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Cour fédérale des États-Unis



Aperçu

La Cour fédérale des États-Unis est un tribunal établi conformément à la Constitution des États-Unis et aux lois des États-Unis.

Le pouvoir judiciaire aux États-Unis appartient aux tribunaux fédéraux et les juges occupent des postes à vie.

La Cour fédérale des États-Unis fait partie du gouvernement fédéral des États-Unis et peut être divisée en tribunaux ordinaires et en tribunaux spécialisés. Les tribunaux généraux sont divisés en trois niveaux, de bas en haut :

Tribunal de district

La cour d'appel (sauf la cour d'appel fédérale)

La Court Suprême

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Les tribunaux spéciaux comprennent :

FailliteCour

Tribunal de l'impôt

Cour de Commerce International

Cour d'appel fédérale de district

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Les juges fédéraux nommés par le Congrès sont :

9Cour suprême

179juges d'appel

642juges de district

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Au total, 840 juges fédéraux sont nommés à vie pour assurer l'indépendance judiciaire

Le système de la Cour fédérale

Le système de la Cour fédérale des États-Unis comprend 94 tribunaux fédéraux de district, 13 il se compose d'une cour fédérale d'appel et d'une cour suprême.

1.Cour fédérale de district

Eachstatehasatleastonedistrictcourt, andlargerstatesmayhave2to4districtcourts.TherearecurrentlyfourdistrictcourtsinCalifornia, withofficesinSanFrancisco, Sacramento, LosAngelesandSanDiego.TherearealsofourdistrictcourtsinNewYorkandTexas.Thereare89districtcourtsinthe50statesoftheUnitedStates.Inaddition, theDistrictofColumbia, PuertoRico, theU.S.VirginIslands, Guam, andtheNorthernMarianaIslandseachhaveadistrictcourt, atotalof94federaldistrictcourts.Eachdistrictcourthasatleastonejudge, foratotalof576districtjudges.TheSouthernDistrictCourtofNewYorkinNewYorkCityhasthelargestnumberofjudges, with27judges.JudgesoftheFederalDistrictCourtareappointedbythePresidentwiththeconsentoftheSenateandserveforlife.Thedistrictcourtisthecourtoffirstinstancejurisdictionandthe "heaviestwork" courtinthefederaljudicialsystem. Ces91tribunauxfédérauxdedistrictontuniquementcompétencefédérale.Toutefois,lescasjugésparlesjugesfédérauxdedistrictpeuventimpliquerdescitoyensdedifférentsÉtats.À cette époque,ils doivent égalementappliquer la loide l'État concerné.La plupart descas Jugésparla Cour Fédérale D'arrondissement,peuvent faire l'objet d'un appel devant la Cour Fédérale d'Appels, et quelques-uns peuvent faire l'objet d'un appel direct devant la Cour Suprême.

Districtjudgescanappointclerks, huissiers de justice, legalclerks, courtreportissuers, courtrecorders, etc.toassisthiminhiswork.Butthemostimportantroleisthefederalmarshal.Therearetwotypesoffederallawenforcementofficers: plein timeandpart-time.Therearecurrently287full-timelawenforcementofficersand168part-timelawenforcementofficersnationwide.Theyarealsoappointedbydistrictjudges, butneedtobereviewedbyapanelofjurorscomposedofresidentsoffederaljurisdictions.Thelawenforcementofficerisappointedforaneight-yeartermandisresponsibleforissuingarrestwarrantsanddecidingwhetherthearrestedpersonshouldbeprosecutedbyagrandjury.Eachdistrictcourtalsohasafederalexecutiveofficerwhoisappointedbythepresidentandsupervisedbythefederalattorneygeneral.Hismaindutiesaretomaintaincourtorder, implementarrests, executecourtorders, andcallwitnesses.

2.La Cour d'appel fédérale

Les50ÉtatsdesÉtats-Unissontdivisésen11circuitsjudiciaires.En outre,lacapitale,Washington,ily auntotalde12tribunauxd'appelpourcoursd'appelfédéraldanschaquecircuitdistrict.Lechampdecompétencedechaquetourestdifférent.Parexemple,ladeuxièmerégiondetournegouvernequeNewYorketleConnecticutetleneuvième,ycomprisl'Alaska,laGuinéeetlesautresÉtats.

