Accueil Technologie Facteurs de production

Facteurs de production



introduction

Factorsofproductionrefertoalltheelementsandenvironmentalconditionsnecessaryformaterialproduction.Generallyspeaking,factorsofproductionincludeatleasthumanfactors,materialfactorsandtheircombinedfactors.Thereasonwhyworkersandmeansofproductionarethemostbasicelementsofmaterialproductionisbecausetheyarealwaysindispensableforproductionregardlessofthesocialformofproduction.Themissingelements,theformerarethephysicalconditionsofproduction,andthelatterarethematerialconditionsofproduction.However,whenworkersandmeansofproductionareseparated,theyareonlyfactorsofproductionintermsofpossibility.Theymustbecombinediftheyaretobecomeactualproductionfactors.

Thecombinationoflaborandmeansofproductionisanecessaryconditionforhumanbeingstocarryoutsociallaborproduction.Withouttheircombination,therewouldbenosocialproductivelabor.Intheproductionprocess,laborersuselabormaterialstowork,sothattheobjectsoflaborundergoexpectedchanges.Attheendoftheproductionprocess,laborandlaborobjectsarecombined,laborismaterialized,objectsareprocessed,andproductssuitableforpeople'sneedsareformed.Ifthewholeprocessisexaminedfromtheperspectiveofresults,themeansoflaborandtheobjectsoflaborappearasmeansofproduction,andlaboritselfappearsasproductivelabor.

Duetothedifferencesinproductionconditionsandtheircombinationmethods,thesocietyisdividedintodifferenteconomicstructuresandstagesofdevelopment.Inthehistoricalprocessofsocialandeconomicdevelopment,theconnotationofproductionfactorshasbecomeincreasinglyabundant,andnewproductionfactorssuchasmodernscience,technology,management,information,resources,etc.,haveenteredtheproductionprocessandplayedtheirrespectivemajorrolesinmodernlarge-scaleproduction..Thestructureoffactorsofproductionwillalsochange,andthemoredevelopedtheproductivity,thegreatertheeffectofthesefactors.

Productionfactorsincludefourcategories:labor,capital,land,andentrepreneurialtalents.Foralongtime,weonlyemphasizedtheroleoflaborinvaluecreationandwealthproduction,whiletheroleofotherfactorsofproductionandtheireffectsoncitizensThedivisionofincomehaseitherbeenneglectedornotpaidenoughattentionto,sotheproblemoflabor'sparticipationinincomedistributionhasbeenemphasized.Distributionaccordingtoproductionfactorsmeansthatwhilecontinuingtohighlighttheroleoflabor,sufficientattentionshouldbepaidtocapital,technology,andmanagementandotherfactorsofproduction,sothattheycanalsobereasonablyandlegallyrewarded.Amongthem,theroleandreturnoftwoelementsmustbeemphasized:

L'un est le capital humain. Le capital comprend deux formes de capital physique et de capital humain.

Thesecondislandandresourceproperties.Theirroleinwealthproductionhaslongbeenrecognizedbypeople,buttherehasalwaysbeenavagueunderstandingoftheirneedtoparticipateinincomedistribution.Thisisreflectedinthefactthatmycountry'slandandnaturalresourcesareusedforfreeoratlowpricesinmanycases.Inourcountry,landandnaturalresourcesareownedbythestateorcollectives.Theirfreeorlow-costusemeansthattheirprofitshavebeeninvadedbyafewpeople.Thisisalsoanimportantreasonfortherapidexpansionoftheincomegapinourcountry.Therefore,howtoparticipateinthedistributionoflandandresourceelementsisaproblemthatshouldbeseriouslyconsideredwhenimprovingtheincomedistributionsystem.

Relations de distribution

Pour étudier l'impact de la répartition des facteurs de production sur la répartition des revenus, il faudrait suivre le principe de l'économiste : « Toute répartition de matières de consommation n'est que des conditions de production. Il en résulte sa propre répartition.

Si l'on prend comme exemple la répartition des revenus urbains-ruraux en Chine, l'écart des revenus urbains-ruraux est directement lié à la répartition des facteurs de production.

