Accueil Technologie État Qin

État Qin



Nom du pays

ThecountrynameofQinStatecomesfromplacename.IntheWesternZhouDynasty, QinFeizi, theleaderoftheQinpeople, wasgoodatraisinghorsesfortheZhouroyalfamily.In905BC, QinFeiziwasnamedtotheQinlandbyKingZhouXiao.Qin » .DuringtheperiodofKingZhouYou, DogRongattackedHaojing, andQinXianggonghaddoneagoodjobindefendingtheZhouroyalfamily.AfterthereunificationofQinShihuang, thetitleof "Qin" wasstillused.

Histoire

Archéologie de l'origine

ThemainstreamopinionforalongtimeisthattheQinpeoplecamefromtheWest.SimaQiandetailedQin'sancestorsin "HistoricalRecordsofQin" et "TheFamilyofZhaoFamily" .InthelateShangDynasty, "ZhouandQinMinorityStudies" thereforeconsideredthat "QinistheRongnationality". "SpeakingfromtheEast" wasfirstproposedbyFuSinian.HebelievedthatalthoughthepeopleofQinwerefoundedintheWest, theirethnicoriginwasintheEast, thatis, "Xiannian" de thesurnameDongyiintheShangDynastymovedwestward.AccordingtothebriefarticleofTsinghua de therewasRongXuxuanwhomarriedLiShan'sdaughterandwasawkwardduringhislife.ThepeopleofQinwerealreadyintheWestatthattimeandhadcloserelationswiththepeopleofRong.MengWentong, afterthecollapseoftheShangDynasty, FeiLian a fui vers ShangWei. À l'ouest par le peuple Zhou, « Zhimin » est l'ancêtre de Qin.

ArchaeologistsdiscoveredthatthestylesofculturalrelicsunearthedfromthesitesoftheQinandRongtribesarequitedifferent.TheQinculturemainlycomesfromtheZhouculture, whiletheRongculturecomesfromtheSiwaculture.ThearchaeologicaldiscoveriesoftheQintombinDabaozishan, LiCounty, GansuProvinceprovidedkeymaterialsforthestudyofthematerialandculturalfeaturesofthe "gongclan" oftheQinDynasty.ThetypicalQinculturerepresentedby "nationalité" continuespartoftheShangculture.In2010, manytombsofQinculturewerediscoveredattheLiyasiteinQingshuiCounty, GansuProvince.SomeoftheburialobjectsshowtheShangculturestyle, especiallyrepresentedbythesquarelipcrotchandthetriangularpatternpottery 簋 "speakingtotheeast" de .TheLiyasitehasprovidedimportantevidenceforconsolidatingtheQinpeople .TheresearchersalsodiscoveredthattheQinpeopleandtheRongpeopleliveinastaggeredcanine, facingeachother.TheQinpeoplemainlylivedontheopenplainsandflatplateausonbothsidesoftheupperreachesoftheWesternHanRiver, whiletheRongpeoplemostlylivedinthevalleysofthelowerreaches de la rivière Han occidentale ou de ses affluents.

"HistoricalRecords · FengchanBook" contient: "QinXianggongwasalord, livinginthewest, andheregardedhimselfasthemasterofShaohao (oneofthefiveemperorsinthelegend) .TheemperorisShaohao, oneofthefivegods.AsearlyastheZhouDynasty, accordingtothe" Zhouli », peoplesacrificedtheHaotianGodandtheWufangGodwithsixrounds.Thefivegodswere:. EasternQingEmperorTaihaoFuxiandNanfangYandi, CentralYellowEmperor, WesternWhiteEmperorShaohao, NorthernBlackEmperorZhuanxu) .Itsanimalsarethreehorses, les chevaux, les bovins, andsheep. "" ShuWen "":" Ying, le nom de famille de l'empereur ".

Plus tard, Qin'sShangYangreformpassedThepolicyof "laipeople" hasattractedalargenumberofQincountriesfromthesixcountriesofShandong, whichhasreachedalargeareaandsparselypopulated.What'smore, mostoftheQinareawasoriginallyZhoupeople'sterritory, andmanyZhoupeopleoriginallylivedonit.ThelandofQinwasoccupiedbyXiRonglater, soQinwillnaturallyhavemanydescendantsofZhoupeople.Forexample, intheQinWengongera, hedefeatedtheRongpeople "ShouZhouYumin" andlateroccupiedtheoldplaceoftheWesternZhouDynasty.Inotherwords, ZhoupeopleareanaboriginalpeopleinthehomelandofQin, whileRongpeopleareoutsiders.ItwasnoteasyfortheXiRongpeopletomovetoQinintheeraofextremelyinconvenienttransportationintheancienttimes, sothereisnoevidencetoprovethattheRongpeoplearethemainethnicgroupinQin.Therefore, itisextremelywrongtosaythatQinWeirong, et encore moins les Qin et les Rong ne se considèrent jamais comme les leurs.

Premiers Ancêtres

TheancestorsofQincanbetracedbacktoZhuanXu.Accordingto "ShanHaiJing.HaiNeiWesternJing": QinandZhouarebothdescendantsoftheYellowEmperor.ThepeopleofQinregardedthemselvesasHuaxiaandregardedHuangdiastheirancestor.Zhuanxu'sdescendant, Dafei, andDayuworkedtogethertocontrolthewater.Afterthewaterwassuccessfullycontrolled, DafeistayedwithEmperorShuntodomesticateandtrainbirdsandbeastsforEmperorShun.EmperorShunpraisedthegreatworkandgavethesurnameYing.ThisistheoriginofthesurnameYing.PeoplecallhimBaiYi (Boyi) becauseheisgoodattrainingbirdsandbeasts.DaFeiShenghastwosons, namedDaLianandRuoMu.SomeofRuomu'sdescendantsareinYidi, andsomeareintheCentralPlains.RuomuhasadescendantnamedFeiChang, wholivedintheXiaJieperiod.FeiChangcouldn Il a quitté la dynastie Xia et est allé à Shangtang, en conduisant spécialement pour Shangtang, en aidant Shangtang à détruire Xia Lishang et en devenant un héros de la dynastie Shang. est venu un homme de la dynastie Shang et a aidé la dynastie Shang pendant des générations.

Dalianhastwogreat-arrière-grand-petits-fils, MengXiandZhongYan.ZhongYandroveacarforthekingofShangTaiwu, andhewasveryappreciated.HiswifeanddaughterwereoftenseenafterZhongYan.ThegreatgrandsonofZhongyanwascalledZhonglu, andhelivedintheplacewheretheXirongpeoplelivedanddefendedthewesternfrontierfortheShangDynasty.ZhongYigavebirthtoXiaoLian, andXiaoLiangavebirthtotwosons: EvilLaiandJiSheng.IncorruptibleandevilcomebothtothekingofShangZhou, andkingWuofZhoucutsdownandkillsevil.

ShortlyaftertheestablishmentoftheWesternZhouDynasty, KingZhouWudiedandbecameking.Thekingwasyoung, andZhouGongdanwasleftwithstateandpoliticalaffairs.Atthistime, theremnantforcesoftheShangDynastyheadedbyWuGeng, thesonofKingZhou, joinedforceswiththethirdbrotherofKingWutolaunchtheSanjianRebellion, andtheYingclanalsoparticipated.ZhouGongconqueredatotalofseventeencountrieswiththeXiongsurnameandYingsurname.

Xia et Shangon mercredi ont fait confiance à l'État vassal et ont toujours suivi la pratique du « peuple XiaJunYi ». L'État de Qin a été la ligne de front de la dynastie Zhou pour résister à XiRong.

AttachéMinistredeZhou

TheevilbrotherJiShengistheancestorofZhaoKingdom.QinandZhaoareoriginallythesameancestorandcomefromthesameline.JiShengYouzinamedMengZeng, favoredbyKingZhouCheng.MengZenghadasoncalledHengfu, andHengfugavebirthtoaCepheid.Cepheuswasverygoodatdrivingcarriages.NotonlydidhedriveforKingZhouMu, healsomadegreatcontributionstotherebellionofKingXuGuoandKingXuYan, andwasrewardedbyKingZhouMutoZhaocheng (nowHongdong, Shanxi) .TheCepheidfamilyisthereforetheZhaofamily.

DuringtheperiodofKingZhouXiao, theCepheidandNephewDaluolivedinDogHill.Secondly, ZiFeiZireignedforfiftyyears.HewasplacedbetweenJianandWeitomanagehorsesandbreedhorsesandanimals.TheCepheid'sgrand-nephewFeizi (GrandsonofBoYiXVI) wasentrustedtoQindi (nowTianshui, Gansu) byKingZhouXiaoforhismeritsinraisinghorses.Feizinamedthefiefashisfamily, nommé "Qinying", andbecameawinner.Theancestorofthesurnamecontinuedhissacrifice, andlatergenerationscalledhim "QinFeizi" .Fromthenon, thepeopleofQinraisedhorsesfortheZhouroyalfamilyandfoughtagainstXiRongonthefrontier.Qin'sinitialterritorywassoutheasternGansu, prospère dans la région de Guanzhong au Shaanxi.

AfterQinFeizi'sdeath, hisgreat-grandsonQinZhongcametothethroneforthreeyears.ZhouLiwasinnocent, andsomeprincesbetrayedhim.TheXirongrebelledagainsttheZhoudynastyanddestroyedtheentireclanofDogqiuandDaluo.KingZhouXuanascendedthethrone, QinZhongwasnamedadoctor, orderedtofightXiRong.In822BC, QinZhongcametothethroneasadoctorfor23yearsanddiedinthehandsofXiRong.QinZhonghadfivesons, andhiseldestson, theprince, becametheQinZhuanggong.

TheKingZhouXuansummonedthefivebrothersofZhuangGongandgavethem7,000soldiersandorderedthemtofightagainstXiRong.ZhuangGongdefeatedXiRongandrecoveredDogHill.KingZhouXuanthengavethelandtoQinZhong'sdescendants, includingtheirancestorDaluo'sfiefDogHill, andappointedthemasDoctorXiChui.SotheQinStatehadtwoenclaves, oneinQin (Tianshui) andtheotherinDogqiu (Xingping, Xianyang).

DukeQinZhuanglivedintheirhometown, Xiquqiu (Tianshui), andgavebirthtothreesons.Theeldestsoniscalledtheworldfather.Theworldfathersaid: "XiRongkilledmygrandfatherQinZhong, IwillnevergohomeunlessIkillKingRong" SoheledhistroopstoattackXiRongandgaveupthepositionofheirtohisyoungerbrotherQinXiang.QinXianggongbecametheprince.Zhuanggongdiedforty-quatre années, andtheprince (Xianggong) succeededtothethrone.

En 777 av. J.-C., Qin Xianggong épousa sa sœur Miao Ying avec le roi Xi Rongfengasa femme. En 776 av.

Classé parmi les seigneurs

Après cent ans de gestion sombre, Qin a été exposé au gel et aux épines, et le peuple de Qing s'est progressivement adapté à l'environnement rude de Xifeng, et sa force a augmenté de jour en jour.

