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Architecture néoclassique



Historique du développement

Définition du concept

Theso-disant "néoclassicisme" firstlyfollowstherationalistviewpointandbelievesthatartmustproceedfromrationalityandrejectthesubjectivethoughtsandfeelingsofartistsEspeciallyinthefaceofsocialandpersonalconflictsofinterest, individualsmustrestraintheirfeelings, obeyreasonandthelaw, andadvocatetheperfectmoralityofcitizensistosacrificethemselvesandfulfilltheirresponsibilitiesforthemotherland.ThecreationofartisticimagesadvocatestheidealbeautyofancientGreece, paysattentiontothecompleteandsculpturalmodelingofclassicalartforms, pursueselegance, dignité, andharmony, whileadheringtostrictsketchesandclearoutlines, andstrivestoweakenthecolorelementsofpainting.The "nouveauté" de liesinborrowingancientheroismthemesandformsofexpression "néoclassicisme", directlydepictingmajoreventsandheroesinrealstruggles, closelycooperatingwithrealstruggles, anddirectlyservingthebourgeoisietoseizeandconsolidatepower.IthasadistinctivefeatureRealistictendency.Therefore, le néoclassicismeaussiappeléclassicismerévolutionnaireetsesreprésentantsremarquables entativeisDavide.

TheRisingCountry

FrancewasthecenterofEuropeanneoclassicalarchitectureactivitiesattheendofthe18thcenturyandthebeginningofthe19thcentury.ThePantheonbuiltinParisduringtheFrenchRevolutionisatypicalclassicalbuilding.DuringtheNapoleonicera, manymonumentalbuildingswerebuiltinParis.Amongthem, theArcdeTriompheandtheMadeleineChurchareallexamplesofancientRomanarchitecture.BritainmainlyrevivesGreekarchitecturalforms, suchastheBritishMuseuminLondon.TheBrandenburgGateinBerlin, Allemagne, andtheBerlinCourtTheatreareallrevivalsofGreekarchitecturalforms.Amongthem, theBrandenburgGatewasbuiltinimitationofthemountaingateoftheAcropolis.BeforetheindependenceoftheUnitedStates, thearchitecturalstylesweremostlyEuropeanstyles.Afterindependence, theUnitedStatesreliedontheclassicalarchitectureofGreeceandRometoexpressdemocracy, liberté, gloryandindependence, andneoclassicalarchitectureflourished.TheU.S.CapitolwasbuiltinthemodelofthePantheoninParis.

Statut historique

L'architecture française, ainsi que la peinture, est appelée la période néoclassique. Au cours de cette période, aucun nouveau style architectural ne s'est formé.

À l'époque de l'empire napoléonien, l'art architectural était basé sur l'architecture gréco-romaine antique comme norme, et le style dorique solennel était l'admiration à la mode.

Le mépris de l'architecture moderniste pour l'esthétique classique et son mépris pour la forme la pousse de plus en plus vers le bourbier de la production industrielle de masse à grande échelle : de plus en plus loin de la tradition, loin de l'art, loin de la culture, terne et sec, c'est pareil, tout d'un coup d'œil.

Évaluation historique

Asoftenhappensinhistory, wheneveranewformbecomesanimpersonalformulaicinertia, peoplewillinevitablyfocusonInthepast, fromtheruinsofhistory, fromtheclassicalFrench, toseekopportunitiestobreakthroughthecurrentmortarorframe.Sincethe1950sand1960s (Note: SirJohnSomersonwrotein "ClaasicArchitecture": "Since1939, therehavebeenthreespecialproblems: Tout d'abord, peoplehavediscoveredthatthemodernmovementContainsseriousinherentflaws, especiallyingeneral, itisimpossibletocreateapopularimageandmetaphor, d'autre part, thepublic'sconceptofconservationandenvironmenthasbeenreversedonebyone, fromtheabandonedanduglypre-warurbanenvironmentThegeneralhostilityofthiskindofenvironmentisacceptedasa « héritage » witharomanticandnostalgicattitude, en troisième lieu, depuis1939,l'histoiredel'architectureestpresquecomplètementréécrite.Cestroisproblèmessontentrelacésetmutuellemententrelacés. ssion."John SummersonNaturellementil y a une raison, mais si nous considérons le néoclassicisme du point de vue de l'architecture postmoderne, nous devons commencer par les années 1950 et 1960. Voir Dr Andreas C. Papadakis & Harriet Watson. New Classicism, London.