China'surban-ruralstructure,fromaregionalperspective,theurbanpopulationissmallerthantheruralpopulation,butitcontrolstheresourcesofownershipbythewholepeople;theruralpopulationismorethanthecity,andonlypartofthelandownershipiscontrolled(duetolandsales,mostTheincomeistakenawaybythecity)asmallamountofresources.Thisdistributionpatternofproductionfactorswillinevitablyleadtotheexpansionoftheurban-ruralincomegap.First,therearemanyproductionfactorscontrolledbythecityandthequalityisgood.Therearemanyopportunitiesforresidentstocombinetheproductionfactors.Thequantityandqualityoftheproductionfactorsoccupiedandusedwillbelarge,andtheirincomewillnaturallybehigh.Secondly,urbanresidentsenjoyurbanization.Thebenefitsbroughtbythemenjoythepublicproductsprovidedbythestate,butfarmerspayahugeprice,buttheyarenotrewarded,andtheycannotenjoythesametreatmentasurbanresidents.Thiswillinevitablywidenthegapbetweenurbanandrurallivingstandards; enfin, le plus grand écart entre les zones urbaines et rurales réside dans la différence de niveau de connaissance ge.Therelativelypoorculturalknowledgeoffarmersisafatalinjurytofarmers.Itdeprivesfarmersofopportunitiesforemploymentandhighincome.Thelackofproductionfactorsinruralareaswillmakefarmerslosetheirrighttodevelopment,andtheywillnotbeabletomakeafortuneandincreasetheirincome.Thisisthefundamentalreasonforthewideningurban-ruralincomegap.Theformationofthisproblemcanneitherbeblamedonthepriorityofefficiency,norcanitbesolvedbyfairdistribution.Itcanonlystartwiththedistributionofproductionfactors.Intheuseofproductionfactors,farmersshouldreceivethesametreatmentasurbanresidentsinordertobenefitsocialjustice.

Thepossessionanddistributionofproductionfactorsarenotarbitrary,butultimatelydeterminedbythelevelofproductivity.Thefairappropriationofproductionfactorsisnotredistribution,butbreakstheartificialdivision,sothatallmembersofsocietyareequalintheuseofsocialproductionfactors.Inamarketeconomy,everyoneisonthesamestartinglineandallhaveequalityintheuseofsocialproductionfactors.right.Butthiskindoffairopportunityisonlyaprerequisite,andfairnessinoperatingrulesisalsorequired,thatis,everyoneisusingthesamerules.Thisrulemainlyreferstothegovernment'spolicyformulationandimplementation.

Ifthepolicyistobetreateddifferently,itcannotbetreatedequally,itwillinevitablyaffecttheincomeofsomepeople.Forexample,thereisascissorsdifferenceindeterminingthepriceofindustrialandagriculturalproducts.Thereisahugepricedifferencebetweentheprimarymarketandthesecondarymarketintheexpropriationoffarmers'land.Thewagesandbenefitspaidtomigrantworkersarelowerthanthatofequivalenturbanworkers.TheyareenjoyingpublicproductssuchasIntermsofeducation,health,subsidies,relief,socialsecurity,etc.,therearemajordifferencesbetweenruralandurbanareas,aswellasthedifficultiesandunfairtreatmentoffarmersinurbanemployment,thegovernment'spreferenceforurbanfiscaltransferpayments,etc.,allofwhichwillaffectFarmers'income.Intermsofpolicyimplementation,ifthesupervisionisnotstrict,andthereareevensiblings, En ce qui concerne le traitement de ce type de problème, même si la « priorité d'efficacité, compte tenu de l'équité » est remplacée par « l'équité d'abord, compte tenu de l'efficacité », elle ne peut pas être résolue, et donc les règles doivent être mises en œuvre dans les politiques.

Undertheconditionsofamarketeconomy,theprincipleofdistributionisbasedonfactorsofproduction,sothedistributionoffactorsofproductiondeterminesincomedistribution.Aseconomistshavepointedout:"Sincethefactorsofproductionaredistributedinthisway,thecurrentdistributionofconsumptionmaterialswillnaturallyarise."Therefore,tosolvetheproblemofincomedistributiongaps,wecannotusefairdistribution,butcanonlychangeit.Thedistributionoffactorsofproductionistreatedequallyinpolicy,sothateveryonestandsonthesamestartingline,sharesthesamerules,andeveryonehasequalopportunitiesandfaircompetition.

Contribution de l'élément

introduction

La compréhension que les gens ont des choses change toujours, et la tendance générale est d'avancer et de monter à un niveau supérieur.

La pratique ultérieure a prouvé que la simple mise en œuvre de la répartition selon le travail ne fonctionnera pas.

Pour discuter de la contribution des facteurs, deux questions doivent être clarifiées.

Taper

Les facteurs de production communs sont le travail, le capital et la terre. Le travail peut également être subdivisé en heures de travail, connaissances et sagesse.

TravailContribution

Les droits de propriété intellectuelle, les connaissances de gestion, etc. sont souvent considérés comme des extensions du capital, sur la base de la proportion des capitaux propres, des dividendes et des votes.

Someelementscancreatevalueinthemselves,andsomeelementsarevalueinthemselves.Theparticipationofvariousproductionfactorsinthedistributionaccordingtotheircontributionisbasedontwoconsiderations.Oneistheeconomicembodimentoftheownershiprelationshipofthefactors.Whoeverholdsthefactorsandwhoistheownerofthefactorscanparticipateinthedistribution;thesecondistheinherentrequirementofthemarketeconomytoallocateresources.,Themarketeconomyrequirestheoptimalallocationofresources,andtheallocationoffactorcontributionsisconducivetoguidingtheallocationofresourcestothebestareas.