Inthespringof771BC, KingZhouYouabolishedPrinceJiYijiubecausehelovedBaosi, andestablishedBaosi'ssonJiBofuastheheir.KingZhouYourepeatedlyusedabeaconfiretodeceivetheprincesintothecapital.Inordertoaskforpraise, hesmiled, andhewasknowninhistoryas "theprincesofthebeaconplay", andtheprincesbetrayedhimforthisreason.XiRong'sDogRongandShenHouattackedtheZhoudynastytogether, andkilledYouwangatthefootoftheLiMountain, andtheWesternZhouDynastywasdestroyed.

LechienRongarmyestretranchéàGaojing,leprinceYijiusaconvoquélesprincesQinwang,QinXianggongetWeiWugong,JinWenhouetZhengWuledtroupesmagasinscuivreladynastieoccidentaledesZhou.Par conséquent,leprincehéritierdevraitêtreempereurouroideZhouPing,pourprotégerlacommunauté.

In769BC, KingZhouPingmovedthecapitaleastwardtoLuoyiinordertoavoidtheharassmentofDogRong.QinXianggongledtroopstoescortKingZhouPingtothenewcapital.ThekingofZhouPingnamedXiangGongasavassalandgavehimlandwestofQishan, andQinestablishedthecountry.KingZhouPingalsosaid: «TheRongpeopledonotspeakmoralityandinvadeourlandinQishanandFengshui.IftheQinStatecandriveawaytheRongpeople, theselandswillbelongtotheQinState » KingPingmadeanoathwithQinXianggong.DukeXiangmadeQinavassalstate (countryofcounts) atthistime, andexchangedenvoyswithothervassalstates, andexchangedinvitationsandgifts.Threehorses, bœufs, andrams, eachwithblackmaneandnaked, weresacrificedtotheEmperorofHeaveninXizhen.In766BC, QinXianggongattackedXiRong, andwhenhearrivedatQishan, hediedthereandZiQinwenwasestablished.

In765BC, QinWengonglivedintheXicuiPalace.In763BC, Wengonghuntedwith700soldiers.In762BC, tothemeetingofWeiwei.Said: "InthepastZhouyi, IwonherebeforetheQinDynasty, andlaterbecameavassal.ItwastheresidenceofBuddhism, andtheauspiciousness, thatis, Yingyi.Thirteenyears, therewasachronicleofhistoryatthebeginning, andthepeopleweremultiplied.Sixteenyears, WengongFightagainstthearmywiththearmy, anddefeatthearmy.SoWenGongtookwhattherestofthepeoplehad, thelandreachedQi, andQiYidongofferedtheweek.

AfterQinWengong, throughtheeffortsofseveralgenerationsofmonarchs, hewasseekingOwndevelopmentspace, victoriousinthebattleagainstXiRong, allthelandofQifengwascontained, andsuccessivelyeliminatedtheDangSheRong, defeatedthetwoarmydivisionsofJunandJi, conqueredPengXiRong, marchedonHuashan, regainedDuThelandofZhengandXiaoguowaseliminated, andtheterritoryhasbeenadvancingtotheeasternendofGuanzhong.

Qin a transféré la capitale à Yongin en 677 av.

DominezXirong

A l'époque de Qin Xuangong, les Qinarmy avaient commencé un conflit avec les Jin, qui venaient d'être réunifiés et connaissaient également un état d'expansion rapide.

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DuringtheQinMugongera, QinparticipatedintheCentralPlainshegemonyandbecameasecond-classpowerafterJin, Chu, andQi.QinMugongwasveryambitious, andMugongmarriedJinXiangong'sdaughterinordertomakeitastrongneighbortoJin.MakinggoodrelationswithQin, hesuccessivelysupportedJinHuiGongandJinWengongtostabilizethechaoticsituationofJin.QinMuGongoriginallywantedtoestablishJinWengongtoachievethepurposeofcontrollingJin, butJinWengongfinallyusedthepowerofQintoconsolidatethethroneanddominate.TheCentralPlains.

Plus tard, QinMugongwantedtotakeadvantageofthedeathofJinWengong'sillness, butwasblockedbytheJininthemiddle.TheQinarmywasannihilatedduringtheBattleofWeiin627BC, andQinMugong'splantoencroachontheCentralPlainsBankruptcy.Atthistime, theJincountryisatthepeakoftheruler, theprosperityofthecountryandthestrongpeople.QinMugongdecisivelyadjustedthenationalpolicyandsetthestrategicgoalonthenomadictribesofXirong.Afterthebattleoftheking, hepointedthefingeratXirong.Herecruitedtalentsfromallcornersoftheworld. "Fromthewest, YuYurong, andfromtheeast, XiYuwan.WiththeassistanceofthecounselorYuyu, hewentwestto" YiGuotwelve, openedathousandmiles, andthendominatedXiRong! "LuHunRongisapowerfultribeamongtheRongpeople. QinMuGong ne pouvait pas avaler cet os dur, alors il voulait les chasser.

JinHuigongisthesonofJinXiangongandtheyoungerbrotherofJinWengongChong'er.Duetothepersecution, heandChong'erwerebothforcedtofleefromJin.WiththehelpofQinMugong, JinHuigongwasabletoreturntothecountryandinheritthethroneofthemonarch.HeoncepromisedQinMugong: "Ifhecanreturntothecountry, heiswillingtocedethelandofHexitoQin" Butafterhewishedtoinheritthethrone, herefused.Cedeland.SoonafterJinwashitbyadisaster, JinHuigongaskedforgrainfromQin.QinMugongdispatchedalargenumberofshipstotransportgraintoJin.FromthecapitalofQintothecapitalofJin, therewasanendlessstreamofgrainships, whichwasknownasthe "RaftingBattle" inhistory.Inthesecondyear, QinwashitbyafamineandaskedJintobuyfood, butJinHuirefused, et en a profité pour envoyer des troupes attaquer Qin.

QinMugongwasfurious, andaftergoingthroughthefamine, hesenttroopstoattackJinKingdominthesecondyear.ThetwocountriesfoughtinHanyuan.JinHuigongwasbetrayedbothinternallyandexternally.Helostallofhissupport.Hewasdefeatedinawar.HiscarriagewasalsocaughtinthemudandcaughtalivebytheQinarmy.WhenJinHuigongreturnedtoChina, hecededtheHexieightcitiesofJintoQin.Inthethirdyear, theprince 圉 wassenttoQinasapledge.Intheseventhyear, LuHunrongmovedeastwardasawhole.QinMugongstabilizedhisrearareaandlaidthefoundationforQinasthefourpowersintheSpringandAutumnPeriod.

Déclin continu

AfterQinMuGongdominatedXiRong, thenationalpowerwasstrengthened.SoonafterMuGongdied, theprinceFengLi, itwasforQinKangGong.QinKanggongandhisson, QinGonggong, étape fatherYuLie, challengedJin, movedclosertoChu, andwantedtoformanoffensiveagainstJinwithChu.WhentheJinLinggongwasstubborn, ZhaoDuncontrolledtheJingovernment, andthehegemonyoftheJinkingdomwasabouttocollapse.ThekingofChuzhuangwentnorthtocompeteintheJinDynasty.However, QinrepeatedlyattackedtherearoftheJinkingdom, butitwasararevictory.

In604BC, QinGonggong'sson, ZiRongli, wasQinHuangong.HuanGongwasnotsympathetictostatepolitics, andthepeoplecomplained.In597BC, thekingofChuzhuangwasdefeatedbytheJinshiYukun, andtheJinDynasty'shegemonyfellsharply.QinHuanGongyinattackedJin'sribs.In578BC, QinHuangongbrokethecovenantandturnedtotheJinDynasty.JinLigongledthefourarmiesandeightQingtoinvadetheQin, defeatingtheQinarmyatMatun, andthemasteroftheprincesraisedtheirmightinGuanzhong.Thefollowingyear, QinHuandied.Hisson, Shili, isQinJinggong.

QinJinggongascendedthethroneandcontinuedtopursuethepolicyof "joiningChutoattackShanxi" .TheJinDynastymournedthepublicestablishment, theprinceswereinharmony, theJinKingdomregaineditsstrength, andtheChuKingdomwithdrewfromtheranksofhegemony.JinmournedtheregainingoftheCentralPlains, theprincesreturnedtotheirhearts, andtheQinwasunabletodealwiththeJinanymore.AftertheallianceoftheJinandChusoldiersin546BC, QinJinggongalsomadegreateffortstoimprovethediplomaticrelationswithJin, andthetwosidesrevisitedthegoodofQinandJin.Whentheforeigntroublesofthetwosideswereresolved, thesixofficialsoftheJinStatetookturnsinpower.TaiShigongsaid:. "TheJingovernmentishumblebuttheLiuQingisstrong.Ifyouwanttoattackeachotherinternally, theQinandJinwillnotattackeachotherforalongtime" Qincannotsendalettertotheeast, Zhengnancan'tmatchBashu.QintookJinasthecity, andJinalsohadinternalstrifeamongthesixprinces. Le gouvernement et les décrets n'ayant pas pu être unifiés, Q ont été échelonnés sur la route du printemps et de l'automne.

DuringthereignofQinAiGong, in505BC, WuStatecapturedthecapitalofChuState.ChudoctorShenBaoxutraveledallthewaytoQinStateforhelp, cryingforhelpfromhisteacherfortherestorationoftheKingdomofChuZhao.QinAigongZhaoJisenttroopstorescuetheKingdomofChu.TheQinArmydefeatedtheWuJun.Then, WangHeluwithdrewhistroopsandreturnedtothecountry.KingChuZhaowasabletorecover.

In453BC, thethreefamiliesofHan, Zhao, andWeiattackedZhiboandtheZhifamilyfell.ZhaoXiangzi (Wuxian) wasinpower, andthethreeJinlordstookthelead, knownasthe "ThreeJins" .In425BC, ZhaoWuxiedied, andWeiSi (WeiWenhou) succeededinpower.In413BC, WeissledtheSanjincoalitionforcestoattacktheprinces, andthepoweroftheSanjinexpandeddramatically.Atthattime, WeiWenhoutookLiDiashisphase, andchangedhismethodstobecomestronger, andtheWeiclanquicklyprospered; healsoworshipedWuQiashisgeneral, swallowedthelandwestoftheQinRiver, andpeepedintoGuanzhong .QinJiangongandQinHuigongrepeatedlyattackedtheWeiandintendedtoregainthelandofXihe.TheywerealldefeatedbyWuQi.WuQiattackedintotheGuanzhongbyvictory.In389BC, QinHuigongraised500,000troopstofighttheWeiarmytothedeath.WuQidefeatedtheQinarmywithadeathof50,000inthebattleofYinandJin.QinwasdefeatedinthisbattleandwasnolongerabletoresisttheoffensiveoftheThreeJins.However, intheThreeJins, theStateofZhaowasdissatisfiedwiththesuppressionoftheStateofWei.WeiStategrudgesagainsttheprinces, andQinState'spres est certainement fortement réduit.