Thereisalsoaspecial "FederalCircuitDistrict" whosecourtofappealiscalledtheCourtofAppealsfortheFederalCircuit.Itiscomposedof12judgesnominatedbythePresidentandappointedwiththeconsentoftheSenate.TheofficeisalsolocatedintheDistrictofColumbia.Theappellatecourthasthesamestatusastheother12appellatecourts, butitsjurisdictioncoversthewholecountry, anditsjurisdictionislimitedtocasesinvolvingpatents, marques, droits d'auteur, contrats, andcontractstransferredfromvariousfederaldistrictcourtsandrelevantfederalindependentregulatoryagencies.Domestictaxcases, aswellasthejudgmentsofthecourtofclaimsandtheInternationalTradeCourt.Therefore, therearetwocourtsofappealsintheDistrictofColumbia, oneistheDistrictofColumbiaCourtofAppealsandtheotheristheCourtofAppealsfortheFederalCircuit.Thetwoaredifferent.

EachFederalCourtofAppealshas6to28judges, allofwhomarenominatedbythePresidentandappointedwiththeconsentoftheSenate, allforlife.Appellatecourtshearcases, usuallycomposedofthreejudges, butparticularlyimportantandcontroversialcasesrequirealljudgestoattend.Theappellatecourthasonlyappellatejurisdiction, acceptsappealsfromcasesjudgedbythefederaldistrictcourtsinitsjurisdiction, andalsoreviewstheactionsofindependentregulatoryagenciessuchastheFederalTradeCommission.

La Cour suprême, la Cour fédérale d'appel et la Cour fédérale d'arrondissement sont instituées conformément à l'article 3 de la Constitution, elles sont donc appelées " Cours constitutionnelles " ou " Cours constitutionnelles ", mais elles appartiennent toutes à la Cour de.

Enoutre, thereisanothercategoryofcourtsnotestablishedunderArticle3oftheConstitutionbutestablishedbytheCongressforsomespecialpurposes, oritistheCongresstoexercisethelegislationgrantedbyArticle1oftheConstitution.Thecourtsestablishedbyrightsarecalled « legislativecourts » ou « article1courtsoftheConstitution » .JudgesoflegislativecourtsaregenerallysetbyCongressforaclearterm, andtheyaregrantednon-judicialfunctions.Theirselectionandappointmentproceduresarealsodifferentfromthoseofconstitutionalcourts.Forexample, theMilitaryAppealsCourtoftheUnitedStatesappliesmilitarylawtotrialcasesandconsistsofthreecivilianjudges, appointedbythePresidentwiththeconsentoftheSenate, butforatermof15years, theBankruptcyCourtspecializesinhearingcasesrelatedtobankruptcy, andjudgesareappointedbytheFederalCourtofAppealsasafederaldistrictAsubsidiarybodyofthecourt.

3.Cour suprême

TheSupremeCourtoftheUnitedStatesistheonlycourtestablisheddirectlybytheconstitutionanditisalsothelastcourtofappealinthefederalcourts.Itwasestablishedin1790undertheJudicialRegulationsof1789, anditscompositionhasbeenincreasedordecreasedseveraltimes.In1869, theCongresspassedadecreethattheSupremeCourtshallbecomposedofachiefjusticeandeightjustices.Inthe1930s, PresidentRooseveltwasdissatisfiedwithaseriesofNewDeallegislationannouncedbytheSupremeCourtasunconstitutional.Hewonanoverwhelmingvictoryinhisre-electioncampaignin1936.In1937, heproposedtoCongressabilltoreorganizetheSupremeCourt, increasingthenumberofSupremeCourtjudges.To15peopleinordertochangetheattitudeoftheSupremeCourtby "mixingsand." Cependant, thisbillfailedtopassCongress.Therefore, theSupremeCourtoftheUnitedStatesstillconsistsofninejudges.

ThejurisdictionoftheSupremeCourtoftheUnitedStatesisdividedintothejurisdictionofthefirstinstanceandthejurisdictionoftheappeal.Thejurisdictionofthefirstinstanceonlyappliestotwotypesofcases: oneiscasesinvolvingambassadors, otherministersandconsuls, andtheotherisallcasesinwhichastateisaparty.Inthesecondtypeofcases, inlegaldisputesbetweenstates, thejurisdictionofthefirstinstanceisexclusivetotheSupremeCourt.Inlitigationbetweenastateandthefederalgovernment, orbetweenastateandanotherstate'spoliticalentities, legalentities, orcitizens, althoughtheSupremeCourthasthejurisdictionofthefirstinstance, theSupremeCourtcanalsoallowthelowerfederalcourtstoconductthefirstinstance ..

