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Technologie éléctronique



Stade de développement

Electronictechnologyisanemergingtechnologythatbegantodevelopfromtheendofthenineteenthcenturytothebeginningofthetwentiethcentury.Itdevelopedthefastestandmostwidelyusedinthetwentiethcentury.Ithasbecomeamodernscienceandtechnologydevelopment.Animportantsign.Duringtheperiodbetweentheendoftheeighteenthcenturyandthebeginningofthenineteenthcentury, duetotheneedsofproductiondevelopment, theresearchworkonelectromagneticphenomenadevelopedrapidly.In1785, theFrenchscientistCoulombobtainedtheCoulomblawofelectricchargethroughexperiments.In1895, theDutchphysicistHendrikAntonLorenzassumedtheexistenceofelectrons.In1897, BritishphysicistJ.J.Thompsonusedexperimentstofindelectrons.In1904, theBritishJ.A.Fleminginventedthesimplestdiode (diodeorvalve) todetectweakradiosignals.In1906, LDForestinstalledathirdelectrode (grille) inthediodeandinventedthetransistorwithamplification. Ce fut le jalon le plus important de l'histoire des débuts de l'électronique. En 1948, plusieurs chercheurs des laboratoires Bell aux États-Unis inventèrent le transistor. Les premiers échantillons de circuits intégrés apparaissent dans le monde en 1958. L'apparition et l'application des circuits intégrés marquent une nouvelle étape dans le développement de la technologie électronique.

Theresearchofelectronictechnologyistheapplicationofelectronicdevicesandcircuitscomposedofelectronicdevices.Semiconductordevicesarethemostbasiccomponentsthatconstitutevariousdiscreteandintegratedelectroniccircuits.Withtherapiddevelopmentofelectronictechnology, variousnewsemiconductordevicesemergeinendlessly.Thedevelopmentdirectionofmodernpowerelectronicstechnologyistotransformfromtraditionalpowerelectronics, whichfocusesonlow-frequencytechnologytodealwithproblems, tomodernpowerelectronics, whichfocusesonhigh-frequencytechnology.Powerelectronicstechnologybeganwithsiliconrectifierdevicesinthelate1950sandearly1960s.Itsdevelopmenthassuccessivelyexperiencedtherectifierera, theinvertereraandthefrequencyconverterera, andhaspromotedtheapplicationofpowerelectronicstechnologyinmanynewfields.ThepowersemiconductorcompositedevicesrepresentedbypowerMOSFETsandIGBTsdevelopedinthelate1980sandearly1990s, whichintegratehighfrequency, highvoltageandhighcurrent, indicatethattraditionalpowerelectronicstechnologyhasen l'ère de l'électronique de puissance moderne.

Théraofrectificateurs

Haut-powerindustrialelectricityisprovidedbypowerfrequency (50Hz) alternateurs, butabout20% oftheelectricityisconsumedintheformofdirectcurrent, themosttypicalofwhichItisthethreemajorareasofelectrolysis (non ferrousmetalsandchemicalrawmaterialsrequiredirectcurrentelectrolysis), la traction (electriclocomotives, electricdrivediesellocomotives, subwaylocomotives, urbantrolleybuses, etc.) AndDCdrive (steelrolling, papier, etc.). Powersiliconrectifierscanefficientlyconvertpowerfrequencyalternatingcurrentintodirectcurrent.Therefore haut, inthe1960sand1970s, le développement et l'application de redresseurs et de thyristors au silicium haute puissance ont été très développés.

Inverterera

Therewasaworldwideenergycrisisinthe1970s, andACmotorvariablefrequencyspeedregulationdevelopedrapidlyduetoitsremarkableenergy-savingeffect.Thekeytechnologyofvariablefrequencyspeedregulationistoinvertdirectcurrenttoalternatingcurrentof0 ~ 100Hz.Inthe1970sand1980s, withthepopularizationofvariablefrequencyspeedregulationdevices, thyristors, giantpowertransistors (RTG) andgateturn-offthyristors (GT0) forhigh-powerinvertersbecametheprotagonistsofpowerelectronicdevicesatthattime.Similarapplicationsincludehigh-voltageDCoutput, staticreactivepowerdynamiccompensationandsoon.Atthistime, thepowerelectronicstechnologyhasbeenabletoachieverectificationandinversion, buttheoperatingfrequencyislow, onlylimitedtothelow-plage de fréquences.