Lorsque la plantation de patates douces et de concombres est plus rentable que la plantation de riz et de blé, et lorsque les salaires sont plus élevés, d'excellents ouvriers et ouvriers qui souhaitent des salaires plus élevés se répercuteront naturellement dans le champ de plantation de patates douces et de concombres.

Lorsque les revenus de la spéculation immobilière sont supérieurs aux revenus de la spéculation boursière, les fonds de la spéculation affluent vers le marché immobilier, faisant ainsi monter les prix des logements.

Servingpeoplewithteaandwaterisoriginallyanordinaryhousework,andmostpeopleareunwillingtodoit.Oncethesejobsaremovedtotheplane,theywillchargehighairfaresandpayhighsalariestotheflightattendants.Everyoneservingteaandwaterisrushingtodoit.Astheincome,situation,andremunerationofflightattendantsandpositionsinotherindustriesgraduallybecomeequal,theflightattendantswillalsobecomeemptyparentsandmothers.Itcanbepredictedthatinthenearfuture,theflightattendantswillnolongerbehandsomemenandwomen,butwillbeunclesandaunts.

Allocation des ressources

Productionfactorsparticipateinthedistributionaccordingtotheircontribution,"Itisbasedonthevaluecreatedbysociallynecessarylabor,accordingtothecontributionofvariousproductionfactorsinvalueformation.Distribution.""Becauselabor,capital,landandotherfactorsofproductionallplaytheirrespectiverolesinvalueformation,socialistwages,interest,andlandrent(therearetworepresentativeviews:oneviewisthat,Factorsofproductionparticipateinthedistributionaccordingtotheircontribution,"thatis,onthebasisofthevaluecreatedbysociallynecessarylabor,andaccordingtothecontributionofvariousproductionfactorsinvalueformation."Becauselabor,capital,landandotherproductionfactorsareinvalueformationTheyallplaytheirrespectiveroles.Therefore,socialistwages,interestandlandrentarenothingmorethanrewardstotheownersofthesefactorsofproductionbasedonthecontributionsoflabor,capital ,la terreetd'autresfacteursdeproduction. répartition en fonction de la contribution des facteurs de production à la production de richesse, c'est-à-dire de la valeur d'usage, plutôt que de leur contribution à la création de valeur.

ThefocusofthedivergenceofthetwoviewsItiswhetherthefactorsofproductioncontributetotheformationofwealthortheformationofvalue.Therefore,thefactorsofproductionaredistributedaccordingtotheircontributionintheformationofwealthoraccordingtotheircontributionintheformationofvalue.)Itisnecessarytograsplabor,capital,andtechnology.Themeaningofproductionfactorssuchasmanagementandmanagementparticipatinginthedistributionaccordingtotheircontribution.Factorsofproductionincludetwoaspects:subjectandobject.Humanlaboristhemainbodyoftheproductionfactors,andtheprocessingobjectsrequiredforproduction,suchasfarmingrequiresland,textilesrequirecottonandcottonyarn,andthetoolsandmeansrequiredforprocessing,belongtotheobjectaspect.Asfaraslaborisalsoafactorofproduction,infact,distributionaccordingtoworkshouldalsobeincludedinthecategoryofdistributionaccordingtofactors.

ButinthesocialistsocietyenvisionedbyMarx,themeansofproductionarepubliclyowned.Theobjectiveelementsrequiredforproductionandreproductionaredeductedinadvancebythesociety,andonlytheremainingpersonalconsumergoodsarepaidbythesociety.Individuallaborcontributionsaredistributed.Underthetraditionalsocialistplannedeconomicsystem,themeansofproductionarepubliclyowned,socialproductionresourcesareuniformlyallocatedbythestate,andthemeansofconsumptionareallocatedaccordingtoworkamongtheworkers.Relationtoreality:Thereportofthe16thNationalCongressoftheCommunistPartyofChinaclearlystatedthat"theprincipleofestablishinglabor,capital,technologyandmanagementandotherproductionfactorstoparticipateinthedistributionaccordingtotheircontributions".

Base de distribution

Firstofall,twoissuesmustbedistinguished:oneisthatvaluecreationcannotbeconfusedwithvaluedistribution;theotheristhatthebasisofdistributionaccordingtoproductionfactorsisnotthefactorvaluetheory.DistributionaccordingtofactorsofproductioncannotfindabasisinMarx'slabortheoryofvalue,anditseemsthatbasiscanbefoundinthe"TrinityFormula"ofWesterneconomics.However,thedistributionisdeterminedaccordingtothecontributionoffactorsofproduction,andtheamountofcontributionoffactorsofproductioncannotbedetermined.Accordingtothelawofdiminishingproductivity,Clarkusesmarginalproductreturnstomeasurethereturnsofproductionfactors.Thereareaseriesofunsolvableproblems,whicharescientific.Thebasisfordistributionaccordingtofactorsofproductioncanonlybetheeconomicrealizationoftheownershipoftheownersofthefactorsofproduction.

Les problèmes d'efficacité et d'équité causés par la répartition finale doivent être résolus par le peuple et les responsables politiques.