SinceQinLiGonggong, toQin'sreign, ministershavebeenmonopolizingthepower, thenumberofmonarchshaschanged, thestatepoliticsisunstable, andtheQincountryisdecliningdaybyday.AfterthedeathofQinLinggong, thesonofQinHuaigong'sYingfengandtheuncleofQinLinggong, whoweresupportedbythemostimportantofficialsintheKingdomofQin, returnedtothecountryandsucceededtothethroneforQinJiangong.Heallowedofficialsandordinarypeopletocarryswords, breakingtheprivilegethatonlythenoblescouldcarryswords, implementingthepolicyoflevyingrentsbasedonthenumberofacresoflandrecognizedthelegitimacyof "privateland", indicatingthatQinbegantotransformintofeudalism.ThesonofShiXiwasforcedtoexiletoWeiState.In387BC, QinHuigongdiedandQincametothethrone.WhenFangwastwoyearsold, hismotherpresidedovertheaffairsofthecourtandusedeunuchsandforeignrelatives.In385BC, ZuoShuChangjuninitiatedacouptokillQin'ssonandhismother ,etbienvenue aufils deQinLinggong,ShiX,pourrevenirautrônepourQinXiangong. En 362 av. J.-C., QinXiangong mourut de sa vie, et son QuLiang fut nommé QinXiaogong.

Laréformeestforte

Entrée principale : ShangyangReform

Au début de l'ascension du duc Xiao sur le trône, oui, le déclin de Qin était navré.

In356BCand350BC, QinXiaogongappointedShangYangtocarryoutthemostthoroughreforms.ShangYang'sreformsencouragedpopulationgrowth, emphasizedagricultureandsuppressedbusiness, abolishedtheShiqingShilusystem, rewardedmilitarymerit, establishedhukou, andimplementedthelawofcontinuoussitting.Atthattime, theQinKingdomwasvastandsparselypopulated, andtheSanjinhadalotofpeopleandlittleland, andthepeoplelackedland.Therefore, ShangYangsuggestedthatQinXiaogongadoptpreferentialpoliciesforimmigrantstoattractthepeopleoftheSanjinDynastytoQininordertoreclaimwasteland.

En 350 av. J.-C., Daliangzao (ShangYang) de l'État de Qin, afin d'approfondir ses réformes et de se débarrasser de l'ingérence de l'ancienne aristocratie, proposa que la capitale soit déplacée de Yongcheng (aujourd'hui Baoji Fengxiang) vers la ville nouvellement construite de Xianyang, et obtint le soutien de Qin Xiaogong.

WeimartingalecompletelyabolishedtheoldShiqingShilusystem, establishedanewauthoritariancentralizationsystem, implementedasystemofprefecturesandcountiestostrengthencentralization, andemphasizedagriculturalproduction.Intheprosperousscene, peoplealloverthecountryareashamedoffightingprivatelyandbeproudofthecountry'smilitaryexploits.Thecountry'scombateffectivenesshascontinuedtoincrease, andtheWeiarmyhasrepeatedlydefeated.Qin, aprosperousandpowerfulcountry, becamethemostpowerfulcountryinthelateWarringStatesperiod, arroganttotheWest.Thehistoricalrecordrecords: "Inthenineteenthyearofthefilialpiety, theemperorgavebirthtohisuncle." KingZhouXiancanonizedQinJunasFangBoandofficiallyrecognizedhishegemony.

Princes de Lianheng

Entrée principale : Lianhenghezong

338BC, QinXiaogongdied, andtheprincestoodupandwasthekingofQinHuiwen.Atthistime, theoldaristocratswhowere "persécuté" byShangYang'snewlawanddeprivedoftheirpoliticalprivilegesattackedtogetherandlaunchedacounterattackagainstShangYang.Inordertoeasethecontradiction, KingQinHuiwentookoutShangYangasascapegoatandchasedShangYang.AlthoughShangYangdied, "QinFaisnotdead." KingQinHuiwencontinuedtopursuethestatepolicysinceShangYang'sreforms, anddevelopexternally.KingQinHuiwenbecamekingin325BC.In316BC, theQinarmydestroyedBa, Shu, andJu.TheQinarmycontinuedtodefeattheWeiarmyanddefeatedtheQincoalitionforcesagainandagain.ItalsojoinedtheHanandWeiforcestoattackQiChuanddefeatedYiquState.HetookcontrolofthestrategicinitiativetofightagainsttheprincesofShandong..AftertheeffortsofthethreegenerationsofXiaogong , Huiwen et Wu, ils ont cannibalisé les Trois Jin et balayé Jingchu, et ils ont commencé à s'unifier.

Sous l'attaque des grandes puissances Qin, Zhao, Chu, Qi, etc., il a décliné.

QiStatedoesnotborderwithQinState, andcandevelopindependently.IntheprocessoffightingagainstthestrongWei, itisafirmstrategicpartnerwithQinState.Developedin80yearsbythethreemonarchsintheearlystageofQiMinWang, Qicountryisrichandoneside, standingsidebysidewithQinChengdong.ThereformofWuQiintheChuKingdomoncemadetheChustateprosperousforawhile.AfterthedeathoftheChumourningking, thenewlawwasbasicallyabolished.BecauseofthestrongfoundationoftheChustate, heexperiencedthehardworkoftheChuXuanKingandtheChuWeiKing.TheChustatewasestablishedin333BC.In1year, theKingofYueWujiangwasdefeated, andthelandofWuYue, theworldwasshaken.

Lamontéedesgrandespuissances

Entrée principale : Attaque lointaine et rapprochée 、 La bataille de Yique La bataille de Yanying La bataille de Changping

ADIn307yearsago, KingQinWudiedofanger, andhadnochildren, andhisyoungerbrothersfoughtforeachother.RangHouWeiRanwantedtoestablishHuiwenWang'sconcubine'sson, Huiji, andZhaoWulingconspiredtotakeadvantageoftheQinturmoil, andhesupportedtheeldestsonJi, theeldestsonofQinZhao'sking, astheking.ZhaoWangyou, MiBaZiistheQueenMother, WangUncleRangHouBingzheng.

In293BC, theHan, WeiandYucoalitionforcesattackedQin, QinGeneralBaiqiandhisbattleatYique (SouthLuoyang, Henan), defeatedthetwo-nationcoalitionforces, beheaded240,000people, andcapturedtheWei-Koreacoalitionforces.Commander-in-chiefWeiXiwu.In283BC, Leyi, thechiefofYanandZhao, ledthetroopsofthefivekingdomsofHan, Zhao, Wei, Qin, andYantoattack, andtrapped70cities.AlthoughHoutianShanwasrestored , la tendance générale du déclin de QiTian a été déterminée.

Au cours de la bataille de Yan en 279 et 278 av.

En 278 av. J.-C., QinGeneral Baiqi sortit de Wuguant pour attaquer Chu, et l'année suivante, il envahit l'arrière-pays de l'État de Chu, et tomba à Yingdu. Les soldats de Chu furent vaincus et ne purent pas combattre.

In270BC, KingQinZhaowasdeceivedbyKingZhaoHuiwen, andKingZhaowasangryandattackedZhaoYu.KingQinZhaoknewZhaoZhiqiang, FangRui, andcouldnotcompetewithhim.Instead, heusedFanJuashisface, forcinghismothertoannouncethatthequeenmotherwouldnottakepartinpoliticsandcompetewithRanghou, Huayangjun, Gaolingjun, andJingyangjun.FanJu'splanfor "distantfriendshipandnearattack", ZhaoWangbelievedit, andsetitasanationalpolicy.

In262BC, KingQinZhaoattackedSouthKorea.SouthKoreacededtheupperpartytobribeQin.TheupperpartywasunwillingtosubdueQintoZhao.ZhaoNazhi.KingQinZhaowasangryandwantedtowintheparty.ZhaoQipouredthecountry'ssoldierstoresistQin, andQinadjustedthesoldiersofGuanzhongtoattackZhao.ThetwoarmiesconfrontedChangping, ZhaoLianpocouldnotretreatfromQin, WangLucouldnotdefeatZhao, andstayedtogetherforseveralyears.

In260BC, KingZhaoXiaochengtookZhaoKuoashisgeneral, KingZhaoQinsecretlysentBaiQiasthecommander, ZhaoKuoattackedQinBuke, ZhaoJunliangRoadwasintercepted, andwassurroundedbyQinArmy46Tian, ​​ZhaoKuodiedinbattle, andBaiQisuccessivelybeheadedZhaoJun450,000YuChangping.ZhaoGuowasdevastated.TheprotractedbattleofChangpingendedwithZhao'sdisastrousdefeatandQin'snarrowvictory.Qin'slastopponentwasdefeated, andtheunificationoftheworldwasfinallyaforegoneconclusion.

In256BC, theWesternZhouDynastyandthesixcountriesofShandongmadeanappointmenttoattackQin, butthemilitarycontractofthecountriesdidnotexpire, andthingsfellapart.QinWenwasfurious.FatewillcutZhou.Zhoucouldnotbeanenemy.TheWesternZhougongusedallthe36townsand30,000peoplehehadledtooffertoQin, andtheQinreceivedthelandandreturnedtotheWesternZhougong.Soon, thekingofZhouZhecollapsed, ZhouMindiedintheeast, QintooktheJiudingandreturned, andtheQinEmpirewasestablished.In250BC, theEasternZhouDynastywantedtotakeadvantageofthemourningtoattackQin, andwasruledbyQinXiangLuBuwei.QinZhizhiYuYang, diedinZhouDynasty, andFanestablishedthecountryin879.

Dominationdumonde

Entrée principale : BattleoftheQin'sDestructionoftheSixKingdoms

247BCAfterthedeathofKingQinZhuangxiang, 13 ans oldYingZhengwasestablishedasKingofQin.Atthattime, LuBuweiwastheMinisterofQinandwasindependentinpower.In239BC, theKingofQinwas21yearsoldandwasabouttotakeoffice.Butatthistime, fiercepoliticalstrugglesaroseintheQincourt.LuBuweiandLaiNaocontrolledthegovernmentandconfusedtheharem.In238BC, QinWangzhengquelledtherebellionofthemaiden, andthefollowingyear, hewasrelievedofLuBuwei'spost.LuBuweicommittedsuicidebydrinkingpoisonandalcohol.AfterQinWangzhengtookpower, WeiLiaoandLiSiwereappointedtoactivelyimplementtheunifiedstrategy.

In230BC, QinsentNaiShitengtoattackKoreaandcapturedHanWangan, andbuiltYingchuanCountyinHan, andKoreaperished.Atthistime, amajordroughtoccurredinZhaoState.QingeneralWangJianledterritorialtroopstoJingxing (westofJingxingCounty, HebeiProvince), QingeneralYangDuanheledHanoitroopsintoHandan, thecapitalofZhao.ZhaosentLiMuandSimaShangtoleadanarmytoresist.GuoKai, thefavoredministerofZhaoWang, receivedbribesfromtheQinStateandspreadrumorsthatLiMuandSimaShangwererebelling.KingZhaothereforereplacedLiMuandSimaShangwithZhaoCongandYanJu, andkilledLiMu.

In229BC, WangJiandefeatedtheZhaoarmy, killedZhaoCong, andcapturedZhaoWang.ZhaoGongzijialedhundredsofhisclantoescapetoZhao'sDaijunandsethimselfupastheDaiKing.QinestablishedHandanCountyintheareaof Handan, thecapitalofZhao.In226BC, theQinarmycapturedthecapitalofYanJicheng.YanWangmovedhiscapitaltoLiaodong.QinledLiXintochaseafterhim, andYanWangxiobeyedDaiWangJia'splanandkilledPrinceDananddedicatedhisheadtoQinQiuhe.