Inadditiontotheabovetwotypesofcases, allothercaseswithinthescopeoffederaljurisdictionhavetheSupremeCourt'sjurisdictiontoappealandmust "inaccordancewiththeexceptionsandregulationsprescribedbyCongress." ThismeansthattheSupremeCourtThejurisdictionofappealsissubjecttothecontrolofCongress, whichisdeterminedbyCongress.CasesinvolvingfederalissuescanbedirectlyappealedbythestateSupremeCourttotheSupremeCourt.However, theworkloadofappealsistoolarge.Therefore, theSupremeCourtcanonlyselectandreviewthemostimportantcases.Eachyear, theSupremeCourt'ssessionrunsfromthefirstMondayinOctobertoJuneofthesecondyear.Inonesession, theSupremeCourthastodealwithapproximately5,000cases, whichactuallyonlyaccountsforapproximately3% ofthecaseshandledbytheFederalCourt.Inmostcases, theSupremeCourtonlymadeabriefjudgment, citant "sans réserves" ou «insignifiante "comme les motifs, et jugés inutiles pour son examen. Environ 200 à 250 affaires sont jugées par la Cour suprême chaque année. Mais dans certains cas, la Cour suprême doit être examinée, y compris : eCourtdeniedthevalidityoftheUnitedStatestreatiesandlawsinthefinaljudgment, andthestateSupremeCourt'sfinaljudgmentsupportstheconflictswiththeUnitedStatesConstitution, traités, orlaws.Incaseofstatelaw, theFederalCourtofAppealsruledthatthestatelawisinconflictwiththeConstitution, traité, andlawoftheUnitedStatesandisinvalid.InthecasewheretheFederalDistrictCourtdeclaresthatthelawmadebyCongressisunconstitutionalinthejudgment, thefederalgovernmentoranyagencyorofficialshallberegardedasthecase.Civillitigationcasesofoneparty, certainotherjudgmentsoftheFederalDistrictCourt.

Astowhethertoacceptappeals, theSupremeCourthasthediscretiontodecidewhichcasesitwantstodiscuss.Itcanbebasedon "lackofsubstantivefederalissues" ou "noappropriatefederalissues" .Itrefusestoaccepttheappealcase; itcanalsoissuea "mediationorder" totransferimportantcasesthatitdeemsworthyoftrialtotheSupremeCourtforreview.Whetheritistoacceptappealsortoreviewimportantcases, theconsentoffourjudgesisrequired.WhetherornottheSupremeCourtacceptsacasedoesnotdependonthesignificanceofthecasetotheparties, butontheimportanceofthecasetothe "operationoftheentiregovernmentsystem."

ThechiefjudgeoftheU.S.SupremeCourtisoneofthemostimportantrolesintheU.S.politicalsystem.TheChiefJusticeoftheSupremeCourt, liketheothereightjustices, isnominatedbythePresidentandappointedwiththeapprovaloftheSenate, andservesforlife.However, hepresidedoverthepresidentialoathofofficeheldeveryfouryears, andsupervisedthepresidenttomaketheconstitutionaloath.Inform, hegavethenewpresidentthelegalstatusandconstitutionalpower.HeisalsothepresidingofficeroftheSupremeCourtandperformsmanagementresponsibilitiesasthenumberoneofficialoftheentirefederaljudicialsystem.Butheonlyservesasthe "ChiefJudge" ratherthanthe "Président" .Theso-disant "chef" meansthathisroleismerelytoactas "thefirstpersonamongcolleagues." Son pouvoir et son influence sont principalement " la persuasion " plutôt que le commandement. À l'exception des responsabilités de gestion et d'un salaire légèrement supérieur, le juge en chef a les mêmes pouvoirs que les autres juges en matière de jugement. ngstodiscusscases, andcanmakerecommendationsforhandlingcases, arrangeandassignjudgmentwriting.Inasecretmeetingwherethejudgmentisdiscussed, thechiefjudgehastherighttospeakfirst, whichcanplayarolein "settingthetone." Whenvotingontheverdict, thechiefjudgeisthelasttovote.Iftheotherjudgesaredividedintotwodifferentopinionsandthenumberofvotesisequal, hisvoteisdecisive.Therefore, thechiefjudgehasagreaterinfluenceonthejudgmentprocessandtheoutcomeofthejudgment, andhasplayedanimportantroleinthehistoryofpoliticaldevelopmentintheUnitedStates.Sofar, therehavebeen16chiefjusticesoftheSupremeCourtinthehistoryoftheUnitedStates, themostfamousofwhichareJohnMarshallandRogerB.Tanneyinthe19thcentury, HarlanF.Stoneinthe1940s, andEarleafterthewar.WarrenandWarrenBerg, etc.Marshallservedthelongesttime, from1801to1835 ,untotalde35ans.Cependant,après être entré danscesiècle,lechefjusticedelaCour Suprêmeaservidansles20ans.WilliamHowardTafestleseulpoliticiendansl'histoireaméricainequiaservicommeprésidentavantde devenirchefdejusticedelaS upremeCour.