Inverterera

Inthe1980s, therapiddevelopmentoflarge-scaleandverylarge-scaleintegratedcircuittechnologylaidthefoundationforthedevelopmentofmodernpowerelectronicstechnology.Combiningthefineprocessingtechnologyofintegratedcircuittechnologywithhigh-voltageandhigh-currenttechnology, anewbatchoffully-controlledpowerdevicesappeared, firstofall, theadventofpowerMOSFETs, whichledtothedevelopmentofsmallandmediumpowersuppliestohighfrequency, andtheninsulatedgates.Theemergenceofbipolartransistors (IGBT) hasbroughtopportunitiesforthedevelopmentoflargeandmedium-sizedpowersuppliestohighfrequencies.ThesuccessiveappearanceofMOSFETandIGBTisasignofthetransformationfromtraditionalpowerelectronicstomodernpowerelectronics.Accordingtostatistics, bytheendof1995, powerMOSFETsandGTRshadreachedanequalshareinthepowersemiconductordevicemarket, andtheuseofIGBTstoreplaceGTRsinthefieldofpowerelectronicshasreachedaconclusion.ThedevelopmentofnewdevicesnotonlyprovidesahigherfrequencyforACmotorfrequencyconversionspeedregulation, makingitsperform ancepluscompletetfiable,maispermetégalementl'évolutiondelatechnologieélectroniquemoderneverslahautefréquence,quipermetd'économiserdesmatériauxetd'énergiepourunéquipementélectriqueàhautefficacitéetléger.Quantification,mécatroniqueetintelligencefournissentunebasetechniqueimportante.

Champ d'application

Alimentation et système d'alimentation

Alimentation verte à haute efficacité informatique

La technologie informatique de développement à grande vitesse a entraîné l'humanité dans la société de l'information et en même temps favorisé le développement rapide de la technologie de l'énergie.

Thedevelopmentofcomputertechnologyhasproposedgreencomputersandgreenpowersupplies.Greencomputersgenerallyrefertopersonalcomputersandrelatedproductsthatareharmlesstotheenvironment.Greenpowersuppliesrefertohigh-efficiencypower-savingpowersuppliesrelatedtogreencomputers.Ifthepowerconsumptionofatypedpersonalcomputerorrelatedperipheralequipmentinsleepmodeislessthan30watts, itmeetstherequirementsofagreencomputer.Improvingpowerefficiencyisthefundamentalwaytoreducepowerconsumption.Asfarasthecurrent200-wattswitchingpowersupplywithanefficiencyof75% isconcerned, thepowersupplyitselfconsumes50wattsofenergy.

Alimentation à découpage haute fréquence pour la communication

Therapiddevelopmentofthecommunicationindustryhasgreatlypromotedthedevelopmentofcommunicationpowersupply.High-frequencyminiaturizedswitchingpowersupplyanditstechnologyhavebecomethemainstreamofmoderncommunicationpowersupplysystems.Inthecommunicationfield, therectifierisusuallycalledtheprimarypowersupply, andthedirectcurrent-directcurrent (DC / DC) converteriscalledthesecondarypowersupply.Thefunctionoftheprimarypowersupplyistotransformasingle-phaseorthree-phaseACpowergridintoaDCpowersupplywithanominalvalueof48V.Atpresent, intheprimarypowersupplyusedinprogram-controlledswitches, thetraditionalphase-controlledregulatedpowersupplyhasbeenreplacedbyahigh-frequencyswitchingpowersupply.Itisgenerallycontrolledwithintherangeof50-100kHztoachievehighefficiencyandminiaturization.Inrecentyears, thepowercapacityofswitchingrectifiershascontinuedtoexpand, andthecapacityofasingleunithasexpandedfrom48V / 12.5A ,48V/20Aà48V/200A,48V/400A.

Duetothevarioustypesofintegratedcircuitsusedincommunicationequipment, andtheirpowersupplyvoltagesarealsodifferent, powerdensityhigh-haut frequencyDC-DCisolatedpowersupplymodulesareusedinthecommunicationpowersupplysystem, fromtheintermediatebusvoltage (Usually48VDC) isconvertedintovariousDCvoltagesrequired, whichcangreatlyreduceloss, facilitatemaintenance, andisveryconvenienttoinstallandincrease.Generally, itcanbedirectlyinstalledonthestandardcontrolboard, andtherequirementforthesecondarypowersupplyishighpowerdensity.Asthecommunicationcapacitycontinuestoincrease, thecommunicationpowersupplycapacitywillalsocontinuetoincrease.

Convertisseur DC-DC (DC/DC)

TheDC / DCconverterconvertsafixedDCvoltageintoavariableDCvoltage, Thistechnologyiswidelyusedinthesteplessspeedchangeandcontroloftrolleybuses, subwaytrains, andelectricvehicles.Atthesametime, theabove-mentionedcontrolcanachievesmoothaccelerationandrapidresponseperformance, andatthesametimereceivetheeffectofsavingelectricenergy.ReplacingthevaristorwithaDCchoppercansavepower (20-30)%. TheDCchoppercannotonlyregulatethevoltage (switchingpowersupply), butalsoeffectivelysuppresstheharmoniccurrentnoiseonthegridside.