En 225 av. J.-C., le général de la dynastie Qin, Wang Ben, attaqua Wei et encercla la poutre de la capitale Wei et puisa de l'eau dans la rivière Jaune pour inonder la ville.

In225BC, QinsentLiXinandMengwutoattackChuwith200,000troops.Thepost-Qinempire, Wangjian, ledanarmyof600,000troopsontheexpedition, breakingtheChuarmyinQi (nowsoutheastofSuxianCounty, Anhui), andforcingtheChugeneralXiangYantocommitsuicide.ThentheQinarmyattackedShouchun, thecapitalofChu, andcapturedChuWangChui.In222BC, WangJiancalmedtheJiangnanregionofChu, surrenderedtothemonarchofYue, setupKuaijiCounty, andtheKingdomofChuwasdestroyed.

In222BC, thekingofQinsentWangBentoattacktheeasternpartofLiaoninginYan, andthekingofYanwascaptured, andthekingdomofYanwasdestroyed.ThenhereturnedtothearmytoattacktheentrenchedgenerationoftheZhaoGuogongclan, andtooktheZhaoDaiWangJiatoestablishDaiJun (southwestofYuCounty, Hebei) andLiaodongJun (OldTownofLiaoyangCity, LiaoningProvince) .In221BC, QinGeneralWangBenwentsouthfromYanStatetoattackQi, capturedQiWangjian, anddestroyedQiState.

De 230 av. J.-C. à la fin de la Qiera, l'État de Q a mis 10 ans pour annexer les six royaumes de l'Est.

Territoire

Emplacement

TheancestorofQinwasDongyi, anditaroseintheupperreachesoftheWeishuiwhereRongandDiweremixed.ThecustomsaremostlythesameasRongandDi.HelatersettledinthemiddleandlowerreachesoftheWeiheRiver, engagedinfarming, andbecameadoctoroftheZhouDynasty.AfterKingPingmovedeast, hewasnamedavassalandestablishedhiscountryintheWesternZhouDynastyintheGaojingarea.DuringtheSpringandAutumnPeriod, hewasgenerallyregardedasXirong.AftertheZhouroyalfamilymovedeastward, thepeopleofQingraduallymovedeastward.Afterseveralgenerationsofhardwork, theyfinallyconqueredGuanzhongwhentheyarrivedatQinMugong.Fromthenon, untilKingHuiwenQintookoverBashu (nowSichuan), fornearlythreehundredyears, présentent-dayShaanxi.ThisareawaslocatedatthewesternmostendoftheChinaCivilizationZoneatthattime.SimaQiansaidthattheStateofQinwas theterritoryoftheStateofQinremainedroughlystableintheGuanzhongareaof "remotelylocatedinYongzhou" , tandis que Du You de la dynastie Tang a déclaré que " la résidence de Guanzhong est inclinée vers l'ouest ". » Les historiens étrangers décrivent également : « Qin Yuan est situé dans l'ouest de la famille chinoise et isolé des autres pays.

Qinhasnostrongenemiesonthenorth,west,andsouthsides.ThewesternpartoftheQinDynastywasavastsemi-aridgrassland,scatteredwithsomebackwardtribes,whichwascalled"Rong"invariousChinesecountries.AfterQinZifeiwasentrusted,hehasbeenfightingwithZhuRong.QinZhong,thefamousleaderoftheQinpeople,wasevenkilledbyRong.AfterKingPingmovedeast,thepeopleofQinmovedtoGuanzhongintheeastoverLongshan.Atthattime,inthevariousplacesinGuanzhong,thepeopleofQingraduallyseizedthelandfromZhuRong.AtthetimeofQinMugong,theQinpeoplebasicallyoccupiedtheentireGuanzhong,andthentheywereblockedfromadvancingeastward,andtheyworkedhardtoopenuptheterritorywestward,so"theeightkingdomsoftheWestRongweresubduedbyQin."Afterthis,theRongpeoplecouldnolongerposearealthreattotheQinState.

Expansion

TheQinpeoplefirstlivedintheeastofGansuProvincetothewestofLongshanMountain.TheylivedinthewrongplacewiththeRongpeople,farawayfromtheCentralPlains.AftertheZhouroyalfamilymovedeastward,Qintalentsgraduallymovedeastward.Afterseveralgenerationsofhardwork,bythetimeofQinMugong,hefinallyconqueredGuanzhong.Fromthenon,untilKingHuiwenQintookoverBashu(nowSichuan),fornearlythreehundredyears,theterritoryoftheStateofQinremainedroughlystableintheGuanzhongareaof​​present-dayShaanxi.ThisareawaslocatedatthewesternmostendoftheChinaCivilizationZoneatthattime.SimaQiansaidthattheStateofQinwas"remotelylocatedinYongzhou",whileDuYouoftheTangDynastysaidthat"theresidenceofGuanzhongisslantedtothewest".

ThedevelopmentofQinStateintwodirections,westwardandnorthward,hasbroadspaceforexpansionofthecountry.Intheeraofagriculturaleconomy,thelevelofproductivityisrelativelylow.Thelargerthelandareaoccupiedbyapoliticalpower,thelargerthepopulationintheruledarea.ThesouthernpartofQinStateistherichlandofBashu.Comparedwiththesixeasterncountries,Qinhastwoprominenttopographicaladvantages:first,itislocatedonaplateau,controlstheupperreachesoftheYellowRiver,andhasatendencytooverwhelmtheentireEast.Thesecondisthatthesurroundingmountainsaresurroundedbywater,anditisdifficultforforeignenemiestoinvade.

Division

QinStatehasalsoestablishedcountiesintheconqueredareasinthelongbattle.DuringtheShangYangReform,31countieswereestablishedinQinState.AfterQinShihuangannihilatedthesixcountries,heimplementedasystemofprefecturesandcountiesthroughoutthecountry,dividingthecountryinto36prefectures(laterincreasedto49prefectures).TheQinDynastyadoptedthesystemofprefecturesandcountiestobecomeapowerfulcountryinonefellswoop,fromasmallcountryinthewesttoannexingtheworld;theQinDynastyadoptedthesystemofprefecturesandcountiestomaintainaunifiedsituationandsettheprecedentforthelocaladministrativesystemofafeudaldynastyformorethantwothousandyears.

AfterprofoundreflectionontheZhouDynasty'sfeudalsystem,theStateofQindecidedtoadoptthesystemofprefecturesandcounties.AsafeudalstateoftheZhoudynasty,theStateofQinfacedagreatercrisisthanothervassalstates.AsearlyasZhou'svassal,QinwasonthefrontlineofthebattleagainstXiRong.ThedemiseoftheWesternZhouDynastymadeQindeeplyawareoftheunreliabilityoftheprinces.Inthelong-termbattlewithInuRong,Qinrealizedtheimportanceofthestandingarmy.QinwasontheborderoftheWest,livingtogetherwithRongDiforalongtime,andwaslessaffectedbythefeudaletiquettesystemoftheZhouDynasty.Therefore,itnaturallyproducedasenseofstrangenessanddoubtsabouttheenfeoffmentsystemoftheZhouDynasty.Inthepastdynasties,QinJunmadeadeepreflectionontheenfeoffmentsystem,andthenrealizedthedefectsofenfeoffmentsystem,sohedoubtedanddeniedtheenfeoffmentsystem.

Asthelatestprincetobeentrusted,QinwasalsoaprinceinthewesternfenceoftheZhouDynasty,facingasituationdifferentfromthatoftheprincesoftheKanto.First,theStateofQinmustimplementasystemofprefecturesandcountiestodealwithpowerfulexternalthreats.Foralongtimeafterthefoundingofthecountry,theQinStatehadbeenatwarwiththenomadssuchasInuRong.Secondly,theStateofQinshouldimplementthesystemofprefecturesandcountiestoresolvethepoliticalcrisisof"monarchsandministersdisorderly"thatfrequentlyappearedwithintheStateofQin.AfterQinNinggong'sdeath,thethirdfatherofQinQuanchen'sconcubineandeldersabolishedtheemperor,assassinatedhim,andestablishedanewemperor,whichcausedturmoilinthestateofQin.Inthissituation,Qinmustfindawayfromthesystemofprefecturesandcounties.Third,theQinStatemustimplementthesystemofprefecturesandcountiestosafeguardtheinterestsoftheemerginglandlordclass.

NationalCapital

NationalCapital

NowLocation

Qinyi

Tianshui,GansuTheoldcityofQincity

Xichuan

ThegeneraltermforthewesternfrontiersintheYinandZhoudynastiesisequivalenttotheareaof​​southeasternGansuProvincetoday

Liyi

SouthofLongCounty,Baoji,Shaanxi

Pingyang

p>

WestofMeixianCounty,Baoji,Shaanxi

Yongcheng

FengxiangCounty,Baoji,Shaanxi

Jingyang

NorthofJingyangCounty,XianyangCity,Shaanxi

Liyang

NorthofXi'an,Shaanxi

Xianyang

EastofXianyangCity,ShaanxiProvince,NorthwestofXi'anCity

Politics

Aristocracy

Intermsofpoliticalstatus,theprincesofQinarecompletelydifferentfromtheprincesoftheEasternprinces.AmongthedoctorsoftheQinDynastyintheSpringandAutumnPeriodwereBailixi,Jianshu,Gongsunzhi,Yuyu,WangBao,WuYouMengMingshi,XiqiShu,andBaiYibing.Indiplomaticactivities,onlyXiaoziChouappearedin"ZuoZhuan".Inaddition,fengyiisthemostfundamentalpoliticalcapitalformedbythefamily,andthefeudingofthesonsoftheQingroupisfarlesscommonthanthatoftheeasterncountries.

TheenfeoffmentoftheQinKingdomdidnotincreaseuntiltheWarringStatesPeriod,andmostofthemwereentrustedtoofficialswithmerit,suchasShangYangFengYuShang,WeiRanFengYuTao,andFanJuFengYuYing.DuringtheWarringStatesPeriod,Qin'sprinceswereoccupiedbydoctorswithdifferentsurnames,butonlybythepublic.ThisshowsthatuntiltheWarringStatesperiod,theQingovernmentstilldidnothavemuchpoliticalpower.Notonlythat,QinGongziwasalsosubjecttotheconstraintsofthemonarchfromtimetotime.WhenQinJinggong,QinGongziRongbecamerichbecauseofthefavorofhisancestors,"orshamit,orpunishhim,butrushtoJin."HedidnotdaretoreturntothecountryuntilJingGongdied..DukeJinping,whohadbeentroubledbythefamilyforalongtime,didn'tunderstandGongzijian'sbehavior.Heasked,"Thesonissorich,whydoyoudie?"InDukeJinping'sview,Gongzirong,asafamily,shouldbethesameasthefamilyofJin.Enjoymanyprivilegesandwillnotbeeasilydeported.BecauseinQinJinggong'ssecondyear,"theJinDynasty'spublicclanLiShuwipedhismonarchLiChunqiuattheendoftheSpringandAutumnPeriod,thefamilysystemdeclined."