DemetriPorphyriossaid: "DoesmoderneclecticismstartfromthelateworksofGropiusandWright, orfromthematureworksofAalto, orfromthelater60s, thatis, fromTheearlyworksofVenturi, Moore, andGreavesstarted, wearenotsureyet.Butwecanbesurethatitisstillfulloflifetodayandverypopular. » (Note: "ClassicismIsNotAStyle" style), seeDrAndreasC.Papadakis & HarrietWatson.NewClassicism, London.AcademyGroupLtd, 1990:. 19) Aslongaswelookbackonthehistoryofmodernarchitecture, itisnotdifficulttofindthatthefirstchallengetomodernismYes, C'estprécisémentceuxquiontétélesplusassidusàpréconiseretàpratiquerl'esthétiquemoderniste,commeLeCorbusier,Gropiusetd'autresmaîtres.

ItisdifficulttoaccuratelyspecifythedateofthebirthofneoclassicismlikeJenksorEisenmandeclaredthedeathdateofmodernismorpostmodernism.ButIamwillingtosettheapproximateperiodofitsproductionbetweenthe1950sandtheearly1960s.Becauseseveralimportantworksappearedatthisstage, suchasAalto'sSanatceiroTownHall (CivicCenter, Säynätsalo, Finlande, 1949-1952), EdwardD.Stone'sNewDelhiAmericanEmbassy (UnitedStatesembassyNewDehli, 1954) andtheAmericanPavilionattheBrusselsExpo (1958), PhilipJohnson'sAmonKarterMuseumofWestArtandtheSheldonMemorialArtattheUniversityofNebraskaGallery, 1958 ~ 1966), Yamasaki'sMcGregorMemorialCommunityConferenceCenterWayneStateUniversity (McGregorMemorialCommunityConferenceCenterWayneStateUniversity ,1955~1958).Bien quecesœuvresaientdesstylesdifférents,ellesontunpointencommun :ellesontpercélesstéréotypesgéométriquesdumodernisme,etontfaitdenouvellesinterprétationsduvocabulaireclassiqueavecunefortenostalgieetuneinnovationaudacieuse. . Cformofexpression "Architecture: ACriticalHistory", Pékin. ChinaConstructionIndustryPress, 1998edition), EdwardD.Stone'sAmericanEmbassyinNewDelhi, theAmericanPavilionattheBrusselsExpo, andPhilipJohnson'sAmonCarterMuseumofWesternArtWiththeSheldonMuseumofArtattheUniversityofNebraska (1958 ~ 1963), withtheingeniousconceptionofoldsongsandnewsinging, theelegantclassicaltasteandchicandsophisticatedmoderntechniquesareintegrated, Yamasaki'sAmericanWeiTheMcGregorConferenceCenterofEnStateUniversityusesamoreabstractandrefinedapproachtoshowtheinfinitecharmofclassicalaestheticsintheeulogyofmodernlife.Amongalltheaboveworks, theAmericanEmbassyinNewDelhidesignedbyEdwardStone, whowontheALAAwardin1961, isaworkthatshouldberememberedespeciallybyhistory.ThisisabuildingwithelegantproportionsandverticallayoutsimilartotheParthenon .Iln'estpasdutoutrestreintparlagéométriemodernistedominanteàl'époque. tyandelegance.Italsoexpresseslocaltraditionswithpools, deepoverhangs, andsunshades, andtakesintoaccountthefunctionofadjustingthelocalclimate.Atthesametime, theslenderandgorgeoussimplifiedcolumn, whitecurtainwallandglassinnerwallexpressadistinctiveatmosphereofthetimes.Stonenotonlyresurrectedthespiritofclassicisminthisbuilding, butitssuccessandawardsquicklymadethistypeofworkhaveaworldwideimpact.ThereasonwhyVenturiand "ContradictoryandComplexityofArchitecture" appearedinthe1960s, andtheemergenceofneoclassicalarchitectssuchasCharlesMoore, obviouslyhasaprofoundconnectionwithStone'sexplorationinthe1950s.

