Accueil Technologie Exposé écrit de Mengxi

Exposé écrit de Mengxi



Introductionau travail

MengxiBiTan comprend trois parties : BiTan, Complément BiTan et Continue BiTan, qui contient les expériences et les opinions de ShenKuo. etPersonnel(Un,deux),gouvernement(un,deux),esprit,artetlittérature(un,deux,trois),peintureetcalligraphie,compétences,ustensiles,magie,choses étranges,sophismes,ridicule,magazines(un,deux,trois),DrogueDiscussion" .

Trois volumes de " Notes complémentaires ", dont onze sujets du contenu ci-dessus. ,etdesaffairesmilitaires.,Droitetbeaucoup d'autresdomaines.Parmi ces rubriques,cellesappartenant aux sciences humaines,commel'anthropologie,l'archéologie,lalinguistique,lamusique,etc.,représententenviron18%desarticles;ceuxappartenantauxsciencesnaturelles,représentantenviron36%dutotal.

Intermsofcontent, "MengxiBiTan" describesandexplainsnaturalscienceknowledgeinmorethanone-thirdofthespace, whichisrareinnotebookwriting.Forexample, "technologie" accuratelyanddetailedlyrecordsthemovabletypeprintingtechniqueinventedby "BuYiBiSheng" .Thisistheworld'searliestreliablehistoricaldataonmovabletypeprintingandishighlyvaluedbytheinternationalculturalhistorycommunity "Dialectique" talksabouttheportraitofHanYu, sothatlatergenerationsunderstandamistakethatoriginatedandinheritedfromtheNorthernSongDynasty. TakingtheportraitsofHanXizaiintheFiveDynastiesasportraitsofHanYu.

Enoutre, othermajorscientificandtechnologicalinventionsandfiguresintheNorthernSongDynastyhavealsobeenpasseddowntotheworldbasedontherecordsinthisbook.Forexample, "WoodScripture" de itrecordsYuHao de anditsarchitecturalachievements, thesuperbthree-sectionclosureofthedragonandtheskillfulmethodofsealingthedragongate, theproficientcalendarofHuainanBuyiweipu, theDengzhounativeSunSigongexplainingrainbowsandtornadoes, Hebei "Tuangang", la technologie "Steelfilling", Qiangcoldworksmeltingapplicationof "瘊子", "copperleaching" la production, etc., areprecioushistoricalmaterialsinthehistoryofscienceandtechnology.BecauseShenKuohimselfhasahighscientificliteracy, thescientificandtechnologicalknowledgehedescribedbasicallyreflectsthescientificdevelopmentleveloftheNorthernSongDynastyandhisownresearchexperience.

CataloguedeChapitres

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Contenu de "MengxiBiTan" (selon le "Yuankan")

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Discussion écrite (note : 26 volumes)

Volume Un

HistoireUne

VolumeDeux

HistoireDeux

VolumeTrois

DialectiqueUn

VolumeQuatre

DialectiqueDeux

VolumeCinq

p>

LeLawOne

VolumeSix

MusiqueDeux

VolumeSeven

Imagenuméro un

VolumeHuit

ImageNuméroDeux

VolumeNeuf

PersonnelOne

VolumeDix

PersonnelDeux

Tome11

GuanzhengYi

Tome12

GouvernementII

Tome13

Quanzhi

VolumeQuatorze

ArtLittératureUn

Volume quinze

ArtsII

VolumeSeize

ArtsIII

Volumes dix-sept

Peintureetcalligraphie

Volume dix-huit

Compétences

Volume dix-neuf

p>

Appareil

VolumeVingt

la magie

tome21

Premiers incidents et maladies attachés

Volume vingt-deux

Faux attachement

Tome23

L'erreur ridicule attachée

VolumeVingtQuatre

MagazineOne

tome25

MagazineII

tome26

DrogueDiscussion

Notes complémentaires (Remarque : 3 volumes)

Volume Un

Récit

VolumeDeux

Nombred'éléphants

VolumeTrois

Autre chose

Poursuite de la conversation (Remarque : 1 volume, 11 articles au total)

Remarque : Ce tableau selon ChinaGuoxue.com, le contenu est marqué comme « Metakanban »

