichinganddevelopingthetheoreticaltreasurehouseofMarxism.InOctober1884, "Famille, PrivateOwnershipandThebook" TheOriginoftheCountry "waspublished, whichsystematicallyexplorestheprehistoryofhumansocietyforthefirsttimeinthehistoryofMarxism, revealingthelawoftheorigin, developmentanddemiseofprivateownership, classandthecountry, andthehistoryoffamilychanges.InthepublicationandreprintofMarxInhisworkonpoliticaleconomy, Engelsmadenewdiscussionsbasedonthenewphenomenaofcapitalisteconomicdevelopmentafterthe1980s, suchastheemergenceofmonopoly, thedevelopmentofstatecapitalism, thenewcharacteristicsofeconomiccrises, andtheunevendevelopmentofcapitalistcountries.Andgeneralization.In1890and1893, hepublished" TheForeignRelationsoftheTsaristRussianGovernment "et" CanEuropeDisarmament ", analysant les caractéristiques et les tendances des relations internationales européennes au début des années 90, et révélant que la Russie tsariste était une force actionnariste en Eur ope.Fortress, expoundstheproletariat'sbasicviewsandpoliciesonwar, paix, andrevolution.InresponsetotherisingtrendofrightopportunismwithintheGermanSocialDemocraticPartyandtheSecondInternational, Marx'sCriticismoftheGothaProgramwaspublishedinJanuary1891. "CivilWarinFrance" wasrepublishedinMarchandanintroductionwaswritten.InJune, "CriticismoftheDraftSocialDemocraticProgramof1891" waswritten.Inearly1895, "ClassStruggleinFrancefrom1848to1850" de itwaspublishedasaseparateeditionofMarx de .Wroteanintroduction.Intheseintroductions, EngelsconcentratedondefendingandexertingtheMarxisttheoryofappealingtotheproletarianrevolution, classstruggle, andthedictatorshipoftheproletariat.InNovember1894, hewrotethe "Problème paysan franco-allemand" sur le prolétariat. Là où les paysans représentent la majorité de la population, « pour s'emparer du Régime, ce parti politique devrait d'abord courir de la ville à la campagne et devenir force à la campagne.

EngelsetravailleavecMarxpourcréerlaphilosophieetl'économiepolitiquemarxiste.Ilacontribuéàlathéoriedusocialismescientifique,etenmêmetempseudeprofondsréalisationsetdesréalisationsexceptionnellesdansledomainedelathéoriemilitaire.AvecMarx, EngelsetMarxonthéritéde manièrecritiquedel'héritagedesthéories.militaires.

Évaluation du caractère

L'évaluation du FrMerlin : « L'une des réalisations de Marx et d'Engels qu'il ne faut pas sous-estimer est de nous libérer du jargon philosophique qui était autrefois très populaire, mais dans les ouvrages de (certains) marxistes (dogmatiques), cela semble être une chose complètement banale - ce sera l'outcho.

Les trois contributions majeures d'Engels. Co-fondateur d'une nouvelle vision matérialiste du monde avec Marx ; entièrement soutenu l'écriture de Marx « DasKapital ; Innovation théorique d'Engels au cours de ses dernières années (Auteur : WangDong, ZhaoYulan Unité : Département de philosophie, École de MinM)

Travail Personnel

1. "Anti-DuhringTheory": Concentratingtheimportantachievementsofmanysciencesatthattime, refutingDuhring'stheory.UnderLiebknecht'ssuggestion, andwiththehelpofMarx, Engelspublishedthebook "Anti-Dühring" in1878.Thiscontroversialworkdealswiththeso-calledfromthethreeaspectsofphilosophy, politicaleconomyandsocialism "Socialistexpert" DuLinmadeafundamentalcriticismandfullyexplainedthebasicviewpointsofMarxism, therebyeliminatingtheinfluenceofDuLin'spetty-bourgeoissocialistthoughtinthepartyandensuringtheguidingpositionofMarxism.Knownasthe "de EncyclopediaofMarxism"..

2."LudwigFeuerbachandtheEndofGermanClassicalPhilosophy":aclassicsummaryofphilosophicalissues,dividingmaterialismandidealismMarxismputsforwardscientificstandards.ThebookprovidesahistoricalandprofounddiscussiononthehistoricalprocessofMarxandEngels'foundingofMarxism,especiallytheinfluenceofGermanclassicalphilosophyonMarxistphilosophy.TherelationshipwithHegelianphilosophyandFeuerbach'shumanismisofgreatsignificance.ThiscanbedescribedasEngels'self-clarificationandself-summarizationinhislateryears.