Dans les années 1960

IntheWesternarchitecturalworld, neoclassicalworksbegantoemergeinlargenumbers, andtherewasatendencytofail.SuchasHeadquartersBuildingforNursesandDentists (1960) inVenturi, GildHousefortheElderly (GildHouse1960 ~ 1963, Philadelphie), ChestnutHillHouse (1962) andGordonWuHall (GordonWuHall), IncollaborationwithRockyandScottBrown, 1982 ~ 1984, Princeton, NewJersey), Moore'sArchitect'sHome (1962) andItalianPlaza (1975 ~ 1980), Michaelgraves'portlandcityhall (1980 ~ 1982)) Andhumanaheadquarters (1982 ~ 1986, Kentucky), Robertstern'sstorefrontandNewjerseyvillaforBestProduits (VillainNewjersey, 1983 ~ 1987) Andresencedingofmarblehead (Massachusetts, 1984 ~ 1987), Yamasaki'snorthwestnationAlifInsuranceCompany (1961 ~ 1964 ),PrincetonUniversityWilsonCollege(1965),PhilipJohnsonandBogey'sAT&Theadquarters(1978),190SouthRussellAvenue,ChicagoBuilding(1983)et bientôt.

Classement des bâtiments

L'architecture néoclassique peut se diviser en gros en deux types. L'un est le classicisme abstrait, l'autre est le classicisme concret ou clectique.

Abstractclassicismusesasimplifiedmethod, orafreehandmethod, tosubtlyintegratetheabstractclassicalarchitecturalelementsorsymbolsintothearchitecture, sothattheclassiceleganceandmodernsimplicityareperfectlyembodied..Yamasaki'sNorthwestNationalLifeInsuranceCompanyisbasedonaGreektemple, butitscolonnades, avant-toits, andarchesareallexpressedinasimplifiedform, simpleandpowerful, simpleandelegant, Graves'waveThroughthemethodofflatteningandcolorizingclassicalelements, theTranCityHallcreatesatensionandharmonyintheunityofoppositesbetweentraditionandmodernity, PhilipJohnsonandBogey'sAT & TheadquartersarefullydisplayedinabuildingModerntechnologyandzeitgeistskyscrapersexpresstheeleganceandnobilityofRenaissancearchitecturethroughthethree-sectionstructure, themountainfloweronthetop, thearchesandroundwindowsatthebottom, andthestoneveneer, theflatglasscompanyheadquartersismoreSkilledskills, moderntechnologyandmaterials, intheformofaGothiccastle, createafairytalemonument.

Theconcreteclassicismisdifferent.Itisneithertextual, dogmaticclassicismnorYamasaki-stylefreehandclassicism.Inthistypeofarchitecture, architectscanfullyexpresstheirstrongclassicalculturalinterestandprofoundclassicalarchitecturalskills.Inotherwords, theycanuseauthenticclassicalarchitecturaldetails, buttheyarebynomeansstuckinimitationandplagiarism.Themaincharacteristicsofthistypeofarchitecturearetheuseofthebest, therichnessofothers, thebrightcolors, andthestrongdecoration.Concreteclassicismisdifferentfromabstractclassicisminitsfreehandbrushwork.Ithasthecharacteristicsoffinebrushwork, whichismoredetailed, moreexquisite, plus riche, moredignified, andmorehistoricthanabstractclassicism.However, inthiseraofnoheroesandnoauthority, anyattempttosetthearchitecturaltypeofacertaineraintoonebuildingisimpossible.Althoughcomparedwithabstractclassicism, concreteclassicismrespectstheclassicalarchetypesitimitatesormetaphorsmore, mais lorsqu'ils adoptent des détails classiques, ils sont généralement plus décontractés et peuvent utiliser une variété de styles historiques Ainsi, pour le même classicisme figuratif, Venturi adopte majoritairement le style hybride, Stern adopte majoritairement le style exagéré et déformé, et Moore et Poffe adoptent le style commémoratif minutieux et solennel.

Theemergenceofneoclassicismoriginatedfromtheimpulseofarchitectstocorrectthearchitecturalreality, andthenitbecameaculturalstrategy, whichisbeyonddoubt.However, wemustalsoseethattheemergenceofthistrendofthoughtalsoshowsthat, asaculturaltradition, classicalarchitecturewillalwaysbeavaluableassetforfuturegenerations.Theso-calledrevolutionthatregardstraditionasaburdenandbreakswithtraditionateveryturn.Behavior, inmostcases, canonlybeaharmfulandunhelpfulbehavior; atthesametime, italsoshowsthat, likealltraditionalcultures, classicalarchitecturehasbecomeahistoricalcomplexinthehumanspiritualstructure, akindofhiddendeepinthehumansoul.Prototypeschema.Aslongasitencounterstherightsoilandwarmsunshine, thisseedofcultureandartwilltakerootandblossomandbearfruit.

Caractéristiques de style

Elementalabstraction

D'abord,lesélémentsclassiquessontabstraitsensymboles,quisontutiliséscommedécorationsetmétaphoresenarchitecture.