ThesecondarypowersupplyDC / DCconverterofthecommunicationpowersupplyhasbeencommercialized.Themoduleadoptshigh-frequencyPWMtechnology, theswitchingfrequencyisabout500kHz, andthepowerdensityis5W ~ 20W / en 3 .Withthedevelopmentoflarge-scaleintegratedcircuits, powersupplymodulesarerequiredtobeminiaturized.Therefore, itisnecessarytocontinuouslyincreasetheswitchingfrequencyandadoptnewcircuittopologies.Atpresent, somecompanieshavedevelopedandproducedtwodevicesthatusezero-currentswitchingandzero-voltageswitchingtechnologies.Thepowerdensityofthesecondarypowersupplymodulehasbeengreatlyimproved.

Alimentation sans interruption (UPS)

Uninterruptiblepowersupply (UPS) isacomputer, communicationsystemandrequirementsthatcannotbeinterruptedAhigh-fiabilité, de haute performancepowersupplynecessaryforoccasions.TheACmainsinputisconvertedintoDCbytherectifier, partoftheenergyischargedtothebatterypack, andtheotherpartoftheenergyisconvertedintoACbytheinverter, andsenttotheloadthroughthetransferswitch.Inordertostillprovideenergytotheloadwhentheinverterfails, anotherbackuppowersourceisimplementedthroughapowertransferswitch.

Les onduleurs modernes adoptent généralement la technologie de modulation de largeur d'impulsion et les dispositifs électroniques de puissance modernes tels que les MOSFET de puissance et les IGBT. Le bruit de l'alimentation électrique peut être réduit et l'efficacité et la fiabilité peuvent être améliorées.

Actuellement, la capacité maximale d'une ligne UPS peut atteindre 600 kVA.

Alimentation de l'onduleur

InverterpowersupplyismainlyusedforvariablefrequencyspeedregulationofACmotors, anditspositionintheelectricdrivesystemisbecomingmoreandmoreimportant.Obtainahugeenergysavingeffect.ThemaincircuitoftheinverterpowersupplyadoptsAC-DC-ACscheme.TheindustrialfrequencypowersupplyisconvertedintoafixedDCvoltagethrougharectifier, andthenaPWMhigh-frequencyconvertercomposedofhigh-powertransistorsorIGBTsinvertstheDCvoltageintoavoltageandfrequencyvariableACoutput.Theoutputwaveformofthepowersupplyissimilartoasinewave.UsedtodriveACasynchronousmotorstoachievesteplessspeedregulation.

Theinverterpowersupplyseriesproductsbelow400kVAhavecomeoutinternationally.Intheearly1980s, ToshibaofJapanfirstappliedACfrequencyconversionspeedregulationtechnologytoairconditioners.By1997, itssharehasreachedmorethan70% ofJapanesehouseholdairconditioners.Inverterairconditionershavetheadvantagesofcomfortandenergysaving.Domesticresearchoninverterairconditionersbeganintheearly1990s.In1996, aproductionlinewasintroducedtoproduceinverterairconditioners, whichgraduallyformedahotspotforthedevelopmentandproductionofinverterairconditioners.Itisexpectedthattheclimaxwillbeformedaround2000.Inadditiontotheinverterpowersupply, theinverterairconditioneralsorequiresacompressormotorsuitableforinverterspeedregulation.Optimizingthecontrolstrategyandselectingfunctionalcomponentsarethefurtherdevelopmentdirectionoftheresearchanddevelopmentoftheairconditionerinverterpowersupply.

Alimentation à haute fréquence de la machine à souder

L'alimentation électrique des machines à souder à inverterectification haute fréquence est haute performance, efficace et économe en matière.

Les alimentations des machines à souder à onduleur adoptent la plupart du temps la méthode de conversion AC-DC-AC-DC (AC-DC-AC-DC).

Duetothepoorworkingconditionsoftheweldingmachinepowersupply, andfrequentshortcircuit, arc, andopencircuitchanges, thereliabilityofthehigh-frequencyinverterrectifierweldingmachinepowersupplyhasbecomethemostcriticalissue, Isalsothemostconcernedissueofusers.Usingamicroprocessorastherelevantcontrollerofpulsewidthmodulation (PWM), throughtheextractionandanalysisofmulti-parametersandmulti-information, thepurposeofpredictingthevariousworkingconditionsofthesystemisachieved, andthesystemcanbeadjustedandprocessedinadvancetosolvetheproblem.Improvethereliabilityofthecurrenthigh-powerIGBTinverterpowersupply.

Les machines à souder à onduleur étrangères peuvent atteindre un courant de soudage de 300 A, une addition de 60 %, une tension à pleine charge de 60 ~ 75 V, une plage de réglage du courant de 5 ~ 300 A et un poids de 29 kg.

Alimentations CC haute tension à commutation haute puissance

Les alimentations CC haute tension à commutation élevée sont largement utilisées dans le dépoussiérage électrostatique, l'amélioration de la qualité de l'eau, les appareils à rayons X médicaux et les machines CT et autres équipements de grande taille.