Les gens d'aujourd'hui ne se plaignent pas de la richesse ou de l'injustice. Dans le passé, tout le monde marchait ensemble et faisait du vélo ensemble.

Concept de marché

L'économie de marché exige la marchandisation des facteurs de production, et le flux et l'allocation des facteurs de production sont réalisés sous forme de marchandises sur le marché par le biais de transactions commerciales, formant ainsi une variété de marchés de facteurs de production.

Lorsque des facteurs de production entrent sur le marché pour allouer des ressources, les prix des facteurs capital, des facteurs terre et des facteurs travail se forment naturellement.

D'une part, puisque les facteurs de production ont été commercialisés, leur formation et leurs variations de prix ont la nature et la réglementation des produits de base généraux, et leurs processus de formation et de modification des prix sont communs avec les processus de formation et de modification des prix des produits de base ordinaires.

Landmarket

Laconnotationterre

Asacategoryofproductionfactors,landisageneraltermforvariousnaturalresourcesthathavenotbeentransformedbyhumanlabor.Thearablelandandconstructionlandalsoincludeforest,mineraldeposits,watersurface,sky,etc.Landisaneconomicresourcethatanyeconomicactivitymustrelyonanduse.Comparedwithothereconomicresources,itsnaturalcharacteristicsaremainlyitsimmobilityandpersistence,aswellasthedifferenceinabundanceandlocation.Comparedwithothereconomicresourcesandproductionfactors,landisthemostdifficulttoincrease,anditsscarcityismoresignificantthanotherproductionfactors.Especiallywiththeincreaseofthepopulation,theexpansionofthescaleofeconomicactivitiesandthein-depthdevelopment,thescarcityoflandhasanobjectivetrendofobviousstrengthening.

Comment protéger et faire bon usage des ressources terrestres existantes et développer de nouvelles ressources terrestres est toujours une question importante dans les activités économiques.

Lacompositiondumarché foncier

Inaprivatemarketeconomy,landisaprivateproductionfactor.Thelandmarketactuallyhastwolevels:oneisthelandtransactionmarket,andthefinalOwnershipisthetransactionobject,andthelandpriceisformedaccordingly;thesecondisthelandleasemarket,wheretherighttouselandisthetransactionobject,andthelandrentisformedaccordingly.Inourcountry,twosystemsofstateownershipandcollectiveownershipareimplementedforland.Urbanlandandnon-agriculturallandareunderstateownership,andagriculturallandisundercollectiveownership.Basedonthis,twoseparatelandmarketswereformedinthereform,namely,theurbanlandmarketandtherurallandmarket.

Urbanlandmarket

Lemarchédesterresurbainescomprenddesmarchésàdeuxniveauxcomprenantlemarchédutransfertdesdroitsd'utilisationdesterres(marchéprimaire)etlemarchédutransfertdesdroitsd'utilisationdesterres(marchésecondaire).

Modes d'octroi des droits d'utilisation des terres

Il existe deux manières d'accorder les droits d'utilisation des terres : le « système de loyer zéro » et le « système de bail de location ».

Prix ​​du terrain

Dansleprocessusdetransfertetdetransfertdesterres,laredevanced'utilisationdesterrespayéeparlecessionnaireautransfertestcomposéededeuxparties,l'uneconsisteàinvestirdanslaterreetàformerlaproductivitédesterres.

Landpriceisnotthecurrencyexpressionofthevalueoflandasanelementofnaturalforce,butthepurchaseandsalepriceofthelandowner'srighttoclaimlandrentincomeforcommercialization,marketization,andmarkettransactions.Inessence,itisthecurrencyexpressionofthecapitalizationoflandrentincome..Althoughthepriceoflanddependsnotonlyontheamountoflandrentandthelevelofinterestrates,butalsoonlandsupplyanddemand,geographiclocation,ecologicalenvironment,psychologicalpreferencesandotherrelatedfactors,thesearenotthesourceofvaluecreation.Landpriceisan"unreasonableform"withnovaluebutaprice.

ProductionFacteurMarché-Travail

La main d'oeuvre

Travail et sa valeur

Laboristhemostimportanteconomicresourceandproductionfactor.Inamarketeconomy,themarketmustbeusedtorealizeitsallocationandformprices."Laboristheentityandinternalmeasureofvalue,butithasnovalueinitself."Wagesarenotthecurrencyexpressionofthevalueoflaborfactors,buttheexpressionofthepriceoflabor.Undercapitalistconditions,laborbecomesacommodityandhasvalue.Thevalueoflaborforcedependsonthevalueofthemeansofsubsistencenecessarytoreproducethelaborforce.Throughtheemployment-laborrelationshipinthelaborcommoditytradingmarket,theunionoflaborandcapitalisrealized.