Viviandrich

Thesecondisbrilliantandrichcolors.SuchasPortmanCityHallandGraves (LcosPegaseWinery, Californie, 1988), Pofil'sItalianPlaza, Moore'sswimmingpoolandsaunachangingroom (Californie, 1967, Klotz, 160), VenturiandJohn · Lodge'sNewHavenDixwellFireStation (1970 ~ 1973, Klotz, 158), Venturi, JohnLodgeandScottBrown'sBASCOSupermarket (Philadelphie , 1976, Klotz, 157) AndBESTsupermarket (Pennsylvanie, 1977, Klotz, 157), andotherworks throughtheingeniouscontrastofcolors, createwonderfulpaintingeffects.EspeciallytheBASCOsupermarketandBESTsupermarketdesignedbyVenturiandothers, eitherdecoratethestorefrontswithhugeandcolorfulletters, ordecoratethewallswithhugeplumblossompatterns, notavoidingeleganceandvulgarity, andboldideas, whichfullydemonstrateswhatheadvertises.Thebeautyof "mixedelements".

Epaisseuretéléganceetvulgarité

Le troisième est le contraste entre rugosité et finesse, élégance et vulgarité.

Style de conception

Theneoclassicaldesignstyleisactuallyanimprovedclassicismstyle.Readingalldesignideasanddesignstylesisnothingmorethananattitudetolife.Whendesigningaclassiciststylethatissuitableformodernpeopletoliveinfortheowner, withstrongfunctionalityandbeautifulscenery, whetheritcankeenlygrasptheneedsofcustomersactuallyputsforwardhigherrequirementsforthedesigners.Boththefurnitureandtheaccessories, withtheirelegantandbeautifulposture, peacefulandfullofconnotation, portraytheelegantandnoblestatusoftheownerofthehouse.Commonfireplaces, crystalpalacelamps, andancientRomancolumnsarealsothefinishingtouchesoftheneo-classicalstyle.Eleganceandharmonyaresynonymouswithneoclassicalstyle.White, or, jaune, anddarkredarethecommonmaincolorsintheEuropeanstyle.Asmallamountofwhiteblendingmakesthecolorlookbrightandgenerous, makingtheentirespaceopenandtolerantandextraordinary, anditisnotatallcramped.Therearealsoarticlesonthecombinationofneoclassicallampsandotherhomefurnishingelements.Inthebedroom, youcanmatchneoclassicallampswitharo cocodressingtable, classicalbedsidelacecurtains, andthenputoneortwoclassicalstyledecorations, suchasthelittlelovegod-CupidstatueorhangingoneThisoilpaintingoftheBaroqueperiodallowspeopletoexperienceclassicaleleganceandgrace.SomepeopleputtogetherEuropeanclassicalfurnitureandChineseclassicalfurniture, combiningChineseandWesternstyles, whichblendstheintroversionoftheEastwiththeromanceoftheWest, givingitanoblefeeling.Theneoclassicalstyleismorelikeadiversifiedwayofthinking, combiningnostalgicromanticfeelingswithmodernpeople'sneedsforlife, compatiblewithluxury, eleganceandmodernfashion, reflectingthepersonalizedaestheticviewpointsandcultureofthepost-industrialeragrade.

TypiqueReprésentant

AstorThéâtre

LethéâtreAstorestaussilepremierbâtimentnéoclassiqueàPrague,avecuntriangulaireetdeuxpaires.LacolonnerévèlelestylearchitecturaldelaGrèceancienne.

Porte de Brandebourg

Symbole éternel de Berlin, style néoclassique, l'intention originale du concepteur était qu'elle puisse devenir une porte vers la paix.

Saint-Pétersbourg

BecausetheTsarwantedtouseSt.Petersburgasthenavybasecamp, itbecameamodelofRussianneoclassicalarchitecture-theAdmiraltydesignedbyAndrianZakharovThebuilding (1823) wasbuiltasthecenterofthecity.TheAdmiraltyBuildingisabout400meterslong.Thewholebuildingisdividedintothreeareashorizontally, andeachareaisdividedintothreeends.TheedificeoverlooksPetertheGreat'sdock.Theweathercockintheshapeofafrigateonitsspirehasbecomeasymbolofthecity.