Sincethe1970s, somecompaniesinJapanhaveadoptedinvertertechnology, whichconvertsthemainspowertoanintermediatefrequencyofabout3kHzafterrectification, andthenboostsit.Inthe1980s, haute frequencyswitchingpowersupplytechnologydevelopedrapidly.Germany'sSiemensusespowertransistorsasthemainswitchingelementtoincreasetheswitchingfrequencyofthepowersupplytomorethan20kHz.Thedry-typetransformertechnologywassuccessfullyappliedtohigh-frequencyandhigh-voltagepowersupplies, andthehigh-voltagetransformeroiltankwaseliminated, whichfurtherreducedthevolumeofthetransformersystem.

EnChine,l'alimentation DC haute tension du précipitateur électrostatique a été développée. L'alimentation secteur est redressée en DC, et le circuit inverseur résonant en pont complet de la série de commutation à courant zéro de 5,6 Hz est utilisé pour inverser la tension DC en tension haute fréquence.

PowerActiveFilter

Lorsque leconvertisseur AC-DC(AC-DC)traditionnelestmisenfonction,ilinjecteraunegrandequantitéd'harmoniquesdansleréseau électrique.Les courants d'ondeprovoquentunefermetureharmoniqueetdesinterférences.En mêmetemps,il existeégalementunphénomènededétériorationdufacteur de puissancede l'appareilaucôtéduréseau,quiestladitepollution.

Poweractivefilterisanewtypeofpowerelectronicdevicethatcandynamicallysuppressharmonics.ItcanovercometheshortcomingsoftraditionalLCfiltersandisapromisingharmonicsuppressionmethod.Thefilteriscomposedofabridgeswitchingpowerconverterandaspecificcontrolcircuit.Thedifferencewiththetraditionalswitchingpowersupplyis: (1) Notonlytheoutputvoltageisfedback, butalsotheinputaveragecurrent, (2) Thecurrentloopreferencesignalistheproductofthevoltagelooperrorsignalandthefull-waverectifiedvoltagesamplingsignal.

Système d'alimentation à découpage distribué

Le système d'alimentation répartie utilise des modules de faible puissance et des circuits intégrés de contrôle à grande échelle en tant que composants de base, en utilisant les dernières théories et les réalisations techniques forment un bloc de construction, une alimentation haute puissance intelligente, de sorte que le courant fort et le courant faible soient étroitement combinés, la pression sur le développement des composants de haute puissance et la production centralisée soient régénérées.

Intheearly1980s, theresearchondistributedhighfrequencyswitchingpowersupplysystemsbasicallyfocusedontheresearchonconverterparalleltechnology.Inthemiddleandlate1980s, withtherapiddevelopmentofhigh-frequencypowerconversiontechnology, variousconvertertopologiesappearedoneafteranother.Combininglarge-scaleintegratedcircuitandpowercomponenttechnology, theintegrationofsmallandmediumpowerdevicesbecamepossible, therebyrapidlyPromotethedevelopmentofdistributedhigh-frequencyswitchingpowersupplysystemresearch.Sincethelate1980s, thisdirectionhasbecomearesearchhotspotintheinternationalpowerelectronicscircle.Thenumberofpapershasbeenincreasingyearbyyear, andthefieldofapplicationhascontinuedtoexpand.

Distributedpowersupplyhastheadvantagesofenergysaving, fiabilité, haut rendement, economyandconvenientmaintenance.Ithasbeengraduallyadoptedbylarge-scalecomputers, communicationequipment, l'aérospatiale, industrialcontrolandothersystems.Itisalsothemostidealpowersupplymethodforlow-voltagepower (3,3V) ofultra haut-speedintegratedcircuits.Inhigh-powerapplications, suchaselectroplating, electrolysispowersupply, electriclocomotivetractionpowersupply, intermediatefrequencyinductionheatingpowersupply, motordrivepowersupplyandotherfieldsalsohavebroadapplicationprospects.

Applicationdansledomaineindustriel

Dansledomaineindustrieltraditionnel,lesmoteursACetDCsontlargementutilisés.LemoteurDCaunefonctionderégulationdevitesseforte,etla plupart desalimentations du redresseurrégulateuroud'alimentationDCutilisépoursonalimentationestundispositifélectroniquedepuissance.

Inindustrialproduction, ACmotorsarewidelyusedinrollingmillsandCNCmachinetoolswithdifferentloads, playinganimportantroleandgoodperformance.Inordertoavoidthecurrentimpactcausedduringequipmentstartup, someequipmentthatdoesnotneedtousepowerelectronicdeviceshasalsobeguntowidelyadoptthisdevice.Atthesametime, arectifierpowersupplyisalsoinstalledintheelectroplatingdevice, andthehigh-frequencyandmedium-frequencyinductionheatingpowersuppliesinthemetallurgicalindustryalsowidelyusepowerelectronictechnology.Theapplicationscopeandscaleofpowerelectronictechnologyareexpandingdaybyday.