Wagesaremanifestedastheremunerationoflaborintheformofphenomena,andinessence,theyarethecurrencyexpressionofthevalueofthemeansofsubsistencenecessaryforlaborerstoreproducelabor.Undersocialistconditions,laborentersthemarketasafactorofproduction,andthroughthecontractualrelationshipbetweenmarketsupplyanddemandparties,thecombinationoflaborandpublicproductionmaterialsisrealized.Inthesocialistpublic-ownedeconomy,theprincipleofdistributionaccordingtoworkisimplemented,andtheessenceofwagesisthecurrencyexpressionofthevalueofpersonalconsumergoodsdistributedbylaborersaccordingtowork.

Le chômageetsescauses

Intheprocessoflaborpriceformationandchanges,therelationshipbetweensupplyanddemandplaysasignificantrole.Inthemoderneconomy,whetheritisacapitalisteconomyorasocialisteconomy,thereareunemploymentofvaryingdegreesandnature.Unemploymentisthestateofseparationbetweenlaborersandthemeansofproduction,whichcanbedividedintofourtypesaccordingtothedifferentreasonsforitsformation.First,frictionalunemployment.Thisisintheprocessofthenormalflowoflabor,andthelaborersareintheperiodoflookingforwork.Thereasonistheinadaptabilitybetweenthelaborersandthejob,insufficientinformation,andtheunsmoothlaborflow.Second,structuralunemployment.Thisiswhentheeconomicstructurechanges,theworkersinthedecliningsectorcannotbeemployedbecausetheycannotadapttotheworkoftheexpandingsectorortheworkpositionistoofarawayfromtheworkers.Third,seasonalunemployment.Thisisduetotemporaryunemploymentcausedbygreatchangesintheproductionprocess.Fourth,unemploymentwithinsufficientdemand.Thisisduetotherelativelyloweconomicgrowthrateandtheunemploymen tcauséparl'augmentationdesopportunitésd'emploiquinepeutsuivreletauxdecroissancedelamain-d'œuvre.

Marché financier

Laconnotationdumarchéfinancier :

Financeisthefinancingofmonetaryfunds,whichreferstothegeneraltermforcurrencycirculationandcreditactivitiesunderthemodernbankingsystem.Thefinancialmarketistheplace,institution,andsupply-demandtransactionrelationshipwherethesuppliersanddemandersofmonetaryfundscarryoutthefinancingandtradingofmonetaryfunds.Bybuyingandsellingvariouscreditinstrumentstocollect,issue,andconvertmonetaryfunds,thefinancialmarketcanrealizethetransformationofsocialidlefundsintoproductionandoperatingfunds,andimprovetheallocationandutilizationefficiencyoffundsandsocialeconomicresources.

Lacompositiondumarchéfinancier :

Lemarchéfinancierestprincipalementcomposédetroisélémentsdebase:lesparticipants,lesinstrumentsfinanciersetlesméthodesd'organisation.

Participantsaumarchéfinancier

Les participants au marché financier comprennent principalement le gouvernement, la banque centrale, les banques commerciales et les institutions financières non bancaires, les entreprises et les résidents.

a.Surlemarchéfinancier,legouvernementagitprincipalementcommedemandeurdefondsetgestionnairedumarchéfinancier.

b.Labanquecentraleestlabanquedelabanque,leprêteurendernierrecoursdesbanquescommercialesetlefournisseurdefondssurlemarchéfinancier.

c.Les banques commerciales et les institutions financières non bancaires, en tant qu'intermédiaires financiers, sont les participants les plus importants du marché financier.

d.Surlemarchéfinancier,lesentreprisessontàlafoislesfournisseursetlesdemandeursdefonds.

e.Lesrésidentssontprincipalementdesfournisseursdecapitalsurlemarchéfinancier,etilsfournissentégalementunepartiedeleursbesoinsencapital.

Instruments financiers

Les instruments financiers sont également appelés instruments de crédit.

L'organisationdesmarchésfinanciers

Theorganizationoffinancialmarketsreferstothemethodsadoptedbyfinancialexchanges.Therearethreemaintypes.Oneisthewaytoconducttransactionsinafixedplace,organized,systematic,andcentralized,suchasexchangetrading;thesecondistoconductface-to-faceanddecentralizedtransactionsbetweenbuyersandsellersatthecounteroffinancialinstitutions,suchasover-the-countertrading;Theover-the-countertransactionmethodisamethodinwhichthereisneitherafixedplacenordirectcontact,butamethodthatmainlyusestelecommunicationmeanstocompletethetransaction.

Classification des marchés financiers :

(1) Selon les différents modes de financement, les marchés financiers peuvent être divisés en deux grandes catégories : les marchés de financement direct et les marchés de financement indirect.

Sur le marché financier, le financement direct sert principalement à lever des capitaux à long terme, tandis que le financement indirect sert principalement à lever des fonds de roulement à court terme.

(2) Selon la durée de la période de financement, le marché financier peut être divisé en deux types : marché monétaire et marché des capitaux.