Situation de création

En ce qui concerne le contexte créatif et les circonstances liées à "MengxiBitan", l'auteurShenKuo a fait une déclaration plus claire dans "MengxiBitan · Préface" : Après 1082 (la cinquième année de Song Yuanfeng), l'auteur n'était

Intermsofcreation, theauthorclaimedthat "ShengMo'sstateaffairsandaffairsareclosetothepalaceandprovinces, andtheydarenotpersonallydiscipline.Asforthescholar-bureaucratsoftheday, hedidnotwanttowrite, althoughhewasgoodIt'sjustevil." Inotherwords, ShenKuodidn'tanddidn'twanttoinvolvehimselfinthepersonalaffairsoftheemperor, thegainsandlossesofthedynasty, thereputationofpersonnel, andevenhisowncareerexperiencebefore.Therefore, theauthor'screationsareall "nottheinterestsofpeople", andthestartingpointis "shadowinthemountains, talkgimmickly" .

Therehavealwaysbeenmanyopinionsaboutthewritingtimeof "MengxiBiTan" .HuDaojingproposedin "MengxiBiTanCorrection · Introduction": "MengxiBiTanwaswrittenin1086-1093 (SongYuanyouyears), mostofwhichwerewrittenaftertheysettledinRunzhouin1088 (Yuanyouthreeyears)"; "LiYumin SeveralQuestionsAboutShenKuo'sWorks" ( "ShenKuoStudy", ZhejiangPeople'sPublishingHouse, 1985) a déclaré: "Writtenin1082 (SongYuanfeng5thyear) après que ShenKu a été réinstallé à Suizhou, il a déménagé à Runzhou Dreamat, le dernier livre de Xiyuan a été achevé au début.

Thetitleofthebook "MengxiBitan" isbecausetheauthorShenKuocompletedtheworkinMengxiGarden (Note: Atleastthemainpartandthefinaldraftarecompleted.Thereisnoobjectiontothispoint.Test "MengxiBitan ·" Préface "alsohasnoconflict), sothenameofthegardenisnamed" Mengxi ".Writtenconversationsareduetotheusualconversationswithguestsinthepark.Theauthoroftenrecords "talkerswithguestspeakers" inthebook.Friendsandfriendsgatheranddisperseforalongtime.Theauthorfeelsasifheis "theonewhotalksto, onlypenandinkstone" That'sit", sothenameis. "pentalk". Les deux sont appelés "MengxiBiTan" en intandem.

La sourcede l'édition

"MengxiBiTan" de ShenKuo SongBenzucarvededitionhaslongbeengone.Accordingtotheexaminationandrevisionofthecirculatedversion, itisknownthattheoriginalblock-printedversionof was30volumes "MengxiBiTan", le andthecontentwasmorethanthecurrentone, butallwerescatteredandlost.IntheNorthernSongDynasty, therewasaYangzhoublockcopy.IntheSouthernSongDynasty, Xiaozongwasre-engravedforthesecondyear.Unfortunately, theSongDynastyblock-printedcopydoesnotexisttoday.

Theoldestversionof "MengxiBiTan" thatcanbeseenisthe1305 (9thyearofYuanDade) ChenRenziDongshanAcademyblock-printcollectedbytheNationalLibraryofChina.ThisbookisrepublishedaccordingtotheSouthernSongDynastyGandaoEdition (seetheillustrationinthissection), andyoucanstillgetaglimpseoftheoldappearanceoftheSongDynasty.Itsformatisverylargeandveryoutdated.Uniquecharacteristics.ThefirstvolumeoftheYuanTakEditionhastwoZhuWenfangsealsof "DonggongShufu" et "WenyuanPavilion", andthevolumealsoincludes "WangShizhongSeal", "PingyangWangshiCollectionSeal", "ChenWenchenSeal" et "JiaziBingyin, HanDejun , et Qian Runwen et sa femme ont apporté deux fois le livre Notes d'évacuation.