Applicationdansledomainedestransports

Theapplicationofelectronictechnologyinthefieldoftransportationismainlytheapplicationoftransportationsystem.ElectriclocomotivesarecurrentlychangingfromtraditionalDCmotordrivestoACmotors, mainlyusingGTOcontroldevices, andPWMcontrolforrectificationandinverter, sotheinputcurrentcanbesinewave.Atpresent, manycountriesaredevelopingmaglevtrainsdrivenbylinearsynchronousmotors.Oncethetechnologyismatureandsuccessfullyapplied, itwillbringaboutarevolutionintransportation, whichwillnotonlyshortenthetimebutalsomakeanimportantcontributiontoenergysavingandemissionreduction.

Motortechnologycanalsobeusedinautomobileengines.Inmodernautomobiles, mechanicalorelectromechanicalhybridfuelinjectionsystemshavebecomeobsolete, andelectronicallycontrolledfuelinjectiondevicesarewidelyusedbecauseoftheirexcellentperformance.Theelectronicfuelinjectiondevicecanautomaticallyensurethattheengineisalwaysinthebestworkingcondition, sothatitsoutputpowercansavefuelandpurifytheairtothemaximumundercertainconditions.Atthesametime, thebestworkingconditionsareobtainedthroughexperimentsandinputintothememory.Whentheenginestartstowork, accordingtotheairflowmeasuredbythesensor, theoxygencontentintheexhaustpipeandotherparameters, runaccordingtothepre-numberedcalculationprogram, andthencontrolTheengineisinthebestworkingcondition.

AtPresent, theautomotiveelectronicstechnologyhasdevelopedtothefourthgeneration, thatis, asmallsystemthatincludesintegratedtechnologiessuchaselectronictechnology (includingmicrocomputertechnology), optimizedcontroltechnology, sensortechnology, networktechnology, andelectromechanicalintegrationcouplingandcrosstechnology., Andhasalreadyenteredthematurestageofcommercialproductionfromthescientificresearchstage (suchascentralizedcontrolofbraking, steeringandsuspension, andcentralizedcontrolofengineandtransmission) .Atthesametime, intelligentintegratedsensorsandintelligentactuatorswillbeputintopracticaluse, anddigitalsignalprocessingmethodswillbeappliedtovoicerecognition, safecollisions, timelydiagnosisandnavigationsystems.

Applicationsen médecine

Theapplicationsofelectronictechnologyinmedicinemainlyincludeelectronicmedicalrecords, biopuces, portablemedicalelectronicdetectors, andremotediagnosisandtreatmentsystems.Theelectronicmedicalrecordisacombinationofelectronictechnologyandnetworktechnology.Itcanprovidemedicalinstitutionswithtimelymedicalinformation, asystematicresidenthealthrecord, andcanalsoprovideevidenceformedicalresponsibility, theuseofsensorbiochipscandetecthumanbodyDNA, Rapidprocessingofrelevantinformation, paternityidentification, etc;. Electronictechnologyisappliedtoportablemedicalelectronicdetectors, whichcanbeconnectedtothemedicalinstitutionnetworkthroughamicrocontrollertorealizethedoctor'slaterdiagnosisandtreatmentofpatients, whichisconducivetothedevelopmentofmedicaleffects, atthesametime, useMedicine, networktechnology, microelectronicstechnology, etc., canachievemedicalremotediagnosisandtreatment, andrealizethesharingofmedicalresources, whichisconducivetomedicaldiagnosisandtreatmentinremoteareas.

Ledomainedelaradioetdelatélévision

Thefieldofradioandtelevisionisatechnology-intensiveindustry.Itisproducedwiththeemergenceofmodernelectronictechnologyanddevelopswiththedevelopmentofmodernelectronictechnology.Inthepast10years, newtechnologiesrepresentedbydigitaltechnology, satellitetechnology, opticaltransmissiontechnologyandnetworktechnologyarebringingrevolutionarychangestothedevelopmentofradioandtelevision.Thedevelopmentoftechnologydeterminestheproductionquality, transmissionqualityandcoverageofradioandtelevisionprograms.Thesefactorsareallmeansforthedevelopmentofcompetitionintheradioandtelevisionindustry.Therefore, foreignbroadcastandtelevisiongroupshaveadoptedorareplanninglarge-scaleapplicationsofnewtechnologies.Ifmycountry'sradioandtelevisionindustrywantstoparticipateincompetition, itmustalsotakethepathofindustrializationandimplementlarge-scaletechnologicaltransformationinfullaccordancewiththewaytheindustryoperates.