AllthejudgesoftheU.S.SupremeCourtformatribunal, andinprinciplealljudgesshouldbepresentwhenhearingcases.BeforetheSupremeCourthearscases, judgesmustreadthe "defensenotes" submittedbyallparties, includinglegalarguments, historicalmaterials, andrelevantprecedentssubmittedbyallparties, whichmaybeaslongashundredsofpages.Inadditiontothepartiestothelitigation, theSupremeCourtmayalsoreceivedefensepetitionssubmittedby "friendsofthecourt" .Individuals, groupes, entreprises, orgovernmentagenciescanactasfriendsofthecourttoexpresstheirconcernaboutthecaseandproviderelevantinformation.ThisbecameameansforinterestgroupstoputpressureontheSupremeCourt.EventhepresidentwillusethemethodofamicuscuriaetopersuadetheSupremeCourttochangeitsmindthroughthefederalgovernment'sDepartmentofJustice.Inacasein1989, theSupremeCourtreceived78amicuscuriaepleadings.

TheSupremeCourtopenedahearingtolistentooralarguments, andthedefensewascarriedoutbythelawyersofallparties.Thedefensetimewaslimited, generallyhalfanhour, andsomewererelaxedtoonehour.However, whenlawyersaremakingoralstatements, thejudgemaybeabsent-minded.Therefore, somepeoplehavemadesuchdescriptions: theywhispertoeachotherorlookthroughthematerials.Whentheythinkthelawyer'sstatementisparticularlyboring, theywilldeliberatelylookatitfromtimetotime.Ownwatch.

Afterreadingandstudyingthepleadingsandhearingoralarguments, theSupremeCourtwillholdameetingtodiscussthesecases.ThiskindofmeetingisheldinsecretbythechiefjudgeeveryWednesdayafternoonandthewholedayofFriday, soitiscalled "derrière-la-scenesevent." Itsjudgmentsaremadebyvoting, andtheninejudges, includingthechiefjudge, haveequalvotingrights.DuringthereconstructionperiodaftertheCivilWar, theSupremeCourtstifledthereconstructionresultsinaseriesofjudgments, whicharousedsharpcriticismoftheSupremeCourtbyCongress.In1868, theHouseofRepresentativespassedabillrequiringtheSupremeCourttohavemorethantwo-thirds.OnlyafewcandeclareaCongressionalbillunconstitutional.However, theSenaterejectedthebill.SincetheestablishmentoftheSupremeCourt, therulinghasbeenmadebyamajorityvote.Aftervoting, awrittenopinionwillbedraftedbasedonthevotingresults.Whenthechiefjudgeisonthesideofthemajority ,il assigne un juge à la rédaction du jugement. condopinion, regardlessofwhetherheagreeswiththemajorityopinion.Thejudgesoftheminoritycanwritetheirowndifferentopinions.Ifthejudgesofthemajorityagreewiththeresultofthejudgment, butthereasonsfortheargumentaredifferent, theycanalsowriteacoexistingstatementofsecondingopinion.Forexample, en 1952, theSupremeCourtruledthatthePresident'stakeoverwasanunconstitutionalactofusurpingthelegislativepowerby6votesto3initsjudgmentontheTrumanAdministration'stakeoverofthesteelplant.Thejudgeswrotetheirownopinions, andChiefJusticeVincentdraftedanobjectiononbehalfofthethreeminorityjudgestodefendTruman'sactions.Inthisway, thisjudgmentincludessevendifferentopinions.Ofcourse, thisjudgmentisnotasinfluentialastheunanimousmajorityandunanimousjudgment, becausethejudgmentitselfis "vagueanddazzling."

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