ThepublicationoftheYuanDadewasspreadinanorderlymanner: itwasoncehiddenintheYuanPalaceintheYuanDynasty, anditwasobtainedaftertheMingTaizuZhuYuanzhangdestroyedtheYuan, anditwaspresentedtotheprinceZhuBiao, andthenreturnedtothe "WenYuanPavilion" inthepalace..IntheQingDynasty, itflowedfromthepalaceandwascollectedbyWangShizhong'sYiyunJingsheandSongjiangHan.Later, ChenChengzhong (1894-1978), afamousmodernbibliophile, wasincludedinthebag.ChenChengzhongmovedtoHongKongbeforeandafterliberation.In1965, hedeliberatelysoldanumberofpreciousrarebooksincludingthis "MengxiBiTan" .WhenChinesePremierZhouEnlaipersonallyintervenedtoavoidtheoutflowofpreciousculturalrelics, heinstructedtheMinistryofCulturetoappointsomeonetogothere.Negotiations, andintheend , lorsque l'économie du pays n'était pas aisée, ils ont dépensé des sommes énormes pour les racheter, ce qui est devenu l'histoire de Shulin. iedversionde "Mengxi BiTan".

Regardingtherevisedandannotatededitionsof "MengxiBiTan", etc., fromtheMingandQingdynastiestotheRepublicofChina, haute qualityeditionscontinuedtoappear.JiadingMaYuanTuneVersion, Qing1805 (Jiaqingtenyears) HaiyuZhangXuepenglearnedtheoriginaltext, QingGuangxuPanyuTaoFamilyLoveHouse, modernWangGuowei, YeJingkuialsohaveahand-writtenversion.Thepopular "MengxiBiTan" isthefirsteditionof "BarnyardSea" .Todaythereare: "MengxiBiTan" CulturalRelicsPublishingHousein1976photocopyofYuanDongshanAcademy'sengravedcopy; "MengxiBiTan "NationalLibrary" ChineseReconstructionRareBookProject "en2003; ShanghaiPublishingCompany1956edition;" MengxiBiTan "ZhonghuaBookCompany1957edition," MengxiBiTan, SupplementaryBiTan, ContinuedBiTan », thefirsteditionof "SongrenNotes" byElephantPublishingHouse, 2005edition, 1956, de publishedbyShanghaiPublishingCompanyIhavewrittenHuDaojing "MengxiBiTanSchoolCard", whichiswell-documented.In1957, de theZhonghuaBookCompanypublishedHuDaojing "NewCorrectionMengxiBiTan", whichisveryeasytoread.

Enoutre, "MengxiBiTan" isalsoveryinfluentialabroad.Asearlyasthe19thcentury, itwasfamousforitsmovabletypeprintingrecords.Inthe20thcentury, peopleinFrance, Allemagne, Grande-Bretagne, theUnitedStates, Italyandothercountriesconductedsystematicandin-depthresearchon "MengxiBiTan", andintroducedallorpartofthechaptersinvariouscountriestothepublic.Asearlyasthemiddleofthe19thcentury, JapanusedmovabletypetotypesetthisfamousworkbyShenKuo.Itwasthefirstcountryintheworldtotypeset "MengxiBiTan" withmovabletype.Since1978, JapanhassuccessivelypublishedtheJapanesetranslationof "MengxiBiTan" inthreevolumes.

Valeur comptable

Astronomieetcalendrier

Therearemorethan20astronomyandcalendardescriptionsin "MengxiBiTan" .ResearchersbelievethatShenKuo'scontributionstoancientastronomicalscienceandcalendarsaremainlyinfouraspects: Tout d'abord, anumberofastronomicalinstrumentshavebeenimproved.Likethearmillarysphere, ShenKuoboldlyimproveditsstructure, eliminatedthelunarringonthearmillaryspherethatcouldnotcorrectlydisplaythemoon'sorbit, andenlargedthediameterofthespytubetomakeitmoreconvenienttoobservethepolarstar, whichnotonlyfacilitatestheuse, butalsoimprovestheobservationaccuracy.ShenKuoalsoimprovedtheleaksandgauges.Thesecondistomakedetailedobservationsofcelestialphenomena, andobtainsomenewdiscoveriesandobservationresults.Forexample, ShenKuousedsundialandomissionobservationstodiscoverthatthetruesolardayhaslengthandlength.Accordingtomodernscientificcalculations, thedifferencebetweenthemaximumandminimumtruesolardaysinayearisonly51seconds.Thethirdistoputforwardthetheoryof "twelveqicalendar", whichhasbetterresolvedthecontradictionbetweenthelunarcalendarandthesolar Quatrièmement, au cours de son mandat, le Superviseur Sitien, il a hardiment utilisé Buyiwei pour mettre en œuvre des réformes du calendrier, et également mené à bien contre certaines des lacunes du Superviseur Sitien et de l'Académie d'astronomie à cette époque.