Prix ​​du marché financier :

Intheprocessofcapitalfinancing,thetransferofcapitalhasaprice,andthispriceismanifestedasacapitalelementintheoperationofthemarket.price.Thepriceofcapitalfactorscanbedividedintotwosituations.Oneisthepriceofborrowedcapital,whichisexpressedasinterest.Interestisnotamanifestationofcapitalvalue,butanunreasonableformofpricethatreflectscapitalizedincome.Interestisamanifestationinwhichtheownerofborrowedcapitallendstherighttousecapitaltoshareproductionsurplusorprofit,andisessentiallyacapitalizedincome.Itssourceofvalueispartofthesurplusvaluecreatedbylaborers'labor.Oneisthepriceofvirtualcapital,suchasthepriceofsecuritiessuchasstocksandbonds.Thestockitselfhasnovalueand"justrepresentstherighttoobtainincome".Itisessentiallythecurrencyexpressionofdividendcapitalizationincome,anditisanunreasonableformofpricethatismoreillusorythanthepriceofborrowedcapital.

TechnologieMarché

TechnologieetTechnologieProduits

La technologie est créée et inventée par les humains à travers des résumés d'expériences, des recherches scientifiques et des expériences sur la base de la pratique. Les connaissances et les compétences pour améliorer directement la production ou améliorer la vie.

La technologie existe généralement sous la forme de connaissances. En termes de production, la technologie est créative et unitaire, a une utilisation et une consommation continues, et peut être améliorée dans l'utilisation et la consommation. La technologie a une valeur d'usage et est également le résultat du travail humain.

Lesconditionspourquelatechnologiedevienneunemarchandise

Inorderfortechnologicalachievementstobecomecommodities,theymusthaveadvanced,mature,applicability,andeconomicalconditions:technologicaladvancementmeansthatnewtechnologiesmustBetterthantheoriginaltechnology;thematurityofthetechnologymeansthatthenewtechnologymustbestableandreliable;theapplicabilityofthetechnologymeansthatthenewtechnologycanmeettheuser'sproductionandmarketneeds,adapttotheuser'sproductiontechnicalconditionsandenvironment,andbeabletouseTheeconomicsoftechnologymeansthatthetransferpriceoftechnologyshouldbereasonable,andtheapplicationcostandinputshouldbebornebytheuser.Thedifferencebetweentechnologicalcommoditiesandordinarycommoditiesisthatthetransactionsoftechnologicalcommoditiesarecontinuousandrepetitive.

Circulationdesmarchandisestechnologiques

La circulation des produits de base technologiques est représentée par le commerce des technologies.

Licensetradereferstoakindoftechnologytransactioncarriedoutbythetwopartiesoftechnologytradeintheformofsigningalicenseagreement.Specifically,therearethreeforms:First,exclusivelicensetrade.Itrequiresthatinacertainarea,thelicenseehastheexclusiverighttousethepurchasedtechnology,andthelicensorandanythirdpartycannotusethetransferredtechnologytomanufactureandsellproductsinthearea.Second,exclusivelicensetrading.Itscharacteristicisthatinacertainarea,thelicenseeexclusivelyusesthepurchasedtechnologytomanufactureandsellproducts,andanythirdpartyisnotallowedtousethetransferredtechnologytomanufactureandsellproductsinthisarea,butthelicensoritselfremainsinthisarea.Therighttousethetransferredtechnologytomanufactureandsellproducts.Third,ordinarylicensetrade.Itscharacteristicisthatthelicensorisallowedtousethepurchasedtechnologytomanufactureandsellproductsinthespecifiedarea.Atthesametime,thelicensorstillreservestherighttotransferthesametechnologytoathirdpartyinthearea.

Prix ​​de la marchandise technique

Technicalcommoditypricereferstothetechnologyusefeeobtainedfromthetechnologytransfereeafterthetechnologytransfer.Theparticularityoftheformationoftechnologicalcommoditypricesliesin:Firstofall,thelaborthatformsthevalueoftechnologicalcommoditiesishigh-levelcomplexlabor,whichisdoublesimplelabor.Secondly,thelaborthatformsthevalueoftechnicalcommoditiesmustincludenotonlythelaborconsumedbytheappliedtechnologyresearchinstitute,butalsothelaborconsumedbythebasicresearchinstitutedirectlyrelatedtothis.Thirdly,thelaborthatformsthevalueoftechnologicalcommoditiesismanifestedbytheamountoflaborsavedaftertheapplicationoftechnology,thatis,thenewlyaddedeconomicbenefitsofatechnologicalproduct.Inthespecificprocessofpriceformationandchange,thesupplyanddemandrelationship,thecostoftechnicalcommodities,potentialeconomicbenefits,lifecycle,transfertimes,developmentandpromotionrisks,practicalityandimplementationconditions,aswellaspricepaymentmethodsandtechnologycirculationmethods,etc.,Bothhaveactualeffectsofvaryingd égrès.