3."DialecticsofNature":embodyingMarxistphilosophyTheunityofworldoutlook,epistemology,andmethodologyconstitutesanintegralpartofMarxistphilosophy.AsEngelsemphasized,hedidnot“injectthelawsofdialecticsintonaturefromtheoutside”,but“findtheselawsfromthenaturalworldandlearnthemfromthenaturalworld.Elaborate.”ItcanbesaidthatEngels'DialecticsofNatureenrichedthecontentofmaterialistdialecticsandwasamajorinnovationinhislateryears.

4.“TheOriginofFamily,PrivateOwnership,andtheState”:UsingMaterialistHistoryViewclarifiedtheessenceofthecountryandtheinevitabilityofitsdemise,andbecamethemainworkofhistoricalphilosophyresearch.

AnecdotalAllusions

GreatFriendship

Marx'sthoughtsArichman,butaseverelypooreconomically,thisgreateconomistwiththoroughresearchoncapitalisteconomywasimpoverishedhimself,andhislifewasalmostspentinpoverty.Ifitweren'tforEngels'economicsWithlong-termselflessassistance,Marxwasunabletoleadtheinternationalproletarianmovementandconcentrateontheoreticalcreation.FromthelettertoEngelsonFebruary27,1852,wesawtheplightoftheworld-renownedtheorist.Marxwrote:"OneweekSincethen,Ihavereachedaverypainfulpoint:becausemycoatenteredthepawnshop,Ican'tgooutanymore,andbecauseI'mnotallowedtopay,Ican'teatmeatanymore.SoonhewrotetoEngelsandconfided:"Mywifeissick,XiaoYanniissick,LinHengsuffersfromakindofnervousfever,Ican'taskthedoctorinthepast,andIwon'tbeabletoaskforitinthefuture,becausethereisnomoneyformedicine.Foreighttotendays,breadandpotatoeshavebeeneatenathome.Whetherwecangettheseisstillaquestion."Hunger,povertyandhouseholdchoresbotheredMarx.Hewasangryandirritated,unabletoconcentratehisenergyandwisdomontheoreticalcreation.

ForMarx'sdilemma,Engelsregardeditashisowndifficulty.HewasgivingtoMarx.Theletterread:"Iwillsendyou£5inearlyFebruary,andyouwillreceivethisamounteverymonthfromnowon.EvenifIamindebtwhenIgettothenewaccountingyear,itdoesn'tmatter.…Ofcourse,youshouldn'tstopwritingtomeandaskformoneywhenit'sdifficultjustbecauseIpromisedtosend£5amonth,becauseI'lldoitaslongaspossible."Atthistime,EngelswasjustanordinarysmallclerkintheEumen-Engelscompany,andhisincomewasverylow.Helaterbecameamanagerofthecompany,andhismonthlysalaryincreased.Since1860,hissupporttoMarxincreasedtoItwas10poundsamonth,andsomesubsidieswereoftengiven"inaddition".From1851to1869,Marxreceivedatotalof3,121poundsinremittancesfromEngels.ForEngelsatthetime,thiswasalreadyahelpinghand.

Marriagelife

NotlongafterEngelscametoManchester,hemetMaryBarnes.MaryisasimpleyoungIrishweaverworkerwhoworksinacottonmillinManchester.Athisage,BiangelsOneyearyounger,herfatherwasadyeingworker.EngelsandMary,afemaleworkerwhohadbeenfamiliarwiththeproletarianstrugglesincechildhood,visitedManchester'sworkingquarters.Thisallowedhimtogetacquaintedwithmanyworkingfamiliesandwalkintotheirhouses.Andfamiliarwithmanydetailsoftheirlives.Engelsalsoparticipatedinworkers'socialactivitieswithMary.

Formanyyears,LixilivedwithMaryandEngelsinafamily,andshedeeplymournedher.Notonlydotheyhavebrotherhood,butalsobecauseofthesamepoliticalviews,theyhaveaverycloserelationship.Later,EngelsandLixigrewcloserandcaredforeachotheruntiltheyhadeternalloveduetomutualsympathyandadmiration,soLixibecameThesecondwifeofEngels.

InJuly1870,EngelsandLiximovedtoLondontogether.TheirresidenceinLondonisonlya15-minutewalkfromMarx'sapartment.

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After1876,Lixisufferedfromobviousasthmaandsciatica.Intheautumnof1877,Lixi'spainbecameworseandworse.Onthehospitalbed,Lixiaskedherhusbandtoperformformalmarriageprocedures.EngelsIthasalwaysbeenthoughtthatthemarriagewasapprovedbythestateandtheceremonyinthechurchwassuperfluousandunnecessary.However,heagreedtothefinalrequestofhisdyingwife,andheldaweddingceremonywithherontheeveningofSeptember11,1878.Afewhourslater,LiXidiedinEngels'arms.

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