GéographieScience

Therearemorethan30entriesin "MengxiBiTan" involvingphysicalgeography, politicaleconomicgeography, arpentage, cartographes, etc.Withhisrichexperience, ShenKuowrotearticlesontheevolutionandidentificationofmountainsandriversandplacenames, whichprovidedvaluablehistoricalmaterialsforthestudyofphysicalgeography.ShenKuo'saccountsontheproduction, marketing, andmanagementofimportantproducts, importantproductionandlivingmaterialsinvariousregionsprovidedanimportantreferenceforstudyingthepoliticalandeconomicgeographyoftheNorthernSongDynasty.AfterinspectingtheuniquetopographyandlandformsofYandangMountaininWenzhouandanalyzingitscauses, ShenKuopointedout: "Thetruthisthatthegreatwaterinthevalleywashedawaythesandandsoil, butthehugerocksstoodupright" Thisviewof "flowingwatererosion" Itisquitecorrect.ThisviewdidnotappearuntiltheBritishHuttoninthebook "TheTheoryoftheEarth" à la fin du XVIIIe siècle, environ 700 ans plus tard que ShenKuo. depuis la dynastie des Song du Nord", appréciant hautement l'importante contribution de l'ingéographie "Mengxi BiTan".

La physique

Therearemorethan10accountsin "MengxiBiTan" involvingoptics, magnétisme, acousticsandotherfields.Suchasthecorrectdescriptionoftheprincipleofimagingandlightfocusingoftheconcavemirrorofthesun, observationandanalysisofthephenomenonof "stringresonance", Thecorrectdeductionoftheprincipleofthemagicallight-transmittingcoppermirror, thediscovery, descriptionandresearchoftheuseofmagnetstomagnetizeanironneedletomakeacompass, andthediscovery, descriptionandresearchofthephenomenonofmagnetpolarityandincompleteguidanceofthemagneticneedle (c.-à-magneticdeclination) .Value.Especiallythediscoveryofmagneticdeclination.TheWestwasnotdiscoveredbyColumbusuntil1492, morethan400yearslaterthanShenKuo.

Mathématiques

The7notesarerelatedtomathematics, coveringawiderangeandmanyoriginalideas.TheyarerespectedbythemathematicscircleasanimportantachievementinancientChinesemathematicsresearch, includingShenKuo'spioneeringgapproducttechniqueandcirclecircletechnique.Theso-disant "gapproducttechnique", Referstohowtocalculatethe "stackingproduct." ShenKuousesthemethodofanalogyandinductiontoputforwardanaccuratecalculationmethod, andusesthestackedwinejarasanexampletoillustrate.Infact, ShenKuoisbasedonthevolumeformula.Thecumulativenumberofcontinuousindividuals (sumofseries) istransformedintoacontinuousoverallvaluetosolve.Itcanbeseenthathehastheideaof solvingdiscreteproblemswithacontinuousmodel.InthehistoryofChinesemathematics, heopenedupahigher-orderarithmeticseriessummationThefieldofresearch.Theso-disant « Cercle » désigne en fait la méthode de recherche d'un arc à partir d'un accord. Shoujing, Wang Xun et d'autres ont utilisé la technique du cercle circulaire.