Le domaine de la défense nationale

Thedevelopmentofnationaldefenseindustrydependstoalargeextentonthedevelopmentofdefenseelectronicscompanies, andthedevelopmentofdefenseelectronicscompaniesreliesontheadvancementofelectronictechnology.Thewaveofmergersandreorganizationsoftheglobalmilitaryindustryhascreatedanumberofultra-grand-scaledefenseelectronicscompanies.Thesecompanieshavecateredtotheneedsofthenewmilitaryrevolutionwiththeiradvantagesinelectronicsandinformationtechnology, andhavealsochangedthelayoutoftheentiredefenseelectronicsindustry.Atpresent, suspension dans l'air, engins spatiaux, andland-bord, basedsensors (includingradiofrequencyandphotoelectricsensors) arethemainmeansformanycountriestoobtainintelligenceadvantages.Communicationnetworktechnologyandweaponsystemintegratedtechnologyarethebasisandbasisforjointoperationsandmilitarytransformation.Necessaryconditions.Theinformationnetworkwillconnectandsupportvariousweaponplatforms.Itisthefoundationandcoreof "réseau centricwarfare", andthepenetrationofelectronicinformationequipmentinvariouswea ponsandéquipementréaliseessentiellementl'informatisationdesarmesetéquipements,etledéveloppementdelaguerredansunsystèmeConfrontationaveclesystème,laconfrontationentrelesystèmeetlesystème.

Le domainedesjournauxetdes périodiques

Thedevelopmentofelectronictechnologyhasgivennewspapersanewform-theemergenceofelectronicnewspapers.Newspapersareoneofthemainsourcesofinformationintoday'shumansociety.ReadingnewspapershasbecomealotofThehabitthatpeopleneverchangeintheirlifetime, andtheemergenceofonlinenewspaperswillchangethishabitofreadingnewspapers.Electronicnewspapersandperiodicalsaretheproductofthedevelopmentofcomputertechnology.Theynotonlydisplaythelayoutofnewspapersandmagazinesonthecomputerscreen, butalsosupplementexistingnewspapersandperiodicals.Readerscanlookuprelevantbackgroundmaterialsandpreviouslypublishedarticlesinelectronicnewspapers, Enoutre, theycanalsousecomputerstocontacttheauthor, rédacteur en chef, andeventherelevantpersonsinvolvedinthearticle.Electronicnewspapersandperiodicalscanprovidereaderswithalargeamountofinformation, whilethelayoutofgeneralnewspapersandperiodicalshasgreatlimitations, anditisimpossibletoachievethisgoal.Electronicnewspaperscanprovideallthecontentsofthenewspapersoftheday, aswellascomputergames, articl esparusdanslesjournauxetpériodiquesdanslepassé,diversespublicités,lecteursetchiffres de l'actualité,etdialoguesentrelecteursetlecteurs.

Tendance de développement

Intheapplicationofpowerelectronictechnologyandvariouspowersupplysystems, switchingpowersupplytechnologyisatthecore.Forlargeelectrolyticplatingpowersupplies, thetraditionalcircuitsareverybulkyandheavy.IftheGordonswitchingpowersupplytechnologyisadopted, itsvolumeandweightwillbegreatlyreduced, andthepowerutilizationefficiencycanbegreatlyimproved, savingmaterials, andreducingcosts.Inelectricvehiclesandvariablefrequencydrives, switchingpowersupplytechnologyisinseparable.Theswitchingpowersupplychangesthepowerfrequencytoachievenear-idealloadmatchinganddrivecontrol.High-frequencyswitchingpowersupplytechnologyisthecoretechnologyofvarioushigh-powerswitchingpowersupplies (inverterweldingmachine, communicationpowersupply, high-frequencyheatingpowersupply, laserpowersupply, poweroperationpowersupply, etc.).

Haute fréquence

Theoreticalanalysisandpracticalexperienceshowthatthevolumetricweightoftransformers, inductorsandcapacitorsofelectricalproductsisinverselyproportionaltothesquarerootofthepowersupplyfrequency.Therefore, whenweincreasethefrequencyfrom50Hzto20kHz, 400times, thevolumeandweightoftheelectricalequipmentwillberoughlyreducedto5-10% ofthepowerfrequencydesign.Whetheritisaninverterrectifierweldingmachineoraswitchingrectifierforcommunicationpowersupplies, theyareallbasedonthisprinciple.Similarly, variousDCpowersuppliessuchaselectroplating, électrolyse, electricalprocessing, charge, floatingcharging, andpowerclosinginthetraditional "rectifierindustry" canalsobetransformedaccordingtothisprincipletobecomea "switchingconversionpowersupply" whosemainmaterialscanbeItcansave90% ouplus, andcansaveelectricityby30% ormore.Duetothegradualincreaseintheupperlimitoftheworkingfrequencyofpowerelectronicdevices, de nombreux équipements traditionnels à haute fréquence qui utilisaient à l'origine des tubes électroniques sont solidifiés, ce qui apporte un avantage économique important d'économie d'énergie, d'eau et de matériaux, et peut également refléter la valeur du contenu technique.