KeQing

Qin'sKeQingwasthemosttypicalintheSpringandAutumnPeriodandWarringStatesPeriod.TheuseofforeigntalentsisamajorfeatureofQin'spolitics.Ancientscholarshavediscussedthispoint.Inthesecondvolumeof"RongZhaiEssays",HongMaisaid:"Thereasonwhy(Qin)diedisalsothepoweroftheworld."QingRenHongLiangJialsobelievesin"GengshengzhaiWenjiaEr":"IntheSpringandAutumnPeriod,allcountriesusethesamesurname,butQinisnotthecase."Ofcourse,intheSpringandAutumnPeriod,JinandQialsouseddifferentsurnames,andQinalsohadpublicclanandgenerals.It'srelative,butKeQing'scontributiontothedevelopmentofQinisbeyonddoubt.AccordingtoMr.YangKuan'stextualresearch,mostofQin'smainenvoysduringtheWarringStatesPeriodweremeritoriousguestofficials.Forexample,ShangYangwasnamedShangYang,FanJuwasnamedYingHou,LuBuweiwasnamedWenXinHou,andsoon.ItshouldbesaidthatboththeQinandtheEasterncountriesarepoliticalgroupsthatenjoyahigherstatus.

ForeignRelatives

Qin'sforeignrelativesarethesmallestpoliticalgroupinQin,buttheyarethemostspecial.ProfessorLiYujiebelievesthatQin'sforeignrelativeshavedualidentitiesasbureaucratsandforeignrelativesofthemonarch.IntheSpringandAutumnandWarringStatesera,theparticipationofforeignrelativesinpoliticswasnotuniquetoQin,butonlyQinformedthepoliticsofrelativesandmonopolizedstatepoweratonetime.Animportantreasonforforeignrelativestobeonthepoliticalstagewasthattherewasnoperfectbureaucraticsystem,especiallythetalentselectionsystem.

Militaire

MilitarySystem

TheageofQin'smilitaryserviceisfrom17to60yearsold.Inaddition,Qin'smilitaryservicesystemalsohasAnotablefeatureisthatallthepeoplearesoldiers.TheageofmilitaryserviceintheQinDynastyrangesfrom17to60.Thismeansthatamanhasforty-threeyearstoserveinhislife.Itcanbeseenthathisburdenisheavy.TheChronicleofMengqin'sBambooSlipswrote:"The12thyearofKingZhuang,hewashappytoruletheprison."and"Thirteenyears,hejoinedthearmy."Asasmallofficial,healsohastojointhearmyandperformmilitaryservice,whichexplainsthemilitaryservicesystemoftheQinState.Notonlyforordinarypeople,lower-levelofficialsalsoneedtoserve.ItcanbeseenthattheentireQincountrycanberegardedasallmenwhoneedtoperformmilitaryservice,fightingforthereunificationofQin.Inaddition,theelderly,women,andchildrenalsoneedtoperformmilitaryservice.Inservice,accordingtothe"HanShu·YanAnBiography","Dingmalewasfirst,andDingfemalewastransferred.""ShangJunshu·Bingshou"records,"Threearmedforces:strongmenareonearmy,andstrongwomenareonearmy.,Theoldandweakmenandwomenareonearmy,thisisalsocalledthethreearmies."AccordingtothestatisticsofLiangYushengoftheQingDynasty,QinXiangongbeheaded60,000beheadedinthe21styearoftheJinwar,andinthe13thyearoftheEmperorShiHuang,hehadbeheaded100,000,atotalof100.Sixty-sixty-eightthousandpeople.FromthiswecanfurtherinferthatwhiletheQinsoldierskilledmorethanonemillionsoldiersinthesixcountries,theirownstrengthwouldalsobegreatlydamaged.IntheUnificationWar,theQinarmyalsosufferedmanydefeatsinbattles,plusIntheageofwar,withextremelylowlevelsofproductivityandmedicalcare,thebirthrateanddeathrateofthepopulationcannotbedirectlyproportional.

Inordertobuildastrongarmythatisbraveandcapableoffightingandcanwinthevictoryoftheunifiedwar,Qinformulatedastrictandsystematictrainingmanagementsystem.ThespecificmethodsofmilitarytrainingatthattimearerecordedinWuZi's"AdministrationoftheArmy":Forexample,onepersonlearnswar,teachesten,tenlearnswar,teacheshundreds,onehundredlearnswar,teachesthousands,andthousandslearnswar.Teachtensofthousandsofpeople,learntofight,andteachthemtobecomethethreearmies.Tobefarawayfromnear,toworkwithlost,tobefullofhunger,roundandsquare,situp,walkandstop,leftandright,frontandback,divideandcombine,knotanddissolve.Wheneverhechangeshisteachingandlearning,heteacheshissoldiersforthesakeofhisgenerals.ItcanbeseenthatthetrainingoftheQinarmyhasformedacertainsystem,withfull-timeinstructorsinchargeoftraining,anddifferentarmshavedifferenttrainingtasksandrequirements.Atthesametime,therulersofQinStatealsoenactedseveremilitarypenaltiestoensuretheeffectiveconductofmilitarytraining.

Logistics

Inordertoswallowupthesixnationsandrealizetheunificationofthesixnations,itisessentialforQintoestablishacompletelogisticssupportsystem.ThekingofQinissuedpreferentialpoliciestorecruitthepeopleofthethreeJinstocometoQin,exemptingthemfromthethreegenerationsofcorveetaxes,andthemountains,forestsandwaterswithintheterritoryofQinwereexemptfromtaxesfortenyears.TheQinpeoplefoughtoutside,andXinminfarmedinthecountry,whichsolvedtheproblemofrationsupply.Inthisway,itwillneitherdelayagriculturalproductionnorhinderthesendingoftroopstoconquerothercountries.Itisagoodwaytoprosperthecountryandstrengthenthetroops.Qinrulersalsoformulatedaseriesofstandardizedandstrictanimalhusbandrymanagementsystems.

Économie

Land

AftertheZhouPingkingmovedeastward,theroyalpowerdeclinedgradually,andtheZhouroyalfamily'scontroloverthelandalsoweakened.TherewasafiercebattleforlandbetweentheprincesandtheZhou,betweentheprinces,betweentheprincesandthedoctors,andbetweenthedoctors.ThiskindofprotractedstruggleresultedintheformationofadualstructureoflandstateownershipanditsunderlyingprivateownershipsystemduringtheSpringandAutumnPeriod.

OneofthecorecontentsoftheShangyangReforminQinStatewastoimplementlandnationalization.Theway:First,thestateabolishedthesystemoffeudalvassalsandfeudallords,whichweredividedintoterritories,andreplacedthemwiththecountysystem(theQinstatedidnothaveacountylevelatthetimeoftheShangYangReform),andrenewedthe"familyranks"ofnewmilitarymerits.",andorderedtheclanandotherpeoplewithoutmilitarymeritstonotbelongtothenationality.Second,thestatehascompletedtheconcentrationandmonopolyofvillageandcommunitylandownershipthroughmeasuressuchas"collectingsmalltownshipsandtownsintocounties"and"Yishanze".Underthebackgroundoftheimplementationoftheuniversallandstatesystem,thestategovernmentagenciesdirectlymanagemostoftheland,andtransferasmallpartofthelandtoprivateownershipandOperationaluse.AftertheShangYangReform,theQinState'sstate-ownedlandwaslargeinquantityandhighinquality,anditwascontrolledbytheCentralInternalHistory(latertheZhisuInternalHistory).Theincomefromstate-ownedlandhasbecomeoneofthemainsourcesofrevenueforthetreasury.Thestate-ownedlandintheQinStateisdividedintothreetypes:oneisagriculturalland;theotherisgardens,pastures,andgrasslands;andthethirdisnaturalresourcessuchasmountains,forestsandrivers.Therearefivepiecesoflegislationconcerningthemanagementofstate-ownedcultivatedlandintheQinBambooSlips"CangLaw".QinStatehassystematicmanagementmethodsforstate-ownedfarmland.Thestatehasdesignatedseedsforstate-ownedfarmlandandstipulatedfarmingmethods,andthegovernmentusedprisonerstounifyfarming.Theincomefromstate-ownedfarmlandishandedovertothestatetreasury,nottotheroyalfamily,andisundertheunifiedcontroloftheinternalhistoryoftheprimeminister'snationalfinances.GovernmentsatalllevelsintheQinStateoccupiedthepasturesandgrasslandsofthevillages,andsetupseparateofficialsforspecialmanagement.TheStateofQinimplementsanationalpatentpolicyformountains,forestsandrivers.

SincethereformofShangYangtounifythesixcountries,theStateofQinhasalwaysimplementedvariousformsofstategrantinglandsystem.Thestatecollectstaxesanddutiesfromfarmers,whichisbothtaxlandandtaxpayer.ThelandgrantsystemoftheQinStateisbasedonthehouseholdregistration,thatis,ordinarycivilianscanenjoythelandgrantedbythestateregularlyaslongastheyestablishthenationalversionoftheirhouseholdname.Citizenscangenerallyget100acresoflandgrantedbythestate.ThegovernmentofQinStatestipulatesthatlandisnotprivatepropertyofthecitizens,andthecitizensshallnotbuyorsellthegrantedland,orpledgeormortgageit.Thegovernmentalsourgedthepeopletoworkhardinplowingthefieldsandpunishingthelazy.Qin'sstatelandownershipwasrealizedintheformofaunifiedtaxation.QinMin'staxburdenonthecountryisunified,nomatterhowhighorlowitis,richorpoor,andhowmuchlanditis.

Taxation

In408BC,the"primaryrenting"wasimplemented,andtherealestaterentwascollected.QinStateusedtheamountoflandoccupiedbyindividualsinsteadofthenumberofpopulationasthestandardforcollectinglandrent.Thestateuniformlystipulatesthatafixedrentisleviedaccordingtoacertainestimateandproportion.InSeptemberofeachyear,therentermustdeliverthemilletandthedrafttoacertainplace,andthegovernmentdoesnotcountthecostofthefreight.ThemountainsandforestsofQinStateandChuanzeoccupyabout1/3ofthecountry'slandandaretreasuresfordevelopment.Accordingtotheconceptsandlawsofthetime,Shanzeanditsproductssuchasfish,salt,mirages,clamsandotheraquaticproducts,aswellasgold,silver,tin,stoneandothermineralproductsarethewealthofthemonarch,anditisnaturaltoimposeaShanzetaxonthepeople.

In348BC,theStateofQin"originallymadeatax"andbegantoformulateauniformregularsystemforsometaxes.Theexpropriationoftaxesisbasedonhouseholds,soitiscalled“householdtaxes”,whichwaslaterchangedto“koufa”.TheQinStateonlyallocatedtheprincesandprincestotheprincesanddidnotpaythesalaries,thatis,thecountryusedthelandinitsterritoryandthetaxesofthepeopletochangetotheprincestofillthesalaries.AftertheQinState,aftertheKingHuiwen,theformoflevywasmoneyandcloth,butmainlymoney.AsearlyasthebeginningofShangYang'spoliticalreform,landrentinQinStatebecameaheavyburdenforthefarmers,causing"thepeople'ssufferingwhilethepeoplearesorrowful."AfterShangYang'sreforms,Qin'srentsincreaseddaybyday.Inadditiontodealingwiththeconstantlandrentandhouseholdincome,thepeoplehavetoendurethearbitraryandillegalaccumulationofsomelocalofficials.AfterShangYang'sreform,theQinStateestablishedaspecial"FuLaw",whichstipulatedvarioussystemsrelatedto"Fu".ThepeopleofQinStatebegantoserveincorveeattheageofseventeen.Thegeneralpublichas33to39yearsofmilitaryserviceintheirlives.TheenlistmentofQin'smilitaryservicehaslongseverelyaffectedQin'sagriculturalproductionandthequalityoflifeofthepeople.IntheQinState'ssystemoftaxationandservitude,leviesaremoreimportantthanlevies,andservitudeisfarmoreimportantthanlevies.Withtheexpansionofthelandoccupationandtheincreaseofwars,theQin'sservitudeofthepeoplecontinuedtoincrease,andtheservitudesystemcontinuedtodeteriorate.