Autres travaux

Importantworks, suchasAalto'sSanatceiroTownHall (CivicCenter, Finlande, Säynätsalo, 1949-1952), EdwardStone'sNewDelhi, USAEmbassy (UnitedStatesembassyNewDehli, 1954) andtheUnitedStatesPavilionattheBrusselsExpo (1958), HeadquartersBuildingforNursesandDentists (1960), GildHouse (GildHouse1960-1963, Philadelphie)), ChestnutHillHouse (1962 )etHuYingxiangtang(GordonWuHall,encollaborationavecRockyetScottB,1982-1984,Princeton,NewJersey),Moore'sArchitect'sHouse(1962)etItalianSquare(1975)1980),MichaelGraves'PortlandCityHall(1980-1982)etHumanaHeadquar-ters(1982-1986,Kentucky), RobertStern'sstorefrontforBestProductsandVillaInNewJersey (VillaInNewJersey, 1983-1987) andResidenceofMarblehead (Massachusetts, 1984-1987), Yamazaki'sNorthwestNationalLifeInsuranceCompany (1961-1964), PrincetonUniversityWilsonCollege (1965), PhilipJohnsonandTheAmericanTelegraphandTelephoneCompanyheadquartersofBogey (1978), 190SouthRussellAvenue, Chicago (1983), etc.

ShanghaiConstruction

HSBCBankBâtiment

TheBritishBankHSBC.DesignerGongheYang (nowPamaTannerOfficeinHongKong) .HSBCwasestablishedinHongKongin1864andabranchinShanghaiin1865.In1874, ahousewasbuiltonthecurrentsiteoftheBund.Theoriginalbuildinghas3floorsandabrick-woodstructure.Itwaspartiallyrebuiltin1888andisaRenaissance-stylebuildingwithaBaroquestyle.In1921, oldhousesweredemolishedtobuildnewbuildings, namelytheexistingbuildings.Themainbuildinghasareinforcedconcretestructurewith5floors (onedayabovethegroundfloor) andabasementfloor.Themiddlepartis2storieshigherandiscrownedwithasteeldome.Theplanofthebuildingisnearlysquare.Insidetheentranceofthemainentrance, atthepositionofthedome, thereisacircularentrancehall.Duringtherefurbishment, averyexquisitemuralwasfoundintheceilingofthehall.Enteringthehallisthebusinesshall.ThesouthwestpartofthebuildingfacesanoriginalbusinesshallservingChinesepeopleonFuzhouRoad .Lafaçadedubâtimentestconstruiteselonuneapprochenéoclassiquerigoureuse.

Thewholebuildingisdividedintofivehorizontalsections, withantiqueRomanCollins-styledoublecolumnsrunningthroughthe2,3, and4floorsinthemiddle.TheverticaldivisionisalsoacaseofancientRomancolumnproportions.ThetopdomeisreminiscentofthePantheoninancientRome.Theouterwallismadeofstone, andthereisapairofbronzelionsattheentrance.ThebusinesshallhasanarchedglassceilingandanIoniccolonnadecarvedoutofItalianmarble.Whenthebuildingwascompleted, theBritishoncepraiseditas "themostexquisitebuildingfromtheSuezCanaltotheBailingStrait." ThebuildingwastheofficebuildingoftheShanghaiMunicipalPeople'sGovernmentfromthe1950sto1995.ItisnowthePudongDevelopmentBank.

CommerceÉtrangerBâtiment

ForeignTradeBuilding, anciennement connu sous le nom de Jardinine Matheson. Il a commencé par la contrebande d'opium.

YouyiBâtiment

No.4, ZhongshanEastRoad, isnowSingaporeGitiPrivateInvestmentCo., Ltd.FormerlyknownastheUnionBuilding, itwasownedbyU.S.AdvantageBank, soitwascalledU.S.BankBuilding.Thebuildingwascompletedin1916.ThedesignerGongheYangxingisaneoclassicalworkwithaBaroquetowerontheroof.The7-storeybuildingimitatestheRenaissancearchitecturalstyleasawhole.Thewindowframesaremostlydecoratedwithbaroqueart, whichisfullofrotatingpatterns, andthegateisdecoratedwithIoniccolumns.Thetallfloor-à-ceilingwindowsarenotonlyconducivetolighting, butalsoincreasethebuilding'smomentum.Thewholebuildingisanaxisymmetricfigurecenteredonthedoor .Ainsi, il donne aux gens un sentiment de paix.

DouaneBâtiment

Bâtimentdesdouanes.SituéauNo.13ZhongshanEastRoad,construitentre1925et1927,ledesignerGongheYangxingestuneœuvrenéoclassique.

DongfengHôtel

L'hôtel Dongfeng, à l'origine de l'Association britannique, est situé au n° 3, Zhongshan East Road. Il a été construit en 1912 par Tarant et Maurice.

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