Intermsofmathematicsresearchandapplication, thereisalsoamethodofhowtocalculatethepossibletotalnumberofgamesinGo, andPointingout: "... butarithmeticdoesn'thavetolearntoomuch, youcanuseitwhenyouseethesimplicity, andchangewhenyouseethecomplexity, itisalsoageneralskill", whichactuallyreflectshiseccentricity, diversificationofsolutions, andsimplicity.Inmathematics, ShenKuodeniedthemysteryofnumbersandaffirmedtherelationshipbetweennumbersandobjects.Inaddition, themethodsformeasuringthewaterleveloftheBianheRiverinthenotesallreflectShenKuo'sextraordinarymathematicaltalents, coordinationandapplicationfromdifferentaspects.Mathematicalthoughts.

La biologie

Il existe plus de 30 articles liés à la biologie dans « MengxiBiTan ».

Musique

Therearemorethan40music-relatedaccountsin "MengxiBiTan" .Accordingtothe "SongHistory · ArtandLiteratureHistory", ShenKuoalsowrote "TheTheoryofMusic", "InstrumentDiagram", "ThreeMusicScores", "MusicalRegulations" andotherworks, butunfortunatelytheyhavebeenlost.BecauseShenKuoisamusicexpert, le "MengxiBiTan" Therelateditemsof "MengxiBiTan" undoubtedlyhaveimportantvalueinthestudyofancientmusic.Insummary, thestudyofthepresentpeoplethinksthatthemusicof » MengxiBiTan "Therearefourmainaspectsofhiscontribution: oneistostudyandexplainthescaletheoryofancientmusic; theotheristopreservesomeoftheperformanceskillsandrelatedterminologyofancientmusic; thethirdistorecordShenKuo'sresearchonTangandSongYanyueTheorigin, thetwenty-eighttuneofYanyue, thestructureandperformanceoftheTangandSongDaqu, theTangandSongdynastyscores, etc; thefourthistodescribeandverifytheform, matériel, distributionandevolutionofsomemusicalinstruments..

Appréciation de la calligraphie et de la peinture

Il existe près de 30 entrées décrivant la calligraphie et la peinture en " MengxiBiTan ". ShenKu est également un expert de la collection et de l'appréciation de la calligraphie et de la peinture.

Littérature

Sincenearlyonethirdoftheentriesin "MengxiBitan" belongtothescientificandtechnologicalcategory, somecommentatorsbelievethat "MengxiBitan" cannotberegardedasacompleteliterarywork.However, parce que "MengxiBiTan" itselfisveryliterary, therearemorethan20entriesin "MengxiBiTan" thatdescribethecontentofliterature.Therefore, "les ABriefAccountofShenKuo'sLiteraryAchievements" de itsliteraryvalueisalsovaluedbymanyresearchers.YangWeisheng a fait l'éloge "MengxiBiTan" asagoodworkwithbeautifultext, vividnarrativeandfullofliteraryflavor.

"ABriefDiscussionontheWritingFeaturesof" MengxiBiTan "" croitQu'il "MengxiBiTan" hasaflexibleanddiverseform, simple, simple, freshstyle, refinedandpopularlanguage, de andcleansuptheformalismofthetime.styleofwriting.WangXiang "TheWonderfulCombinationofLiteratureandScience de LiangChenglin: ATentativeCommentonOneoftheCharacteristicsofShenKuo'sPoemsandEssays", inadditiontocommentingonthecharacteristicsofShenKuo'spoems, alsofullyaffirmedthenumerousitemssuchas "YandangMountain" dans "MengxiBiTan" .Excellenttechnicalliteraryessaysarealsoexcellentproseworkswithextremelyexquisitewriting.

Linguistique

Il existe plus de 30 comptes dans « MengxiBiTan » liés à la linguistique, et le contenu implique la phonologie, la philologie et l'exégétique.

Histoire

Therearemorethan20recordsinthehistoricalcategoryin "MengxiBiTan", andtherearealsorecordsonancientetiquette, fonctionnaires, publicclothing, imperialexaminations, etc.Therearehundredsofarticles, sothevalueof "MengxiBiTan" forhistoricalresearchisbeyonddoubt.Researchersbelievethat "MengxiBiTan" hascontributedmainlytohistory: d'abord, someitemsprovideinformationthatisnotcontainedintheofficialhistoryorhavebeendistortedbyfacts, suchastheaccountsofWangXiaoboandLiShun'suprising, thesecondis "MengxiBiTan" Alargenumberofaccountsonancientetiquette, officialduties, publicservice, imperialexaminations, etc. ., sont des matériaux importants pour la recherche historique ; troisièmement, ShenKu a décrit de nombreuses activités politiques ou militaires importantes auxquelles il a personnellement participé, lesquelles sont également très précieuses pour la recherche historique.