Modularisation

Modularizationhastwomeanings, oneisthemodularizationofpowerdevices, andtheotheristhemodularizationofpowersupplyunits.Ourcommondevicemodules, includingoneunit, twounits, sixunitstosevenelements, includingswitchingdevicesandfreewheelingdiodesinanti-parallelwiththem, areessentially "standard" powermodules (SPM) .Inrecentyears, somecompanieshaveinstalledthedriveprotectioncircuitoftheswitchingdeviceintothepowermoduletoforman PowerModule "intelligent" (IPM), whichnotonlyreducesthesizeofthewholemachine, butalsofacilitatesthedesignandmanufactureofthewholemachine.Infact, duetothecontinuousincreaseoffrequency, theinfluenceofleadparasiticinductanceandparasiticcapacitancehasbecomemoreserious, causinggreaterelectricalstress ( Afin d'améliorer la fiabilité du système, certains fabricants ont développé un module de puissance "spécifique à l'utilisateur" (ASPM), qui installe la quasi-totalité du matériel d'une machine complète dans un module sous forme de puce, de sorte qu'il n'y ait plus d'écart entre les composants. lleadconnections, suchmoduleshaveundergonestrictandreasonablethermal, électrique, andmechanicaldesigntoachieveaperfectstateofoptimization.Itissimilartotheuser-specificintegratedcircuit (ASIC) inmicroelectronics.Aslongasthecontrolsoftwareiswrittenintothemicroprocessorchipinthemodule, andthentheentiremoduleisfixedonthecorrespondingradiator, anewtypeofswitchingpowersupplydeviceisformed.Itcanbeseenthatthepurposeofmodularizationisnotonlytofacilitateuseandreducethesizeofthewholemachine, butmoreimportantly, tocancelthetraditionalconnectionandminimizetheparasiticparameters, therebyminimizingtheelectricalstressonthedeviceandimprovingthereliabilityofthesystem..Inaddition, high-powerswitchingpowersupplies, duetodevicecapacitylimitationsandincreasedredundancytoimprovereliability, generallyusemultipleindependentmoduleunitstoworkinparallel, usingcurrentsharingtechnology, andallmodulessharetheloadcurrent.Ifonemodulefails, theothermodulessharetheloadcurrentequally.Inthisway , non seulement la capacité de puissance est augmentée, mais la Le courant de sortie requis est réglé sous la capacité limitée de l'appareil, et la fiabilité du système est grandement améliorée par l'ajout de modules de puissance redondants de faible puissance par rapport à l'ensemble du système.

Numérisation

Intraditionalpowerelectronicstechnology, thecontrolpartisdesignedandoperatedaccordingtoanalogsignals.Inthe1960sand1970s, powerelectronicstechnologywasentirelybasedonanalogcircuits.However, nowdigitalsignalsanddigitalcircuitsarebecomingmoreandmoreimportant, anddigitalsignalprocessingtechnologyisbecomingmoreandmoremature, showingmoreandmoreadvantages: convenientforcomputerprocessingandcontrol, avoidingdistortionanddistortionofanalogsignals, andreducingspurioussignals.Interference (improvementofanti-interferenceability), easyforsoftwarepackagedebuggingandremotesensing, remotemeasurementandremoteadjustment, andeasyfortheimplantationofself-diagnostic, faulttoleranceandothertechnologies.Therefore, inthe1980sand1990s, analogtechnologywasstillusefulforthedesignofvariouscircuitsandsystems, en particulier: layoutofprintedplates, compatibilité électromagnétique (CEM) et correction du facteur de puissance (PFC) La solution à d'autres problèmes est indissociable de la connaissance de la technologie analogique, mais lorsque l'alimentation à commutation intelligente doit s'arrêter econtrôlé par un ordinateur, le numérique est indissociable.

Verdissement

Thegreeningofthepowersupplysystemhastwomeanings: Tout d'abord, itissignificantpowersaving, whichmeansthesavingofpowergenerationcapacity, andpowergenerationisanimportantcauseofenvironmentalpollution.Therefore, powersavingcanreduceenvironmentalpollution, d'autre part, thesepowersourcescannot (oumoins) causepollutiontothepowergrid.TheInternationalElectrotechnicalCommission (IEC) hasformulatedaseriesofstandardsforthis, suchasIEC555, IEC917, IEC1000andsoon.Infact, manypowerelectronicenergy-savingdevicestendtobecomeasourceofpollutiontothegrid: injectserioushigh-orderharmoniccurrentsintothegrid, whichreducesthetotalpowerfactor, couplesthegridvoltagewithmanyburrsandspikes, andevenhasmissinganglesanddistortions. .Àlafindu20èmesiècle,différentsfiltresactifsetsolutionsdecompensateursactifs sont nés,etlesfaçonsdecorrigerlefacteurdepuissancesont multiples.