Marché de l'information

introduction

Informationisacertainkindofunderstandingandknowledgeofexternalthingsbypeople,inordertoeliminateuncertaincognition.Itisapartofhumancognition.Kindofresults.(Theconceptof"information"hasnoaccepteddefinition.Thefounderofinformationtheory,Shannon,believesinthebook"TheMathematicalTheoryofCommunication"that"informationisusedtoeliminateuncertainty";Wienerinhisbook"Cybernetics"Itisbelievedthatinformationis“thenameofthecontentexchangedwiththeoutsideworld”)Economicinformationishuman'sunderstandingofthecharacteristicsandregularityofsocialproduction,exchange,distribution,andconsumptionactivities,someofwhichhavespecialusevalueandshouldbeusedasCommoditiesbecometheobjectofmarkettransactions.

Usevalueandvalueofinformation

Inamarketeconomy,theinformationthatisputintomarkettransactionsiseconomicinformationwithcommercialvalueoreconomicfunction.Thistypeofeconomicinformationhaspracticaleconomicapplicationvalue,whichcanbringactualeconomicbenefitstotheeconomicactivitysubjectwhomastersthisinformation,andimprovethelevelofefficiencyoftheireconomicactivities.Thisistheusevalueofinformationproducts.Fromtheperspectiveoftheproductionofinformationproducts,informationproducts,especiallyinformationproductswitheconomicfunctions,aregenerallyproducedexclusivelyattheexpenseofhumanlabor,andarepartofthefruitsofhumanlabor.

Asanindispensableproductivelabor,thelaborengagedininformationcollection,processingandcreationalsoneedstobecompensatedinsomeway.Thisrequiresthecommercializationofinformationproductsandtherealizationoflaborthroughmarkettransactions.Compensationandcorrespondingbenefits.Asinformationproductsbecomecommodities,amarketwithinformationcommoditiesasthetransactionobjectwillinevitablyform,thatis,theinformationmarket.

Thecompositionoftheinformationmarket

Theinformationmarketismainlytheinformationconsultingmarket.Theindustrythatconductstheproduction,circulationandserviceofinformationproductsistheinformationconsultingindustry,whichisanimportantpartoftheinformationindustry.component.Inthemoderneconomywheretheroleofscienceandtechnologyinproductionisincreasing,theinformationindustryhasgraduallybecometheleadingindustryoftheentiresocialeconomyandiscalledthe"fourthindustry."

Thepriceofinformationcommodities

Informationcommercializationcannotonlycompensatefortheconsumptionofinformationproduction,butalsopromotetheproductionandcirculationofinformation,optimizetheallocationofinformationresources,andimprovetheentiresocietyEconomicbenefits.Ininformationtransactions,thepriceofinformationcommoditiesisbasedontheproductionandprocessingcostsofinformationcommoditiesandtheamountofsociallaborconsumptionontheonehand,andontheotherhand,ithasagreatrelationshipwiththeeconomicbenefitsofinformationcommodities.Thereisabigdeviationbetweenthepriceofinformationcommoditiesandtheirdirectcosts.Ontheonehand,thelaborconsumedininformationproductionisaveryspecialhigh-levelcomplexlabor,andunitlaborconsumptionwillformalargesocialvalue.Ontheotherhand,itismainlybecauseofitsThepotentialeconomicbenefitsaregreaterandthereisagreatermarketdemand.

Définition

Definition1

Theso-calledproductionfactorsrefertothevarioussocialresourcesneededforsocialproductionandbusinessactivities,includinglabor,land,Thecontentofcapital,technology,information,etc.,andthesecontentsareconstantlyevolvingandchangingwiththedevelopmentofthetimes.Distributionaccordingtoproductionfactorsreferstothereturnofremunerationtotheinputsubjectbythesocietybasedontheproportionandcontributionofvariousproductionfactorsinvestedintheproductionofacertainproduct.

Definition2

(ThefourtheditionofthedefinitionbyGaoHong,theownerofWesternEconomics,RenminUniversityPressofChina)

InWesterneconomics,productionfactorsaregenerallydividedTherearefourtypesoflabor,land,capital,andentrepreneurialtalent.Laborreferstothesumofhumanphysicalandintellectualabilitiesintheproductionprocess.Landnotonlyreferstolandinageneralsense,butalsoincludesallnaturalresourcesonthegroundandunderground,suchasrivers,lakes,forests,andmarinemineraldeposits.Capitalcanbeexpressedasphysicalformandcurrencyform.Physicalformisalsocalledinvestmentgoodsorcapitalgoods,suchasplant,machinery,powerfuel,rawmaterials,etc.;themonetaryformofcapitalisusuallycalledmonetarycapital.Entrepreneurshipusuallyreferstotheabilityofentrepreneurstoorganizeandmanageenterprises.

Productionfactors

Productionfactorsincludelabor,capital,andland.Foralongtime,weonlyemphasizetheroleoflaborinvaluecreationandwealthproduction.Theroleanditsdivisionofnationalincomehaveeitherbeenneglectedornotpaidenoughattentionto.Therefore,onlytheproblemoflabor'sparticipationinincomedistributionhasbeenemphasized.Whenwediscussdistributionaccordingtoproductionfactorstoday,wemustcontinuetohighlighttheroleoflabor,whilepayingsufficientattentiontocapital,technology,andmanagementandotherfactorsofproduction,sothattheycanalsobereasonablyandlegallyrewarded.Amongthem,theroleandreturnofthetwoelementsmustbeparticularlyemphasized.