Médecine Chinoise Traditionnelle

Therearemorethan40narrativesinvolvingmedicinein "MengxiBitan", whichintegratespeople'scommentsonthemedicalitemsof "MengxiBitan", ShenKuo'smedicalmonograph, Inthestudyoftherelevantitemsin "MengxiWanghuailu", itisgenerallybelievedthatShenKuo'smaincontributionstotraditionalChinesemedicinehavefouraspects: Tout d'abord, ShenKuo'smanyimportanttheoriesandviewpointsonthetreatmentofvisualdiseasesarestillveryimportantapplications.Orreferencevalue, thesecondisthatShenKuo'sextensivecollection, personalapplication, andlong-termverificationofmanymedicalprescriptions, insightsanddiscussionsontheimpactofdifferentregions, differentseasons, anddifferentmethodsofextractiononthemedicinalvalueofTCMvillages, arestillItiswidelyusedinthefieldoftraditionalChinesemedicine ; quatrièmement, ShenKuo a beaucoup de " créations " de médecine chinoise traditionnelle. ijing"dans"MengxiWanghuailu"estconsidérécommelapremièreméthodedepréparationd'aimantationetd'eauminéralisée,etc.

IngénierieTechnologie

Therearemorethan30entriesin "MengxiBiTan" describingtechnologicalinnovationsandinventionsinancientwaterconservancy, constructionengineering, etc., suchas "CleverlyBlockingtheRiverLeveeBurst", "MeasureBianCanal", "MakingWoodenMap", "BuildingShipLock", "WoodenPagodaofBrahmaTemple", "CreatingtheLongDikefromSuzhoutoKunshan", "CoordinatingandArrangingtheReconstructionoftheImperialPalaceProjects", "WaterTransportRitualPlatform", "BiSheng'sinventionofmovabletypeprinting", "Arat-catchingwoodenZhongkui", "avoicecalledanartificialthroat", "steelmakingmethod", "danjicopper", "castingbronzemirror", "maintenanceofsaltwells", "QiaoJianDock" andotheritems (note: thenamesoftheaboveitemsareallproposedbytheauthorofthisarticle), whichoftenappearinvariousresearchdiscourses.ManyengineeringtechnologiesandtechnologicalinventionsoftheworkingpeopleinancientChinawerepreservedandpassedonpreciselybecauseofthedescriptionof "MengxiBiTan".

Militaire

Therearenearly20itemsin "MengxiBitan" relatedtomilitaryaffairs.Researchersbelievethatthemainvalueofmilitaryitemsin "MengxiBitan" liesin: 1.SomeofthewarsthatShenKuopersonallyexperiencedarerealmilitaryhistoricaldata, deuxième, itdescribesthebattlesofsomefamousgeneralsinancienttimes, whichcanbeusedastypicalcasestudies, troisième, itdescribessomeancientwaroffensiveanddefensivemethodsandstrategies, suchastheintroductionofthecharacteristicsof "HelianCity", Analysisoftheroleofthebattleshed, etc, quatrième, itdescribesthemanufacturingtechnologyofsomeancientweapons, suchasthemanufacturingtechnologyandmethodsofcrossbows, arcs, etc., andprovidespreciousresearchmaterialsforfuturegenerations.ShenKuohaswonmanybattleswiththearmy. .Dans l'article « Explorer l'origine de la pensée militaire de ShenKuo : sur la relation entre ShenKuo et son oncle XuDong », HuDaojing a étudié l'origine et les caractéristiques de la pensée militaire de ShenKuo et a pleinement affirmé les talents militaires exceptionnels de ShenKuo.

Autres

À propos de "Mengxi BiTan", certains chercheurs ont mené des recherches et des discussions sur sa valeur de recherche et d'application dans les domaines de la chimie, de l'agronomie et de l'archéologie.