Agriculture

ShangYang'sreformsfocusedonchangingthephenomenonofpeopleabandoningagricultureanddoingbusinessatthetime.,Plowingandweavingcausesmanycornsandmilletstoregaintheirbodies;thosewhoendupbenefitingandneglectingbutbeingpoorareregardedasacceptingchildren."Thosewhoarecommittedtofarmingandweavingaregivenpreferentialtreatmentforexemptionfromlabor,andthosewhodobusinessandneglectagriculturearenotgovernmentservantsandmaidservants..Atthesametime,taxesonthecitywereincreased,merchantswerenotallowedtosellfood,andmerchants'servantshadtoperformservitudeinordertoforcemerchantstoabandontheirbusinessandreturntoagriculture.Thegovernmentmustcrackdownonanyeconomicactivitythatisnotconducivetoagriculture,andencourageanyeconomicactivitythatisconducivetoagriculture.TheQingovernmentleviedagriculturaltaxesinkind,andthetaxratewasrelativelylight.Atthesametime,thelevyofGuanshiisincreased,thelevyofwineandmeatisaggravated,andheavytaxesarealsoimposedontheidlers.DuringtheWarringStatesPeriod,waterconservancyprojectssuchasZhengguoquandDujiangyanwerebuilttofurtherpromotethedevelopmentofagriculturalproduction.

IndustryandCommerce

AtthebeginningoftheWarringStatesPeriod,theeconomyofQinwasrelativelybackward,andthedevelopmentofcommodityeconomywasalsoslowerthanothercountries.QinStateonly"beginstoactasamarket"intheseventhyearofQinXiangong(378BC)andbegantodevelopacommodityeconomy.Soon,theQinStatemoveditscapitalfromYong(nowFengxiang,Shaanxi)toLiyi(nowLintong,Shaanxi),connectingRongditothewestandSanjintotheeast,whichgreatlyfacilitatedthedevelopmentofthecommodityeconomy.

QinState'sindustrialandcommercialmanagementpolicystipulatesthatthestatemonopolizesthebenefitsofmountains,forestsandrivers,implementsthemonopolyofsaltandiron,andprohibitsprivatecurrencycasting.Thecentralgovernmentsetupasmallgovernmentto"paytaxesonmountainsandseastoprovidesupport",andsetup"leftironmining"and"rightironmining"tomanageminingandironsmelting.Themintingindustryiscontrolledbygovernmentsatalllevels,andprivatemintingisprohibited.QinStateadoptedrelativelygenerousmanagementpoliciesforforeignbusinessmentostrengthenexchangesofmaterials.TheQinStateimplementedthe"distributionsystem"forforeignmerchants,thatis,merchantsfromforeigncountriesmustmeettheofficialsinchargewithFuChuanbeforeenteringthecountrybeforetheycanengageintradeactivities.AlthoughQin'slawsarestrict,thetreatmentofforeignmerchantsisrelativelylight.ThelawsoftheStateofQinprohibitthepeopleoftheStateofQinfromtradingpearlsandjadewithforeignmerchants.Thelawalsoprohibitsofficialsfromprivatelydoingbusinessforprofit,etc.

Thehandicraftindustryismostdevelopedincoppersmeltingandpotterymaking.Inventedanewprocessofchromiumsaltoxidationtreatmentofweapons;buildingmaterialsarequitedistinctive,andtiledisevenmoreexquisiteworksofart.

Currency

TheWarringStatesQinmoneywasmostlycirculatedwiththemilitary,andtherewereveryfewcommercialcirculationwiththesixcountries,soitwasmostlyfoundinthechannelsoftheQinarmyandthesixcountries.Forexample,the"GoldenNiuDao"fromQintoShu,fromQintoChu"ShangYuDao",fromQintoHanandWei"YiyangDao",etc.,sothespreadofmoneyisverysmall.Themoneytypeismostlybigmoney(themoneydiameterismorethan3cm).HalfandhalfoftheQinDynastywerealsofoundinXianyang,ShaanxiandMaowen,Sichuan.SevenandahalfwereunearthedfromtheTomboftheWarringStatesPeriodinQingchuan,Sichuan.AftertheQineradicatedthesixcountries,theoldcoinsofvariouscountriessuchasclothcoinsandknifecoinswereabolished,andthesquareholehalfandtwocoinswereusedaslegaltender.TheformofancientChinesecurrencyhassincebeenfixed,andithasbeenuseduntiltheendoftheQingDynasty.

Culture

Worship

UnlikeZhoupeople,the"God"worshipofYingqinpeopleismostlypan-god,representedbyGodThegods,animals,plantsandbirdsinnaturearetheirworshipobjects.SomepeoplebelievethatthereligiouslevelofYingQinatthattimecanonlybeata"lowlevel",withastrong"secularity","whichcomprehensivelyreflectsthemixedcharacteristicsofQinculture,theinherentnomadicpolytheismandXirongcultureoftheQinethnicgroup."ItisthefoundationofQinculture."Inthe"BookofHan·JiaoSiZhi",itandtheeasternQiluaredividedintotwomajorreligioussystems.Infact,hereinYingqin,theso-called"secularity"focusesonself-expression,whichisalsoamajorfeatureofYingqin'sreligiousworship,anditreflectsdailylifeeverywhere,aswellasthe“imperialgenerals”embodiedintheeasterncountries."Phase"iscompletelydifferent.Intheliterature,thepolytheisticworshipofYingqinpeopleisrelativelysimple,andtherearenotmanymaterials,anditisjustafewwords.

Sacrifice

ThesacrificeisaspecialmethodofsacrificeinYingqin,butbecausetherearenotmanyrecordsintheliterature,thepredecessorsofthesacrificeprocess,whatisneededduringthesacrifice,andthepurposeIdon'tknowmuchabouteverything,soIdon'thavemuchresearchontheritual.Accordingto"HistoricalRecords"SimaZhen"suoyin":"Zhen,stopalso,saythatthegodsrelyon....Itiscalledanaltar,tosacrificetothesky."Obviously,thisisakindofsacrificetotheskybyYingQin.Rituals,infact,inthesacrificesofZhoupeople,therearealsoritualstosacrificetotheheavens,buttherearefewrecordsofthesacrifices.Orthereisnosuchritual.

Stillblack

ThepeopleofQinstateadvocateblack.Fromtheprincesandnoblestothecommonpeople,andeventhehandymanservants,theyallworeblackclothesasthemaincolor.Theministersabovethecourtareallblack.Eventhedecorationstyleofthecourtisdifferentfromthemagnificenceofothercountries,butthemaincolorisblack.

Inthe"HanShu·LvLiZhi"compiledbythehistoriansoftheEasternHanDynasty,therewassucharecord:"TodaytheQinDynastychangestotheZhouDynasty,whenthewaterismoral.Dezhirui.”ThispassagemeansthatwhenQinWengongwentouthuntingintheearlyyears,heoncecapturedablackdragon.Andthisisthesymbolofwatervirtueamongthefiveelements.Therefore,therulersoftheQinKingdomconsideredthemselvestobewatervirtuesandadvocatedwater.Inthefiveelements,thecolorofthesymbolcorrespondingtowatervirtueisblack.Therefore,fromtheQinStateduringtheSpringandAutumnPeriodandtheWarringStatesPeriodtotheQinEmpire,whichruledtheworld,blackwasadmired.Theso-calledFiveElementsandFiveVirtuesaretheacademicviewpointsputforwardbyZouYan,theYin-YangmasterofQiduringtheWarringStatesPeriod.Mainlyreferstothefivevirtuesrepresentedbygold,wood,water,fire,andearth.Thesefivevirtuesrecurredandrevolvedtoexplaintheriseandfallofdynasties.

Qin'smilitaryflagisblack.Thefirstisculturalreasons.Thekingofwatermoralitycorrespondstoblack.Second,theblackmilitaryflagiseasytoconcealandresistanttodirt.AfterQinShihuangunifiedChina,hedesignatedblackasthenationalcoloroftheQinDynasty.

Technology

Yingqinisrichinmineralresources,withabundantreservesofjade,cinnabar,copper,andiron,whichprovidefavorableconditionsforsmeltingweaponsandmanufacturingwarequipment.Intermsofhandicraftproduction,Yingqin'sbronzeproductionhadalreadyformedadichotomywiththesouthernbronzeproductioninthelateSpringandAutumnPeriod.Accordingtothelatestarchaeologicaldata,ironwarefromtheSpringandAutumnPeriodwasdiscoveredinQin,whichwasrelativelyearlyinthevassalkingdomatthattime.TheearliestartificialironwarecurrentlyseenintheCentralPlainsistheTombofGuoguoState,ShangcunLing,SanmenxiaCity,HenanProvince,intheearlySpringandAutumnPeriod.Inaddition,theirontoolsfoundwereallintheQinregion,mainlyincludingabronzehandleironswordunearthedfromtheEarlySpringandAutumnPeriodQinTombinBianjiazhuang,LongCounty,Shaanxi;abronzehandleironswordunearthedfromtheEarlySpringandAutumnPeriodQinTombinJingjiazhuang,Lingtai,GansuPieces;ironshovelandironinsertsunearthedfromthetombofQinGongNo.1inthelateSpringandAutumnPeriodinFengxiangYongcheng;ironinsertsunearthedfromtheancestraltemplebuildingsiteinthemiddleandlateSpringandAutumnPeriodofMajiazhuanginFengxiangYongcheng;Twenty-threepiecesofironware.Amongtheironwareunearthedinthesebatches,thebronze-handledironswordunearthedfromtheQintombintheearlySpringandAutumnPeriodatJingjiazhuang,Lingtai,Gansu,andtheironswordunearthedfromtheQintombinthelateSpringandAutumnPeriodinYimenVillage,Baoji,havebeentestedtobeiron-smeltingandcarburizedsteel.TheironwareofQinGongNo.1TombandMajiazhuanginYongchengCityarecastironcastings.ComparedwiththecountriesoftheCentralPlains,theQinStatenotonlyhadalargenumberofironware,butalsohadanearlierage.ItcanbeseenthattheQinState'sironwaresmeltinganduselevelwasstillveryhighatthattime.

