Accueil Technologie Cipher machine

Cipher machine



Specialequipmentforencrypting (le déchiffrage) informationandauthenticatingwithapassword.Themainbodyofconfidentialequipment.Thebasicprincipleofthecryptographicmachineis: thesenderusesapasswordtoperformcryptographicoperationsontheplaintextundertheactionofthekeytoobtaintheciphertext; theciphertextistransmittedontheopenchannel; thereceiverperformstheinversecryptographictransformationonthereceivedciphertext, andTheciphertextisrestoredtoplaintextundertheactionofthekey.Thesecuritystrengthofthecryptographicmachinemainlydependsonthestrengthofthecryptographicalgorithmusedandthestrengthofthekey.Thehistoryofmankind'suseofcipherscanbetracedbacktoclaytabletswrittenduringtheBabylonianKingdom.AncientEgypt, Rome, ArabiaandChinaallhaverecordsoftheuseofpasswords.Almostallmilitaryanddiplomaticrelatedaffairsinthehistoryoftheworldarerelatedtopasswords.Peopleusepaperandpentoencryptcharactersanddigitalinformation, andrealizetheencryptedtransformationofinformationwiththehelpofcertainitems.Themodernindustrialrevolutionandt hetwoworldwarspromotedthebirthanddevelopmentofmechanicalcryptographicmachines.Atthebeginningofthe20thcentury, mechanicalcryptographicmachinesbegantobeusedinthemilitary.EspeciallyintheSecondWorldWar, thecryptographicstrugglebetweenthetwowarringpartieswasextremelyfierce, whichpromotedtheupgradingofcryptographicmachines.Amongthem, themostfamousarethebarciphermachinesM-138-T4andM-209usedbytheUSArmyandNavy, le "Enigma" ciphermachineinGermany; theBritishTYPEXtypeciphermachineandtheTUNNYonlineinventedin1943Passwordtelexmachine.AtthebeginningofWorldWarII, theGermanmilitarylaunchedthe code "Enigma" cryptographicmachine.Intheprocessofdecipheringthe "Enigma", Britaindevelopedtheworld'sfirstcomputer "Korosas" .Le 10 janvier 1944, l'ordinateur « Korosas » se mit à fonctionner, puis la machine cryptographique « Enigma » fut compromise. tyleswerethemaincharacteristicsofthisperiod.Withtheadventofmicrocomputers, de haute speedandcomplexmathematicaloperationshavebecomepossible.Theencryptionprinciplehasalsoevolvedfromsimplereplacementandtablelook-upintheelectromechanicaleratoalgorithmicoperationsbasedoncomputationalcomplexityandmathematicalproblems.Drivenbycryptographictheoryandcomputertechnology, cryptographicmachineshaveundergonefundamentalchanges.Themicroelectronicciphermachinenotonlyexpandsfunctionsandimprovesperformance, butmoreimportantly, itexpandstheapplicationfield, extendingfromasinglecommunicationsecurityapplicationtopasswordprotectionandinformationsecurity.Thebasicfunctionoftheciphermachineisinformationencryptionprotection.Earlycryptographicmachinesweremainlyusedforcommunicationsecurity, thatis, toimplementcryptographictransformationsoninformationtransmittedbyvariouscommunicationmeans, communicationfacilities, andcommunicationmethods.Afterenteringthecomputerage, inadditiontobeingusedforcommunicationconfidentiality, cryptogra phicmachineshavegraduallybeenappliedtoinformationintegrityverification, identityverificationanddigitalsignatures, andarecloselyintegratedwithvariousinformationmediaandmilitaryapplicationstoprovideinformationconfidentialityandintegrity.Servicesplayanimportantroleinthefieldofinformationsecurity.Themainclassificationofciphermachines: ①Accordingtothetechnicalstructure, therearemechanicalciphermachines, electromechanicalciphermachines, photoelectricciphermachines, electronicciphermachinesandmicroelectronicciphermachines.②Accordingtotheobjectsofuse, thereareciphermachinesforgeneralandmilitaryservices, aswellasciphermachinesusedbyspecialforces.③Accordingtotheequipmentcarrier, therearespecialciphermachinessuchason-boardciphermachines, shipborneciphermachines, airborneciphermachines, andspaceborneciphermachines.④Accordingtotheequipmentenvironment, therearelow-radiationciphers, hardenedciphersagainstharshenvironments, andportableciphersusedinmobileoperations.⑤Accordingtothephysicallocationinthecommunicationnetw ⑥ Selon le niveau du protocole de réseau informatique où se trouvent les données protégées, il existe des machines de chiffrement de couche physique, des machines de chiffrement de couche liaison, des machines de chiffrement de couche IP, des machines de chiffrement de couche transport et des machines de chiffrement de couche application.

Éditeur :ChinaMilitaryEncyclopediaEditingOffice

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