Évaluation globale

"MengxiBiTan" recordsindetailtheoutstandingcontributionsoftheworkingpeopleinscienceandtechnologyandhisownresearchresults, reflectingthenaturalsciencesofancientChina, especiallytheNorthernSongDynastyBrilliantachievementsachieved.Theauthorof "SongHistory · ShenKuoBiography" statedthatShenKuowas "experiencedandgoodatwriting, writingonastronomy, localchronicles, lyriccalendar, la musique, la médecine, anddivination." TheBritishsciencehistorianJosephNeedhamevaluated "MengxiBiTan" comme "acoordinateinthehistoryofChinesescience" .Knownas "amilestoneinthehistoryofChinesescience" bytheworld.

Cependant, "MengxiBiTan" alsohassomelimitationsandflaws.Thedeficienciesgenerallyrecognizedbyresearchersaremainlyasfollows: Tout d'abord, duetothelimitationsoftheera, someentriesinthebookarefullofMaintaintheconsciousnessandviewpointsoffeudaldynastyrule, deuxièmement, duetothelimitationofhumancognitivelevelatthattime, thediscussionofsomeitemsinthebookisnotscientificenough, troisième, mainlyduetotheauthor'sownreasons, someoftheitemsinthebookareespecially, itemsarefullofstronggrotesqueandfatalisticideals "anomalies" "magiques", whichhasbecomethemostcriticizedaspectofthebook, quatrième, duetovariouscomplicatedreasons, someitemsinthebookareespeciallythosebasedonsecond-handmaterials.Thereareerrors, HuDaojing de « MengxiBidan SchoolCertificate », « Mengxi Bidan Discrimination » de WuYining et de nombreux autres ont été révisés.

Cependant, les défauts ne sont pas cachés, et certaines lacunes n'affectent pas la valeur globale de « PenTan », qui est également le consensus de nombreux chercheurs.

A propos de l'auteur

ShenKuo (~ 1 031 1095), ascientistandpoliticianintheNorthernSongDynasty.BorninHangzhouQiantang (nowHangzhou, Zhejiang), JiayouJinshi.XiningzhongparticipatedintheWangAnshiReform.In1072 (thefifthyearofXining), heraisedtheSiTianjian, discussedthearmillarysphere, floatingleak, andscenerytable, "FengyuanCalendar" .Inthefollowingyear, hewenttoJiangsuandZhejiangtoinvestigatewaterconservancyandescorts.In1075 (theeighthyearofXining) de andrecommendedWeiPuxiu, hemadeLiaoandrebukedhimforarguing.Italsoillustratedthesituationofthemountainsandrivers , andthecustomsandcustoms, andplayeditforthe "UsingtheKhitan" .Inthefollowingyear, heservedasabachelorofHanlin, thethirddirectorofpower, andrectifiedthesaltadministrationofShaanxi.Advocatereducingthemoneyforhouseholdservice.Later, welearnedaboutYanzhou (nowYan'an, Shaanxi) andstrengthenedthedefenseagainstXixia.In1082 (thefifthyearofYuanfeng), XuXilostthecityofYongle (nowMizhi, Shaanxi), andwasdegraded.Inhislateryears, helivedinRunzhouandbuiltMengxiGarden (intheeastofZhenjiang, Jiangsu).

Hehasalotofknowledgeandhasstudiedastronomy, la géographie, l'histoire, la musique, la médecine, etc.Regardingthescientificdevelopmentandproductiontechnologyatthattime, suchassuperbhydraulicengineering, YuHaocarpenter, BiShengwhoinventedmovabletypeprinting, andthemethodofsteelmakingandcoppermaking, etc., thereisnothingunclearasarecord.Healsostudiedmedicinalplantsandmedicineintenvolumesof "GoodPrescriptions" ( "thebiographyisattachedtoSuShi'smedicineandrenamed SuShenLiangPrescriptions"). Thereisstill "ChangxingCollection" thathasbeenhandeddowntotheworld.Partofthe "EntryRecordsofYimao" et « Entry Records » rédigés par l'Institut Liao et toujours conservés dans la « Suite Zizhi TongjianChangbian ».

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