Inaddition,theamountofgoldusedintheCentralPlainsduringtheXia,ShangandZhouDynastieswasverysmall.Itseemsthatthecustomdoesnotlikegold.Onthecontrary,intheYingqinarea,manygoldproductshaveappearedinrecentyears,mainlyincludinganumberofcoffingoldleafproductsunearthedfromthestolenQinGongTombinLiCounty,Gansu;ZhaoZhaofromtheQinGongTombinDabaozishan,LiCounty,ontheothersideofthewaterintheWesternHanDynasty.GoldartifactssuchasgoldhandlesandbronzeswordswereunearthedatthePingsite;goldbucklesandothergoldartifactswerealsounearthedfromthetombofQinGongNo.1inthelateSpringandAutumnPeriodofFengxiang;GoldenhorsegearunearthedfromthesacrificialpitoftheQinzongmiaositeinFengxiangMajiazhuanginthemiddleandlateSpringandAutumnPeriodOtheraccessories;Agroupof204goldwaresunearthedfromtheQinTombinthelateSpringandAutumnPeriodatM2inYimenVillage,Baoji,weighing3.15kg.Thehandleoftheunearthedgold-handledironswordisdecoratedwithbeetlepatternsandanimalfacepatterns,andtheeyecornersonthepatternsareinlaidwithemeraldsandoriginalglassbeads.

Society

MarriageCustoms

BeforeShangyangReform,Qin'smarriagerelationshipwaschaotic."AtthebeginningofQinYidi'steaching,fatherandsonlivedinthesameroom."Thedaughter-in-law"holdsandfeedshissonandfather-in-lawtogether".ThecohabitationoffatherandsonshowsthatQinpeople'smarriagerelationshipisstillintheprimitivegroupmarriageperiod,oritcanbesaidthatmonogamyhasnotbeenestablishedinthesamewayastheCentralPlainscountries.Becauseofthis,thestatusofhusbandandwifeisnaturallyuncertain.IntheearlyhistoryofQin,thenamesofBangjun'swivesdidnotappearinhistorybooks,letalonetheirrelateddeeds.ItwasonlyafterShangYang'sreformthathe"restrictedhisteachingandmadethedistinctionbetweenmenandwomen."ThisshowsthatbeforetheQinpeoplewereaccustomedtobeingindifferentbetweenmenandwomenanddidnothaveafixedstatusofhusbandandwife,sothenameofBangjun'swifewasnotseeninthehistorybooks.

ThiskindofmarriagecustomoftheQinpeopleandtheexistenceofthematrilinealremnantsinsociallife,althoughtheShangYangreformshaveordereddifferentmenandwomen,thatis,monogamy,butpeople'sgenderconceptscannotbechangedimmediatelyAfterwards,thechaoticstateofthemarriagerelationshipwillnotdisappearimmediately,andtheQinpeople'sconceptofchastityisstillveryweak.TheQinpeople'sattitudetowardsthemarriagerelationshipbetweenmenandwomenisprimitive,natural,andopen.Freeassociation,divorce,andnonchalantattitude,eventakenforgranted.

Etiquetteandcustoms

TheQinpeoplereflectedinfunerals,religioussacrifices,marriages,patriarchalclansystem,Qinfigurinesandthe"JapaneseBook"havetheirowndifferencesfromtheritualandmusiccultureoftheCentralPlainsCharacteristicsofetiquetteandcustomculture.TheQinpeoplearefashionableinthefuneralandburialwiththeirlimbsbent,whichisthemostobvioussignoftheeasterncountries.ThewayofburialoftheQinpeopleandthecombinationoftombsandburialobjectsarealsodifferentfromthatoftheCentralPlains.Intermsofreligiousworship,thepeopleofQinandtheCentralPlainsaredifferent.Theyadvocatepolytheismanddonotplacethemostimportantpositionontheancestralgods.Whensacrificing,thereisaspecialsacrificialritualofitsown-畤offering.Intermsofpatriarchalpatriarchalrelationship,theQinStatedidnotinheritfromtheeldestsonoftheCentralPlains,butinsteadselectedtalentsandabilities,andmadefulluseofcapablepeople.QinShangwu'setiquetteandcustomsalsohaveobviousmanifestationsinmilitaryritualsandentertainment.

Diplomacy

ShangyangPeriod

AfterShangyang'sreforms,thenationalpowerofQinincreasedgreatly.ShangYangbelievedthat“itwouldbebettertofightagainstWeiwithaQinDynasty”.HesuggestedthatthemethodofrespectingWeiasthekingshouldbeusedtoparalyzethekingofWeiHui,directtheattacktargetsofvariouscountriestothestateofWei,andrelievethestateofWei'sthreattothestateofQin.IsolateWeiStateandeffectivelyweakenWeiState.BecauseofShangYang'sseparation,Weibecameatargetofpubliccriticism.AtthesametimethattheWeipeoplerebelledagainsttheirrelativesandleft,ShangYangsteppedupthearmedattackonWei.In341BC,theStateofWeiwasdefeatedbytheStateofQiinMaling.TheBattleofMaLingwasafiascothatWeihadneverexperiencedbefore.Hisstrengthwasgreatlydamagedandhewasneverrecovered.

Duringthisperiodoftime,asQinStateadoptedamoreflexiblestrategy,firstdeterminedthecorrectgoalofweakeningWeiStateandlaunchedatargetedstrugglearoundthisgoal.Secondly,itavoidedtheprematurefrontalbattlewithWei,thusgainingtime,andonthebasisofdomesticreforms,madethenecessarypreparationsforadecisivebattlewithWei.Third,QinadoptedthecorrectstrategyofneutralizingChuandHan,unitingQiandZhao,andisolatingandattackingWei.Weiwasattackedonallsides,passivelybeatenanddefeatedrepeatedly,andhadtocedeterritorytoQinforpeace.Inthisway,theQinStatenotonlyregainedpartofthelostgroundinHexiandweakenedtheWeiState,butmoreimportantly,thevictoryovertheWeiWarallowedittoaccumulatediplomaticexperienceandincreaseconfidenceinexpandingeastward.

TheperiodofZhangYi

InthegenerationofKingHuiwen,ZhangYiplayedanimportantroleinthedevelopmentofQin.ZhangYi,anativeofWei,wasafamouspoliticalstrategistintheWarringStatesPeriod.ZhangYiwenttoQintopromotethe"LianHeng"thought,whichwasreusedbyKingQinHuiandworshippedQinXiang.AfterZhangYitookoffice,hefirst"wenttomakeWeithepredecessorofQinandtheprincestofollowsuit."WinningWeiwasonlyamoveofhiscontinuoushorizontalmovement.AtthebeginningofLianHeng,ZhangYipointedout:"ThereasonwhythehusbandandQinareweakisnotasgoodasChu,andtheweakerofChuisnotasgoodasLiang."WeiStateisthecoreofHezong,andChuStateisadecisiveweightforHezong.OnceWeiisconvinced,ifhecontinuestosubdueChu,theunitywillnaturallyloseitsfoundationandstrength,anditwillbedifficulttoachieveresults.Atthattime,ChujoinedforcestofightagainstQin,whichgreatlyaffectedthedevelopmentofQin.Therefore,destroyingthealliancebetweenQiandChuwasakeystepforQin.ZhangYithenturnedLianHeng'sgoaltoChuState.ZhangYiusedtheverballypromisedlandofShangyusixhundredmilesasaconditionfortheseveranceofdiplomaticrelationsbetweenQiandChu.Unabletoobtaintheland,hesenttroopstoattackQin,buttheylosttoQinboth,andtheHanzhongofChuwasalsoownedbyQin.Inthisway,themainlandofQinwasconnectedwithBashu,whichnotonlyeliminatedthethreatofChufromthesouth,butalsoallowedtherichmaterialresourcesofBashutobetransportedtoGuanzhongunimpededly,whichplayedanimportantroleintherapidgrowthofQin.SoafterWei,ChualsobecameaprisonerofZhangYi'sLianhengpolicy.ZhangYi'sdiplomacyinQinHuiwen'sgeneration,whetheritwasaweakWeioraweakChu,wasaimedatdismantlingthesix-nationcoalition,andZhangYi'scontributionisalsoconcentratedhere.

WeiRanperiod

In307BC,KingQinWudiedandKingQinZhaowasestablished.WeiRanwastheuncleofKingZhao.Duringhistenureasprimeminister,heactivelypursuedthediplomaticstrategyofencroachingonHanandWeiandweakeningQiandChu,andQin'sterritorywasgreatlyexpanded.InthetwelfthyearofKingQinZhao,WeiRanappointedthefamousmilitarystrategistBaiQiasageneral,steppinguptheattackonHanandWei.InthebattleofYique,QindefeatedHanandWeicoalitionforces.ThisistheheaviestlossthatHanandWeihavesufferedsincetheyfoughtwithQin.Atthistime,theQiStateUniversityhadthetendencytodominatetheworld,andtheprinceswereterrified,andtheYanStatesecretlycontactedthecountriestopreparetojoinforces.KingQinZhaosawthatthiswasagreatopportunitytomanipulatecountriestoweakenQi.Soin284yearsago,Qinparticipatedinajointattack.ThecoalitionforcesdividedintomultipleforcesandattackedQi.QiwascompletelydefeatedandKingQiZhaowaskilled.Sufferedfromthisblow,QiGuonevercheeredupagain.

WeiRanbelievesthatWeiisthe"middlebody"intheworld.Attackingthemiddlebodywillsaveyoufromtheend.ItisbettertohitChu.In279yearsago,WeiRansentBaiqitoattackChuinabigway,andcapturedYingduinonefellswoop.KingChuQingxianghadtomovehiscapitaltoChen(nowHuaiyang,Henan),andChualsolosttheabilitytofightagainstQin.ChuStatewasdefeated,andBaiQiturnedtotheThirdJinDynasty.UndertheattackofQinState,WeiState'sterritorywaserodedinalargeamountandlosttheabilitytoresist.AttheendofEmperorZhao'syears,onlyZhaoStatecouldresistQinState.SinceKingQinZhaocametothethrone,WeiRanadvocatedtheuseofencroachmentpolicytoachievethepurposeofannexation.Thepolicyhasindeedachievedgreatresults.JustasSimaQiansaid:"Ifthewholeworldiswestward,itisthemeritofRanghou."

OverviewofQinZhaowang'sforeignpolicyduringthisperiod,theachievementsarethemostimportant.InthecontinuousattackonHanandWei,heobtainedalargeareaof​​territory.Atthesametime,heactivelyplannedandparticipatedinactivitiestoweakenQiandChu,whichweakenedthestrengthofthesecountries,thusgraduallygaininganabsoluteadvantageinthecomparisonofthestrengthoftheenemyandtheunityofQin.Playedapositiveroleinpromoting.

DuringtheFanjuPeriod

ThespecificstepsofFanju's"distantcommunicationandcloseattack"strategywere:firstforceHan,WeiandQinwhoareinthecenteroftheworldtogettogether,andusethistothreatenChu,Zhao,andmakeChuandZhaosuccumbed,andthenfrightenedtheQiStateinthedistance.AfterthedistantkingdomofQiattached,thekingdomofQincouldletgoofannexingthelandsofthetwokingdomsofHanandWeithatborderedQin.AmongHanandWei,FanJuadvocatedtakingHanfirst,because"QinHan'stopographyisasinconsistentasembroidery.QinhasHan,forexample,woodhasbeetles,andpeoplehaveconfidantdiseases."Togetridofhisheartdisease,QinmustfirstTakeHanforsurgery.FanJualsoproposedthestrategyof"Don'tattackthelandalone,butattackthepeople."Thatis,itfocusesondividinganddisintegratingtheenemybymeansofdivorce,anddestroyingtheenemy'sviablepower.