Oneishumancapital .Capitalincludestwoformsofphysicalcapitalandhumancapital.Theeconomicdevelopmentpracticeofvariouscountriesshowsthattheroleofhumancapitalisincreasing,thecontributionofeducationtothegrowthrateofnationalincomeisrisingsharply,andthequality,knowledge,andtalentsofpeoplearebecomingmoreandmoredecisiveforeconomicdevelopment.Therefore,howtogetsufficientreturnsonhumancapitalbecomesveryimportantforthesustainabledevelopmentoftheeconomyandthedistributionofnationalincome.

Thesecondislandandresourceproperty .Theirroleinwealthproductionhaslongbeenrecognizedbypeople,buttherehasalwaysbeenavagueunderstandingoftheirneedtoparticipateinincomedistribution.Thisisreflectedinthefactthatmycountry'slandandnaturalresourcesareusedforfreeoratlowpricesinmanycases.Inourcountry,landandnaturalresourcesareownedbythestateorcollectives.Theirfreeorlow-costusemeansthattheirprofitshavebeeninvadedbyafewpeople.Thisisalsoanimportantreasonfortherapidexpansionoftheincomegapinourcountry.Therefore,howtoparticipateinthedistributionoflandandresourceelementsisaproblemthatshouldbeseriouslyconsideredwhenimprovingtheincomedistributionsystem.

Elementdemand

I.Characteristicsofproductionelementdemand

Enterprises'demandforproductionelementsisderivedorderivedfromconsumerdemandforconsumerproducts.

Thedemandforproductionfactorshasthefollowingcharacteristics:

1.Thedemandforproductionfactorsis"induceddemand."

2.Thedemandforproductionfactorsisnotthedemandfortheproductionfactorsthemselves,butthedemandfortheuseoftheproductionfactors.

3.Thedemandforproductionfactorscomesfromtheproducer-theenterprise.

4.Thepurposeoftheenterprise'sdemandforproductionfactorsistoproduceproducts,hopingtogetbenefitsfromthemiddleground.

2.Factorsthatdeterminethedemandforfactorsofproduction

Thesizeoftheproducer'sdemandforafactorofproductionisdeterminedbythefollowingfactors:

(1)Themarginalproductivityoffactorsofproduction.Marginalproductivityisthesizeofthenumberofproductsthatcanbeproducedbyacertainunitofproductionfactor.

(2)Thepriceoftheproductsproduced.

(3)Thepriceofproductionfactorsthemselves.

(4)Thedemandforproductionfactorsisalsoaffectedbytechnicalfactors.

(5)Theshort-termandlong-termdemandforfactorsofproductionaredifferent,andthetimefactorwillalsohaveanimpactonthedemandforfactors,becausetheshort-termandlong-termfactordemandelasticitiesaredifferent.

3.Individualenterprise'sdemandforproductionfactors:perfectcompetition

(1)Single-factorinputenterprise'sdemandforproductionfactors

1.Marginalproductivity

Therearetwowaystoexpressit.Oneisexpressedinphysicalform,expressedasthemarginalproductofinputsofproductionfactors.Theotherisexpressedintheformofvalue,expressedasthevalueofmarginalproduct.

Thevalueofthemarginalproductofproductionfactorsisequaltotheproductpriceproducedbythefactorsofproductionmultipliedbythemarginalproductofproductionfactors,namely:

MP=p·MP(1)

2.Undertheconditionofperfectcompetition,thevalueofmarginaloutputdeterminestheenterprise'sdemandforfactorinput.Thevalueofthemarginalproductoffactorsisequaltothepriceofthefactors,thatis:

VMP=w(2)

Infact,peoplecanalsofindoutbyderivingtheprofitfunctionoftheenterpriseMakethebestinputoftheelements.Theprofitfunctionofanenterpriseis:

π= 0 − − (3)

Amongthem,FCisthefixedcostoftheenterprise.UsingtheaboveprofitfunctiontofindthefirstderivativeofthefactorinputLandsetitequalto0,weget:

0 = (4)

Four.Changesinthedemandandquantityofproductionfactors

1.Thechangeinfactordemandmeansthatthequantityoffactordemanddoesnotchangewiththepriceofthefactoritself.Instead,itchangeswithchangesinfactorsotherthanthepriceofthefactoritself.Itmovesthepositionoftheentirefactordemandcurveupanddown.

2.Thechangeinthedemandforfactorsreferstothechangeinthedemandforfactorscausedbythechangesinthepriceofthefactorsthemselvesunderotherconditions,thatis,themovementofpointsonthesamefactordemandcurve.

Cet article provient du réseau, ne représente pas la position de cette station. Veuillez indiquer l'origine de la réimpression
HAUT