Modernpowerelectronictechnologyisthebasisforthedevelopmentofswitchingpowersupplytechnology.Withthecontinuousemergenceofnewpowerelectronicdevicesandcircuittopologiessuitableforhigherswitchingfrequencies,modernpowersupplytechnologywilldeveloprapidlyundertheimpetusofactualneeds.Underthetraditionalapplicationtechnology,theperformanceoftheswitchingpowersupplyisaffectedduetothelimitationoftheperformanceofthepowerdevice.Inordertomaximizethecharacteristicsofvariouspowerdevicesandminimizetheimpactofdeviceperformanceontheperformanceoftheswitchingpowersupply,thenewpowercircuittopologyandnewcontroltechnologycanmakethepowerswitchworkinazerovoltageorzerocurrentstate,whichcanbeGreatlyimprovetheoperatingfrequency,improvetheefficiencyoftheswitchingpowersupply,anddesignaswitchingpowersupplywithexcellentperformance.

Inshort,powerelectronicsandswitchingpowersupplytechnologiescontinuetoadvanceduetoapplicationrequirements,andtheemergenceofnewtechnologieswillupdatemanyapplicationproductsandopenupmoreupdatedapplicationfields.Therealizationofhigh-frequency,modular,digital,andgreenswitchingpowersupplieswillmarkthematurityofthesetechnologiesandrealizethecombinationofhigh-efficiencyandhigh-qualityelectricity.Inrecentyears,withthedevelopmentofthecommunicationindustry,theswitchingpowersupplyforcommunicationwithswitchingpowersupplytechnologyasthecorehasonlyadomesticmarketdemandofmorethan2billionyuan,whichhasattractedalargenumberofscientificandtechnologicalpersonnelathomeandabroadtoconductdevelopmentandresearch.Itisageneraltrendforswitchingpowersuppliestoreplacelinearpowersuppliesandphase-controlledpowersupplies.Therefore,thedomesticmarketforpower-operatedpowersupplysystemsthatalsohasademandforbillionsofoutputvalueisstartingandwillsoondevelop.Therearemanyotherspecialpowersuppliesandindustrialpowersupplieswithswitchingpowersupplytechnologyasthecorearewaitingforpeopletodevelop.

Developmentprospects

Therapiddevelopmentofscienceandtechnologymakesthewideapplicationandrapiddevelopmentofelectronictechnologypossible.Inthedaystocome,electronictechnologyhasitsbroadprospectsfordevelopment.

Intelligenceandhumanization

Theintelligenceofelectronictechnologyisthatelectronictechnologyhashuman-likeintelligence,whichcanmakeeffectivejudgmentsandmakedecisionsbasedoncertainprocedures.Withtherapiddevelopmentandpromotionofartificialintelligencetechnologiessuchasfuzzycontrolandnanotechnology,theintelligenceofelectronictechnologyproductswillbecomethemainfeature;thedevelopmentofintelligencemakeselectronictechnologymorehumane.Humanizationisacharacteristicofelectronictechnology,andpeopleareusersofelectronictechnologyproducts,sotheneedforelectronictechnologytomeettheneedsofhumanization.Therefore,electronictechnologyproductsmustnotonlyhaveoptimalperformance,butalsostrengthenpeople'sresearchoncolor,shape,comfort,etc.,tomeetpeople'shumanizedneedsforelectronictechnologyproducts.

Integration

Electronicsystemintegrationsystemshouldincludetwoparts:electronicsubsystemandpowerapplicationsystem.Amongthem,theintegrationofpowerelectronicsystemsliesintheestablishmentofaseriesofstandardchipsormodules,andintelligentapplicationsystemsthatmeettheneedsofusersthroughintegration.Throughtheintegrationofelectronictechnology,thestructureofelectronictechnologyproductsisoptimizedandtheperformanceismaximized.

La mise en réseau

Asthenetworkhasbecomeaverypopulartoolinpeople'sdailylife,remotecontrolandmonitoringtechnologyhasdevelopedrapidly,sothatelectronictechnologyhasalsoadaptedtothedevelopmentofnetworkTrend,thenetworkcharacteristicsaremoreobvious.

Tosumup,therapiddevelopmentofnewtechnologieshasledtothecontinuousdevelopmentofelectronictechnology,whichhasalsoledtomoreapplicationsofelectronictechnologyinpeople'slives,meetingpeople'sneeds,andpromotingsocialconstructionandeconomicdevelopment.Itcanbeconcludedthatelectronictechnologywillbecomeanimportantlinkandbridgebetweentheinformationindustryandtraditionalindustries,andwillalsoprovideimportanttechnicalsupportforsubstantialsavings,reductionofmaterialloss,improvementofproductionefficiency,andaccelerationofeconomicdevelopment.

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