Nationalities

Distribution

InthenorthwestoftheQinState,distributedintheareaof​​Shaanxi,Gansu,Qinghai,andNingxia,thereareDali(inDali,Shaanxi).Southeast),Mianzhu(totheeastofTianshui,Gansutoday),Yueshi(tothewestofQilianMountaininGansuandtotheeastofDunhuang),Wusun(intheareaof​​Dunhuang,Gansutoday),Jiu(southeastofGansu,Gansu),Quyan(Intheareaof​​Yanchiintoday'sNingxia),Wu'sfamily(inthenorthwestofPingliang,Gansu),Xizhi(agiftbranch,alongtheYellowRiverinthenorthwestofGuinan,Qinghai),andYiqu.Amongthem,Yiquismorepowerful.

InthesouthwestofQinState,distributedinpresent-daySichuanProvince,thereareShu,Ba,Zhi(namelyMimeng,northeastofJiangeinpresentSichuan,southofGuangyuan,nearBaolunyuan),Danli,Zhadu(Intheareaof​​Hanyuaninpresent-daySichuan),Dengdu(intheareaof​​Xichanginpresent-daySichuan),Zha(intheareaof​​Tianquaninpresent-daySili),RanPan(intheareaof​​Maofeninpresent-daySilil),Qi,etc.Amongthem,Shuisthelargest,withtheareanorthoftheupperreachesoftheYangtzeRiverinthewesternpartofSichuanProvincetoday,andpartofthesouthwesternpartofShaanxiProvincetoday;Baisthesecond,andthereistheeasternpartofSichuanProvincetoday.

Yiqu

YiquisanancientnationoftheChinesenationandabranchoftheQiangRongnationintheWest.ItisdistributedinQishan,Liangshan,JingshuiandQishuiInthenorth(nowQingyangandJingchuan,Gansu).Subsequently,YiqumovedinwardandgraduallyoccupiedtheDayuanareainLongdong.IntheWesternWeekend,YiqutookadvantageofthechaosintheZhoudynastyandannouncedthathewouldbreakawayfromtheruleoftheZhoudynastyandformallyestablishthecounty.ThecapitalwasestablishedinXigouVillage,JiaocunTownship,NingCounty.Sincethen,thenameofYiquCountryhasbeenestablishedinChinesehistory.YiquStatehasexperiencedrepeatedmilitarybattleswithQiangQinformorethan400years,andbecamethemainopponentofQinState'sdominanceofXiRongatthattime.

In430BC,YiqusenttroopstoattackQin,fromJingbeitoWeinan,forcingQinsoldierstoretreatfromthelowerreachesoftheWeiheRiver,asinthethirteenthyearofGongXiangong,"YiquattackedQinandinvadedWeiYang":Chuan.Thefollowing30yearswasthemostpowerfulperiodinYiquCountry.AtthebeginningoftheWarringStatesPeriod,theQinStatetookadvantageoftheinternaldisturbancesinYiqu,senttroopstoattackYiqu,andflatlydefinedthechaosinthecanal,andYiqusurrenderedtoQin.Afterthat,thetwosideshadpeaceintimeofwar.In327BC,YiquregardedthecountryasthecountyofQinandtheemperorastheministerofQin,andformallybecameaterritoryofthestateofQin."HistoricalRecords·QinBenji"recordsintheeleventhyearofKingHui:"Intheeleventhyear,thecountyYiqu.ReturnedtoWeijiaoandQuwo.Yiqumonarchisaminister."In318BC,hebrokeawayfromthecontroloftheQinStateandjoinedthefiveeasterncountriestoconquertheQinState,threateningQinStatewithQinCheng.Inordertogetridoftheworriesofthefuture,aftertheQinStatewonthebattleintheCentralPlains,itmobilizedheavytroopstoattacktheYiqufromtheeast,south,andwest,andsuccessivelycapturedthetwenty-fivecitiesofYiqu,andthelandoftheYiquwasgreatlyreduced.In306BC,KingQinZhaobecameamonarch,andhismotherproclaimedthequeenmotherregent.ShechangedthestrategyofconqueringtherighteousQuRongcountryfrontally,adoptingthepolicyofbeingsoft,wooing,andcorroding,inordertofallintotheambitionoftheRongking,andstabilizetherearformorethan30years.In271BC,theQueenMotherkilledtheKingofYiquinGanquanPalace,andthensenttroopstoattackYiqu,thekingdomofYiqudied,andtheterritorywasmergedintotheQinState.

Bashu

In451BC,theZuoShuoftheQinfactiongrewupinNanzheng(nowHanzhong,Shaanxi)tobuildacityforthedefenseofShu.Qin'sNanzhengrebellionin441BCshouldhavesomethingtodowithShu.By387BC,ShucapturedNanzheng("HistoricalRecords·ChronicleoftheSixKingdoms");inthesameyear,QindefeatedShuandcapturedNanzheng.Atthistime,ShubeicompetedwithQinforNanzheng,andeastwardcompetedwithChuforland.In377BC,ShudefeatedChuandcapturedZifang(nowSongzi,Hubei),soChubuiltayakguan(westofYichang,Hubei)todefendShu.SinceGongsunYan'sunityfailed,thetwogreatpowersofQinandQibegantoseekannexationofland.SinceKingQinHuicametothethrone,theStateofQinhasfurtherattemptedtoexpandabroadandestablisha"kingindustry".Therearetwodifferentopinionsonhowtobuildthe"WangYe":ZhangYiadvocatedattackingSouthKorea'snewcity,Yiyang,"totheoutskirtsoftwoweeks,accordingtoJiuding,askforpictures,taketheemperortocomedowntoday";andSimaWronglyopposedthe"attackHanJieTianzi"plan,believingthatitwas"notorious"invainandcouldnotgetrealbenefits,advocatedthefirstattackontheSouthwestern"RongDi'slong"ShuKingdom,andbelievedthat"thelandissufficientforGuangguo","Thewealthisenoughtoenrichthepeopleanddefendthesoldiers",anditcan"profittheWestSea".Inaddition,BashucanpassthroughChuthroughthewaterways.KingQinHuiadoptedSimaCuo'sproposition.Atthistime,ithappenedthattherewasawarbetweenShu,Ju,andPakistan.ItturnedoutthatBaandShuhadbeenenemiesforalongtime.BecauseJuhouwasfriendlywiththekingofBa,thekingofShuattackedJu,andJuhourushedtothecountryofBaandaskedQinforhelp.In316BC,KingQinHuisentSimaCuo,DuWeimoandotherstoattackShufromHanzhongviaShiniuDao.KingShupersonallyledhistroopstoMimeng(nownortheastofJiange,Sichuan)toresisttheQinarmy,andfledtoWuyang.(TodayPengshan,Sichuan),waskilledbytheQinarmy,andtheKingdomofShuwasdestroyed.ThenSimaCuoandothersattackedJuandBa,andcapturedthekingofBa.

Lineage

Algebra

PosttitleNumber

Name

Yearinposition

Beginningandendinginposition

Identity

QinFeizi

YingFei(QinYing)

31

888BC-858BC

ThefifthgenerationgrandsonofEilai

QinHou

Unknownname

dix

857BC-848BC

SonofQinFeizi

QinGongbo

Yingfather-in-law

3

847BC—845BC

QinHouzi

秦仲

嬴秦仲

23

844BC-822BC

QinGongBozi

QinZhuanggong

Yingqi

44

821BC-778BC

QinZhong'seldestson

1

QinXianggong(establishedasaprince)

Unknownname

td>

12

777BC-766BC

ThesecondsonofQinZhuang,theyoungerbrotherofthesonofthefather

2

QinWengong

Nameunknown

50

765BC-716BC

ThesonofQinXiang

QinJinggong(QinLinggong)

Notinplace

QinWenGongzi

3

QinXiangong(QinNinggong)

Yingli

12

715BC-704BC

Mr.QinJing

4

秦出子

Yingman

6

703BC-698BCYear

MrQinXian

5

QinWugong

Yingshuo

20

697BC-678BC

TheeldestsonofQinXiangong

6

秦德公

嬴嘉

2

公元前677年—公元前676年

秦宪公子,秦武公弟

sept

秦宣公

嬴恬

12

公元前675年—公元前664年

秦德公长子

8

秦成公

嬴载

4

公元前663年—公元前660年

秦德公子,秦宣公弟

9

秦穆公(秦缪公)

嬴任好

39

公元前659年—公元前621年

秦德公少子,秦成公弟

dix

秦康公

嬴罃

12

公元前620年—公元前609年

秦穆公子

11

秦共公

嬴稻/嬴貑

4

公元前608年—公元前605年

旧误作公元前608年—公元前604年

秦康公子

12

秦桓公

嬴荣

28

公元前604年—公元前577年

旧误作公元前603年—公元前577年

秦共公子

13

秦景公

嬴石

40

公元前576年—公元前537年

秦桓公子

14

秦哀公(秦毕公/秦㻫公)

嬴籍

36

公元前536年—公元前501年

秦景公子

秦夷公

未即位

秦哀公子

15

秦惠公

嬴宁

9

公元前500年—公元前492年

秦夷公子

16

秦悼公

嬴盘

15

公元前491年—公元前477年

秦惠公子

17

秦厉共公(秦剌龚公/秦利龚公)

嬴刺

34

公元前476年—公元前443年

秦悼公子

18

秦躁公(秦趮公)

嬴欣

14

公元前442年—公元前429年

秦厉公子

19

秦怀公

嬴封

4

公元前428年—公元前425年

秦厉公子,秦躁公弟

20

秦灵公(秦肃灵公)

嬴肃

dix

公元前424年—公元前415年

秦怀公孙,秦昭子之子

21

秦简公

嬴悼子(有人认为,“悼子”非名)

15

公元前414年—公元前400年

秦昭子之弟、秦灵公叔父

(《秦记》谓秦灵公子)

22

秦惠公

嬴仁

13

公元前399年—公元前387年

秦简公子

23

秦出公(秦少主)

嬴昌

2

公元前386年—公元前385年

秦惠公子

24

秦献公(秦元献公/秦元王)

嬴师隰/嬴连

23

公元前384年—公元前362年

秦灵公子

25

秦孝公(秦平王)

嬴渠梁

24

公元前361年—公元前338年

秦献公子

26

秦惠文王(秦惠王)

嬴驷

27

公元前337年—公元前311年(公元前324年改元)

秦孝公子

27

秦武王(秦悼武王/秦武烈王)

嬴荡

4

公元前310年—公元前307年

秦惠文王子

28

秦昭襄王(秦昭王)

嬴则/嬴稷

56

公元前306年—公元前251年

秦惠文王子,秦武王弟

29

秦孝文王

嬴柱/秦柱

3天

公元前250年

秦昭襄王子

30

秦庄襄王

秦异人/嬴楚(嬴子楚)/秦楚

3

公元前249年—公元前247年

秦孝文王子

31

秦王政(秦始皇帝)

嬴政/赵政

36

公元前246年—公元前221年(秦王)

公元前221年—公元前210年为皇帝

秦庄襄王子

32

秦二世(二世皇帝)

胡亥

3

公元前210年―公元前207年

秦始皇子

33

秦王子婴

子婴

46天

公元前207年

扶苏子、秦二世侄

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